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by: Sarah Bawany

IslamicLaw.pdf ISL 340

Sarah Bawany
GPA 3.5
Islamic Law
Dr. Azam

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Full bundle for Islamic Law discussion notes; not full lecture but just class discussions and book notes!
Islamic Law
Dr. Azam
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This 109 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarah Bawany on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Bundle belongs to ISL 340 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Azam in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Islamic Law in Social Work at University of Texas at Austin.

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Date Created: 09/30/15
Islamic Law 01142014 Class 1 Jurisprudence theory of the law legal principles methods of interpretation Judiciary institution of application or enforcement of the law also the interpreters judges courts attorneys Law the contentsubstance of rulesstatutes Madhhab classical school of law lsl ic gt moral developmentguidance Law gt to maintain social order different authority judge is God judge is human beings transcendent legislative source human legislative source Typically Muslims use the word quotshari ahquot or even the shar to accurately represent the misnomer that is Islamic law the totality of what God has commanded for humanity in terms of virtuous conduct 1 j law ethicsmorals etiquette Fiqh understanding in this case understanding the shari ah by looking at Qur an Hadith Sunnah reasoning applying certain jurisprudential ideas 01162014 Class 2 Ways to look at fiqhshari39ah Divine knowledge and human interpretation Revelation to human beings vs humans reasoning their way to Issue of shari ah being universal Dower mandatory in most schools of law except Shafi school Could potentially be fornication if they have relations without dower in perspective of different schools llm science or discipline or literal meaning Knowledge Ulum is plural Fiqhscience or knowledge of virtuous conduct what to do Kalam theologystudy of God and His characteristicsattributes and the relationship bw God and humanitycreation political theology Aqidadogma study or knowledge of basic beliefstenets in the religion to be saved part of the community Hadithreports about what the prophet said or did secondhand gt related to idea of Prophet s Sunnah The Qur an its knowledge and study of text tafsir exegesis and ta wil Biographytabaqat generationstarajim biographies ilm alrijal knowledge of the men biographies of Hadith transmitters many people from that time tafsir scholars Sufis jurists rulers judges doctors poets etc In relation to biography and hadith The structure of a hadith Eg The prophet prayed X way Transmitted to companions then to others firstgeneration successors then second generation successors Chain of transmission referred to as the lsnad to preserve the content quotMatnquot Hallaq History Ch 1 Discussion Usul ulFiqh jurisprudencelegal theory Ahkaam sing hukum rulings Asserts that he is taking middle ground between completely accepting Hadith vs being completely skeptical of them Introduces idea of Naskhabrogation idea that certain parts of Qur an were canceled out by later revelations Discussion about Sunnah and what it means and how it related to understanding of Sunnah prior to Islam and of Sunnah of other than Prophet Shafi important to this 01212014 Class 3 fiqhlslamic law gt the rulings themselves ie positivesubstantive law AND jurisprudence gt sourcestheorymethods of interpreting the scriptures in order to derive specific rulings talking about 2 different things how the jurists developed the law and the laws themselves not much attention paid to rulings given in the past such as in America Roe v Wade Brown v Board of Ed etc focusing on whether or not the rulings themselves were lawful or unlawful but not MAKING new laws or maintaining precedence theoretical assessments about the lawlawfulness and validityinvalidity of particular acts the rulings of Islamic law Usul ulFiqh is used to describe the theoretical side of Islamic law wthe sourcestheorymethods etc Islamic jurisprudence plural form of Asl originfoundation use the metaphor of a tree and the Usul are the figurative roots roots of understanding of the lawvirtuous conduct Furu ulFiqh is the substance of the law itself Islamic Law plural form of Far branch branches of the law Hallaq is talking about Usul Epistemologyhow we define knowledge philosophy of knowledge what it is how we obtain it how we know what we THINK we know Jurists use Sunnah hadith for Sunnis imams for Shi as Qur an interpretationtraditions of the past juristsijma consensus reasonlogic analogyqiyas free not anchored to texts 2 types of sources Material sources Usul Maddiyya authenticityaccuracy authority gt relative authority meaningapplicability hermeneutics theory of interpretation of texts ch 2 clear vs ambiguous explicit vs implicit general vs particular absolute vs restricted Methodological sources Usul alMa nawiyya He also talks about Furu producing rulingssolutions ahkaam gt valuesnorms 1Ahkaam shari iwah 1 5 rulingsvalues applied to every possible conceivable act 1 halaal lt obligatory encouraged neutral discouraged prohibited gt haraam 2Ahkaam wad iyyah 1 validity or invalidityeffectiveness of acts eg praying without wudhu 3 axes Wadi iwa invalid vs valid Shari yyah wajib vs haraam theology faith vs kufr Problem of the imperative general language question of time what people need to do after Friday prayer verse says to go disperse about the land what if they want to stay in the masjid can imply everything from obligation to discouragement literal vs metaphorical 012314 Qiyas has RatioReason lllah gt Asl gt Hukm ruling Far gt Hukm Ratiocination is the process of trying to find the lllah reason and the word for that is ta lil which is something you can only figure out rationally Abrogation is when a later verse cancels out a previous verse occurred only during the lifetime of the Prophet but the APPLICATION of it happened in the postProphetic period THEORY of abrogation comes into form after the death of Muhammad as jurists are trying to make sense of discrepancies bw some verses 013014 Necessary knowledge something that you can t imagine the opposite of gt assumption is that it leads to certainty Acquired knowledge doesn t give us certainty always doubt question that we could be wrong mutawatir knowledge necessary knowledge certainty almost like an ijma on the content ahadi hadith singleton hadith gt yields probable knowledge ie uncertainty chapter 3 ratio legis is the reason behind the ruling 39illa reason logic gt x is prohibited because intoxication is bad sabab causetrigger gt x is prohibited because it is an intoxicant or x is prohibited because Godthe text said so hikma purposewisdom gt x is prohibited because we should be aware at all times a fortiori argument if something is prohibited in a small amount it would also be prohibited in a greater amount If something is permissible in a great amount it is also permissible in a small amount 02 04 1 4 Chapter 2 discussion Jurist faqih Qadi judge Hakim the governor administrative hukm the ruling judicial Argument about Shurayh and how Islamic MORAL law wasn t established until about a century after the death of the Prophet Development of qadis who were also storytellers pass on traditions Difference bw sunnah and seerah 021114 Ch 3 and 4 Origins Hallaq Concept of witnesses Tension between qadis political appointments and fuqaha ideal Islamic law specialists Keller Reading Notes lntro discussion of hadith Allah s expectations is basis of shari ah 4 schools of Sunni law agree on 75 of rulings Differences extend back to Companions lmams regarded themselves as explainers not legislators Author lmam Nawawi is Shafi i Ch 1 Fundamentals of Islam to KNOW God prophets believe everything delivered by Muhammad aka judgment day 5 pillars validity of one lslam are conditions puberty sane voluntarily accepting two shahadahs and meaning foundations of religion are 4 Qur an sunnah scholarly consensus analogy qiyas sacred law rulings are 5 obligatory recommended unlawful offensive permissible Personally obligatory required from everyone individually Communal obligatory 9 Dhikr shahadah is obligatory best form of worship after faith is salat best dhikr after Qur an is la ilaha ill Allah best glorification best praise to Allah best praise to Prophet obligatory in final testimony of faith obligatory to condemn whatever is against the divine command Ch 2 Purification Purification or tahara in shari a means lifting state of ritual impurityremoving filth Purification only valid wplain water types of filth blood pus vomit liquid intoxicants excretion other than sperm or female sexual fluid animal that dies wo lslamic slaughtering dogs swine wine pure if it becomes vinegar by itself anything affected by that saliva or anything moistdirty can only be purified by washing 7x one of which must be earth for articles can be washed 1x but 3x is better 4 causes of minor ritual impurity hadath excrection loss of intellect aka unconsciousness sleep insanity contact bw skin of man and non married woman wo barrier of cloth between them touching of human genitals wpalminner surfaces of fingers gt ablution required after all these ablution not nullified by vomiting blood nosebleed when certain that one had ablution but uncertain that it was nullified gt still have ablution Obligatory integrals rukn of wudhu are to have intention to wash face arms head feet Sunnah are to begin wbasmala wash hands 3x mouthnose cover scalp wipe ears interlace fingers toes beard begin wright wash each 3x wash body wo pausing wiping footgear permissible to nontraveler for 24 hours from time of first ritual minor impurity that occurs after having put on shoes while in state of ablution provided that they had full ablution when first worn free of filth najasa durable cover foot up to anklebones prevent water if dripped on them Bathroom sunnah to clean wstone then water offensive to use right hand to clean filth or to relieve oneself in still water or in direction of qibla or speak while in the act of it Janaba causes of major ritual impurity intercourse exit of sexual fluid death end of woman s period end of postnatal bleeding after giving birth gt purification bath obligatory Ghusl has 2 obligatory features intention wash all of skin lt s sunnahs are to first do wudhu rub body while bathing wash body parts consecutively wo interruption Purification bath Sunnah for Jum uah 2 Eids eclipses before drought prayer upon becoming Muslim after regaining consciousness before entering pilgrim sanctity after washing dead Tayammum if one lack water or fear to use it thirst take place after beg of prayer s time search before concluding that there s no water use earth Integrals of Tayammum intention strike earth 2x one for face two for arms hands convey earth wipe all face and all arms in order Sunnahs of Tayammum basal right gt left arms immediately after face Tayammum nullified by ritual impurity appearance of water when one is not in prayer Menstruation may begin after 9 minimum daynight maximum15days Postnatal bleeding moment to 60 days Minimum interval of purity bw 2 menstruations is 15 days If chronic bleeding must clean herself and not delay prayer same for uncontrolled urine Unlawful when in state of minor ritual impurity pray prostrate during sajdah verses prostrate out of thanks circumambulate ka bah touchcarry Qur an ln state of janaba recite Qur an remain in mosque ln menstruation all above are unlawful sexual enjoyment until bath to fast Ch 3 Prayer salat Times for prayer prayers are recommended to make up immediately for valid reason For non valid reason it is obligatory to make it up immediately Prayer forbidden from dawn until sun is well up from time of zenith until it moves on from after asr until sunset and when afternoon sun yellows until sunset it is permissible at these times to offer nonobligatory prayers for a particular such as funeral mosque greeting sunna rak ah after wudhu also to make up missed prayers except one may not perform 2 sunnah rakh ah before entering ihram Sunnah to perform prayer on 2 Eids 5 prayer Sunnahs 2 before fair 2 beforeafter dhuhr two after mahgrib two after isha and witr Also recommended 2 additional before dhuhr and after 4 before Asr duha prayer taraweeh tahajjud Preconditions for prayer person and clothes and prayer area should be clean should be covered women s feet covered as well and if something gets uncovered prayer must be repeated unless its covered immediately that one face qibla When traveling one should try to face the direction of prayer but if just nodding the nod for prostration must be deeper than nod for bowing Prayer should be performed whumility and works of the heart Actions for prayer described should be standing unless it is hard where sitting is ok It is offensive to close one s eyes while praying unless one finds it more conducive to awe and humility Recommended to recite audhu before every rak ah obligatory to recite al Fatiha Integrals are intention standing open Allahu Akbar Fatiha bowing etc Main Sunnahs of prayer such as 1st testification of faith sitting during it blessings of Prophet after it blessings on his Folk supplication while standing in final rak ah for witr prayer Other sunnahs are adman raising hands to shoulder level at opening Allahu Akbar right gt left hand opening supplication reciting to oneself or aloud not for woman in front of man Allahu akbar between movements hands on thighs during tashahhud saying salaams Prayer conditions that one be Muslim free of ritual impurityphysical impurity that one clothe one s nakedness knowing the time for prayer has come facing qibla avoid words other than the prayer during the prayer one s intention not change if something happens during prayer male says SubhanAllah while female claps to inform other that they are praying Forgetfulness prostration is sunnah has 2 prostrations before one s closing salaams and is performed for uncalled for action during prayer To perform in a group communally obligatory ShorteningJoining prayers for travelrain as long as one is 50 miles away Trip ends if person stays there for more than 4 days Joining prayers permissible as long as traveling intention etc Nontraveler may join prayers if it is raining at the time of the first of them if rain is hard one is in a group mosque is far from door its raining when first prayer begins ends and when second prayer exists Not permissible to join 2 prayers at second one s time bc of rain ln Shafi i school no other valid reasons to join prayer except travelrain except in Hanbali school When joining dhuhr and asr prayer one firsts prays sunnahs that come before noon and then sunnah before asr Same wlsha and Mahgrib Prayer of peril if enemy is in other than direction of qibla one group faces enemy while other prays rak ah behind imam Then they switch If enemy is in direction of prayer imam arranges them in 2 rows opens group prayer prostrates wone row and while other row remains on guard and when imam s row stands the second row prostrates ln combat even nodding is ok Jum uah obligatory for every free Muslim male who is legally responsible not ill and resident Conditions for Jum uah are that its site located among buildings of the community performed as group prayer wminimum of 40 people takes place during dhuhr khutba precedes it stand during and sit bw 2 sermons say Alhamdulillah blessings of prophet enjoin taqwa recite one verse of Qur an in at least one of the 2 sermons to supplicate for believers in 2nd of 2 sermons Sunnahs of attending Jum uah ghusl clean miswak trim nails hair eliminate odors for men to wear perfume to wear white listen carefully during sermon keep rak ah of entering mosque brief if imam has started Eid prayer is 2 rak ah performed until sun is well up until noon 7x Allahu Akbar in 1st rak ah and 5x in 2nd Recommended to do Qaf in 1st rak ah and alQamar in 2nd or al Ala or alGhashiya then imam gives 2 sermons Like Jum uah except not during noon prayer and not obligatory for standingsitting bw them Sunnah to recite Allahu Akbar night before each Eid until imam commences prayer Also recite after each prescribed prayer from dawn of rafa until Asr on last of 3 days that follow Eid alAdha Then the takbiraat Eclipse prayer 2 rak ah in each of which one bows twice second rak ah like the first Sunnah to prolong Qur an recital and the bowingprostrating recite aloud in lunar eclipse but alone in solar eclipse Drought prayer is like Eid prayer lmam orders people to repent for sins restore belongings fast for 3 days on 4th day while still fasting they all come out in work clothes humbling themselves and pray 2 rak ah then imam preaches then imam says forgiveness dua a lmam frequently asks Allah s forgiveness Funeral prayer janaza washing shroud burial are communal obligation Martyr is not washed Stillborn fetus is washed if miscarriage occurred after 4 months Sunnah to wash body odd number of times using water infused wlote tree leaves for first washing and camphor for last If male wrapped in 3 shrouds for woman dressed in wraparound head cover shift and 2 shrouds Prayer over dead is Allahu Akbar Fatiha ALlahu Akbar prophet blessings Allahu Akbar supplication for deceased Allahu Akbar salaams Burial obligatory to bury deceased on his side facing qibla buried in ahd and that top of grave leveled wo building over it Recommended to console relatives 021314 Matn core text by alNawawi he follows Shafi i Sharh commentary by lbn Naqib alMisri also Shafi i SupercommentaryEditorial remarks Keller Read intro In chapter 1 he is talking about the five pillars basic belief style what does it mean to be a Muslim Personally obligatory and communally obligatory distinguishes between how every single person has to do it for personally and how if the community has done it a single person doesn t have to do it Mukallaf those who are morally and legally responsible by the divine command ends chapter with nonMukallaf so his attitude with Sufis for example is to be passive with them and leave them be God will judge Chapter on purification and ablution including dry ablution 021814 2 different levels of purity major and minor 2 levels of minor and major pollutants Minor using bathroom falling asleep passing gas Major sexual reproduction delivery of a child Major and minor purification rituals After minor pollution minor purification is to wash hands head feet Major full bath integrals ruknarkaan elements that are obligatory necessary elements for validity intention is always important for these rukn integral vs condition integrals are internal conditions are on the outside conditions must be satisfied first or you don t have the option of even performing the act integral ibaadaat vs mu aamalaat Sunnahs of something precision of performance of wudhu Conditions for validity sharttshurutquot Wudhu integral is to wash face arms some of head feet once Doesn t include hands mouth nose scalp earsbehind ears three times gt Sunnah Chapter 3 Salat Salat prayermore distinctive structured formalized ritual vs dua a supplication dhikr remembrance Themes covered in this chapter hierarchies prayer for travel Eid prayers during battle women leading prayer reasons for an imam of the mosque men s lives more stable women can be pregnant on period move if they get married etc Enforced break periods where you can t pray 022014 Discussion on CH 46 on social level meant to equalize community wealth zakat ideal is that those within Muslim community are taken care of FIRST zakat is a minimum required amount one is encouraged to give more general term for almsgiving or charity is sadaqah which is beyond the minimum gt encouraged is Sunnah also called mandub What is described in this chapter is minimum obligatory form of almsgiving Zakat obligatory on every free Muslim and even for a child at that time children were also wealth owners and they are even now Zakat on livestock minimum of camels to pay it on are 5 cattle is 30 Ch 4 Zakat Zakat obligatory for every free Muslim on camels cattle sheep goats if someone has had them for full lunar year and grazing them for a year on goldsilver other than what is permissible use trade goods staple food crops but not on fruitvegetables except for raw dates in grapes its zakat is paid in dry versions of them these are all tradable and have market value commodity can be reduced to currency talks about zakat on livestock on shared property money crops trade goods zakat of Eid ulFitr which consists of 203 L 8 categories of recipients poor who can t suffice for himself or having some but can t earn any less than half of what he needs is considered insufficient people short of money zakat workers receive 18 of zakat fund those whose hearts are to be reconciled aka recent converts etc bondsmen purchasing freedom from owners those in debt person who incurs debts to settle trouble person who incurs debts to support himself those wpeople involved those engaged in military operations traveler in need of money Least that fulfills obligation of zakat is to give it to 3 individuals from each category Not permissible to give zakat to nonMuslim or to anyone who doesn t need it Ch 5 Fasting Ramadan fasting obligatory for every Muslim morally responsible Only valid if one makes intention and if nothing that breaks fast occurs leaving Islam period postnatal bleeding deliberate vomiting sexual activity substance in passageway reaching body cavity not odors but absorption unless on accident Nor required to fast nonMuslim child insane weak one Following are not required to fast but obliged to make up fastdays missed ill traveling those who left Islam woman on period If illtraveler wants to fast its valid but one by someone leaving Islam or bleeding not valid A woman whose period ends during daytime in Ramadan is recommended to fast rest of the day and is obliged to make up the fast Sunnahs of fasting predawn meal hastening to break the fast wodd dates or water and avoiding ugly words Unlawful to fast on 2 Eids or 3 days following Eid alAdha invalid to fast on day of uncertainty regarding first day of Ramadan Whoever nullifies fast by sex should make up for it and expiate for it freeing sound Muslim bondsman or fasting days of 2 consecutive months Woman not obliged to expiate it If someone dies wunperformed fast days responsible family member should give 51 L of food or fast for him But someone who dies 2 Ramadans after missed fast days each one is paid w102 L Permissible to omit fasting a day or more of Ramadan if ill or journey or pregnantbreastfeeding woman I tikaf is sunnah and is only valid by staying amount of time considered repose in a mosque wthat intention If one vows to make spiritual retreat for consecutive period its nullified by lovemaking drinking bathroom onset of menstruation or illness that is hardship Ch 6 Pilgrimage Hajj and Umra are obligatory but neither more than once Hajj only upon morally responsible Muslim Integrals of Hajj entering ihram wintention and recommended ghusl and grooming If male one sheds garments wsewing no head covering puts on clean white mantle perfuming body Apply equally to women but they don t have to not have sewn garments woman covered body no perfume Then pray 2 rak ah sunnah to recite alKafirun in 1st and Ikhlas in 2nd Then one starts traveling to Makkah stand in Arafa sunnah to remain there until sunset to include both night and day circumambulate Ka bah 7 x be pure from hadath and janaba each round begin from Black stone bw Safa and Marwa shaving hair or women to shorten hair Integrals of Umra same except Arafa Requisites of Hajj one enter ihram at the proper site stoning the sites at Mina 7 pebbles one by one throwing it spending night at Muzdelifa on night before EaA and Mina on the following days farewell circumambulation Sunnahs of Hajj hajj precedes one Umra male to wear white mantle to chant labayk to perform arrival circumambulation upon entering Makkah pray 2 rak ah after bethink station of Abraham Omitting requisite of Hajj leaving requisite obliges one to slaughter and if can t then fast 3 days before EaA and 7 days after returning to homeland Someone who misses standing at Arafa releases himself from ihram by performing the rites of umra Unlawful in lhram is sewn garments men covering head women covering face oil to hair using perfume removing hairnails sexual foreplayintercourse hun ng expiation is fasting 3 days or giving 1015 L of wheat to each of 6 of the poor If one intentionally has sexual intercourse before finishing HajjUmra it nullifies it obligatory to complete anyhow and make it up obligatory to pay expiation for male which is slaughter camel gt cow gt seven shahs gt cost of camelfood and gives that much gt one fasts one day for every 51 L of food that would have been given for previous alternative Expiation for hunting 022514 Unit 4 Women in Muslim Family Law readings by Esposito This book is furu7 Jurists drew on Qur an Sunnah prelslamic lawscustoms companions early caliphsrulers Preexisting situation of women in prelslamic Arabia they were looked at as property or commodity female infanticide women were liabilities in terms of honor to the family gt more vulnerable to dishonor than sons marriage obligatory unless theres a valid reason to not do so no option to live celibate life UNLESS one can not for valid reason Essential requirements of marriage integrals the offer qabool agreement can t be forced it is a contractual relationship Witnesses and testimony shartt the age have to attain puberty guardianship father having guardianship of daughter and she ALWAYS has a guardian Question is what rights do the guardians have over her Coercive vs noncoercive Woman always has male guardian who represents her wakil gt whether or not he can force her to get married differs within school option of puberty gt if she s married off younger and she reaches puberty she has the option to take it to court and get out of the marriage Wet nursingfostering produces in Islam a blood relationship bw the child and wet nurse ldtah waiting period between a divorce and a remarriage only applicable to women gt to determine paternity of a child if it happens to be born also to reconcile bw them if possible Equality doctrine kafa a gt very stressed in Hanafis other schools only pay attention only pay attention to kafa a when it comes to religion equality in family social standing religion 022714 Consequences of marriage Woman has right to dower Often divided into 2 second part comes through in case of divorce or death Maintenance ln Hanafi law when a woman gets into the marriage she can t get her dower can t get out if he s beating her can t get out for many reasons and its very hard for her Different for other schools of law Hanafi has more preference to the male unless for distinct agreement In contract the Hanbali school is the most liberal gt holds that the negotiations of marriage are among the most sacred Divorce disliked should be a last resort Talaq and tafwid allowance khula is wifeinitiated divorce wife loses right of dowry male divorce considered revocable until 3rd talaq but khula is irrevocable from the start faskhjudicial divorce inheritancesuccession Qur anic heirs and then agnatic heirs agnatic heirs come from prelslamic times Esposito Supplement Notes 1246 Begins wsurvey of women in prelslamic Arabia Many types of marriage but predominantly patrilineal women was not necessarily subservient but her and children we re husbands property low societal status Batil marriage is unlawful union voided and offspring considered illegitimate Fasid marriage is irregular because of lack of formality or impediment that can be removed Sahih marriage is sound Requirements for classification of marriage are spousesup to 4 wives religion Hanafi law allows Muslim man to marry kitabiyyah family relationship iddah equalitydetermined by family Islam profession freedom good character means Wife s main obligation is to maintain home caring for children obeying husband Hanbali law school allows wife to insert requirements in nikkah contract Dower is right for woman Several categories fixed dower unfixed dower Hanafi school divides dower into 2 parts prompt and deferred Maintenance is required by the husband Wife has right over him to maintain kids Divorce is the most abominable of permitted things 5 categories talaq proper husband makes pronouncement talaq a tafwid husband delegated wife divorce khulmubaraah lianfaskh apostasy Maliki school most liberal in terms of women initiating divorce Hanafi jurists divide heirs into 7 categories Qur anic heirs given right by revelation Agnatic heirs male relations on the male line Uterine heirs successors by contract acknowledged kinsmen universal egatee escheat govt Waqf is charitable endowment Usul vs Furu Usul theory epistemology hermeneutics logic a flogging banishment death ampulation cross dislimbing a corporal punishment but most amenable repentance Furu the actual laws a substance law Types of crime 3 areas in criminal law 1 Bodily offenses against persons Injury amp death Corporal qisas amp monetary penaltiesdiya 2 Major sinscrimes against God society Hudud crimes theft fornicationadultery slander wine consumption brigandry and apostasy 3 Crimes vs the state or social order that aren t specified in scriptures Siyasa politicsadministrationgovernance Ta zir punishment that is not in the Quran but by the state Huquq Allah Rights of God Huquq al ibadinsan Rights of personservantshumans humanity Evidence Different types are functional for different types of crimes 1 Confession valid until done through conversion 2 Direct evidence eye witness testimony a age gender number reliabilitycredibility 3 Indirect evidence witness testimony I heard such and such person hear commit circumstantial evidence I saw such and such a person with a gun run and then I heard a gun shot circumstantial evidence I paid rent with a check to my landlord documentary evidence Oaths To complete the evidence q pg 13 end about testimonies pg 27 repentance Peters Readings Notes lntro analyzing doctrine of jurisprudence for Shi a and Sunni Using school of jurisprudence Criminal law is separated into 3 chapters in fiqh books offenses against people offenses mentioned in Qur an and violating God sinfulforbidden behavior endangering public order Material arranged according to custom in modern criminal law handbooks law enforcing agencies rules of criminal responsibility penalties doctrine hadd offenses punishment EnforcementProcedure 3 law enforcement agencies 1judge qadi using fiqh doctrine can award punishment after formal trial has plaintiff and defendant 2governorsmilitary commandersofficers dea wcrime by political expediency rather than legal doctrine gt jurisdiction is called siyasa Almost unlimited powers in dealing wcrime and different than qadi most important diff being evidence and testimonies by nonMuslims and non qualified people Physical pressure allowed 3Then muhtasib gt market inspector trade pubic morals had lot of power could punish on spot but now authority to carry out inquiries or formal procedure Evidence claim witnesses Hanafis Shafi is Shi a consider qadi knowledge as proof for sentence Witnesses 2 male 1 male 2 female reputable Muslim witnesses Some oaths may be incomplete so plaintiff can prove case w 1 qualified witness an oath gt accepted by all except Hanafis Hadd offenses trials are stricter for evidence wadi knowledge not sufficient proof for verdict Witnesses don t need testimony but confessionstestimonies must be explicit in wording Can be validly retracted Requirements for proving zinna are more strict than hadd offenses 244 full evidence 4 male eyewitnesses and must witness the act of penetration and if not witnesses sentenced to 80 lashes fixed penalty for unfounded accusation of zinna Shi a allow testimony of women wat least one male witness Ta zir punishment given if person can t be sentenced to fixed punishment for hadd offense because of lack of strong evidence p 16 Person s bad reputation can be good evidence also Qasama procedure Oaths don t count as evidence in homicide but an exception is qasama swearing of 50 oaths where body is found showing marks of violence Most schools use oaths sworn on side of plaintiffs but Hanafis say defendants must swear oaths Used to complement insufficient evidence when there is strong suspicion of identity of murderer General Principles of Substantive Criminal Law Rules for determining responsibility of offender collective punishment not allowed some offenses not punished if person is insane or minor or self defense Mens Rea the guilty mind p 20 3 requirements for app of legal punishment offender has power to not commit act knowledge that act was offense act with intent No mens rea if perpetrator lacks intellectual capability to realize what he did Uncertainty shubha only relevant whomicide and hadd crimes 2 kinds uncertainty of facts and uncertainty of law Hanafis add another regarding contract Duress when person is forced to commit crime if one threatens him if he doesn t Won t be punished Hanafis only permit duress as defense against homicide cases Actus reus p 24 punishable offense must be unlawful According to all schools except Hanbalis it is obligatory to defend your life against attacks even at expense of life of assailant Defense of honor woman fights back if assaulted which is obligatory and she is considered martyr if she dies Men if they see sexual behavior of wives or female relatives illicit he is permitted to kill them provided thats the only way to stop crime Hanafis and Shafi s require unlawful sex be proven by 4 males whereas other schools accept 2 arguing that its not about proof of fornication but defense against homicide charge Also defense of property is valid plea against charge of homicide Repentance can prevent punishment for apostasy and if criminal doesn t violate claims of men rehabilitation is accepted by repentance p 27 In case of banditry is only accepted if occurs before bandit is caught Complicity and Plurality of Perpetrators for mod schools participants in punishable offense liable if they individually carried out all elements of offense Hanafis require that value of what each person stole amounts to minimum value necessary for app of fixed punishment For homicide plaintiff if assailed by 1 perpetrator must specify whose action actually caused victim s death or claim not admitted Also specified whether acts carried separately or simultaneous or in succession lf simultaneous and criminal intent is proven gt death sentence Succession gt one who first attacked is liable if victim dies within day otherwise death ascribed to last attacker Penalties Deterrence zajr is underlying principle of everything in isl criminal law rehab of offender and bring him back to straight path is main justification of discretionary punishment punishment also means of protecting society gt main rationale of siyasa punishment If one is subjected to multiple punishments for multiple crimes death penalty takes precedence but the claim of man comes first Some schools allow fines for things such as not attending Friday prayer Common form of discretionary punishment was pubic scorn Banishment gt usually for banditry and usually for men If for women she must be accompanied by close male relative to staywatch over her Most common function of imprisonment outside penal law Means of coercion until debts paid pretrail custody Can be imposed as ta zir punishment Flogging is common general rule that executioner may not raise hand above head to where armpit is visible Force varies wcrime Men flogged while standing and stripped to waist women while sitting fully clothed except for furs and leather Can be lightened wbundle of 50 of whatever is used to lash and struck twice as long as every single one of those 50 hit the body Amputation right hand from wrist for Sunnis four fingers for Shi a lf already cut then left foot Cross amputation Death penalty has many forms for diff crimes but normal way is beheading by sword For homicide must be carried out by executioner but Malikis and Shafi is say it can be carried out by heir of victim under supervision Hanafis and Shi a allow only execution by sword while others say it will be inflicted in same way victim was killed Stoning done by crowd For some schools women may be dug into earth up to waists Crucifixion mentioned in Qur an as punishment for banditry HomicideBodily Harm Islamic law of homicidebodily harm governed by 3 principles private prosecution redress consists in retaliation or financial compensation equivalence meaning that retaliation only allowed if monetary value of victim is same or higher than that of perpetrator Bloodmoney usually paid by clan not perpetrator Revenge was prelslamic concept that could go on for generations but Qur an reformed it could only be taken on person of offender and only after due trial Homicide creates bar to succession killer can t inherit from his victim differences among schools about which homicide produces this bar p 41 Causation using method that normally causes death and should be directly intended to cause death in some cases Degrees of criminal intent retaliation only if killing was intentional otherwise entitled to financial compensation Malikis recognize middle ground semi intentional homicide shibh amd for enhanced bloodprice Usually use weapons to assess intent since it is almost impossible to establish intent regardless Malikis and Shi a don t look at weapon for intent Doctrine of Retaliation Sunnis sentence of retaliation can be passed only if all prosecutors damage it Shi a retaliation can take place if at least one prosecutor demands it Question of legal prosecutors All except Malikis that they are victim s heirs regardless of sex wexception for Shafi i and Shi a of spouse relict Agnatic relatives divided in 5 classes descendants ascendants descendants of first ascendant brother nephew descendant of second ascendant paternal uncles cousins descendants of third ascendant paternal greatuncles and their offspring High class relatives gt low class Songrandson gt fathergrandfather Closer relative gt far ones Retaliation can t take place if closest male agnate pardons defendant Females have no say except close female relatives Right of prosecutors pg 46 Differences in blood price between blood money and estate Retaliation for homicide only allowed if victim s blood price samehighert han offenders Bloodprice of woman is half that of man s Person can t be sentenced to retaliation if he s killed someone with lower blood price Hanafis and Shi a have different approach Hanafis permeant protection of life is basis of required equivalence and not for value of blood price so Muslim may be executed for killing dhimmi and free man for killing slave Shi a allow retaliation if value of offender is higher than that of victim Restrictions apply in case of pregnancy If not possible replaced by financial compensation Sometimes relationship bw murderer and victim prevent retaliation such as if a man killed his mother in law he would have to kill his wife so that children inherit retaliation but can t do that against father BLood money is not a form of punishment because it is not to be paid by perpetrator but by solidarity group aqila p 49 But not liable ffor offenses against slaves property just homicide and wounding Aqila originally adult tribesmen but Shafi call them male agnatic relatives as we ll who are heirs Ascendants and descendants are excluded There is time by which blood price should be paid but can be paid in installments Amount of blood price diya for homicide two kindsnormal blood price for unintentional homicide and enhanced for intentional and semi intentionalNormal is 100 camels and enhanced is also 100 but wmore expensive specifications Early lslam had money standard In monetary value no diff bw standard and enhanced Hanbalite and Shi a law have other form of enhanced blood price during holy months raised by 13 Blood price of women is 12 of men value of dhimmi is different for diff schools Blood price of slave is market value Compensation for embryo against violence to mother is 110 of bloodprice of mother Compensation for bodily harm by 2 ways tariff list for loss of members faculties certain wounds and then damages assessd according to market price of slaves Hadd Offenses have fixed mandatory punishments based in Qur an or Sunnah Hanafis and Shi a add definition from intentional homicide and wounding that it should be violation of claim of God or public interest Crimes wfixed punishment are theft banditry zinnah accusation of zinnah alcohol apostasy Hadd punishments are claims of God and not men since the penalties are to protect public interest exception is qadhf accusation Doctrine makes it difficult to obtain conviction evidence opportunities to use notion of uncertainty defining crime very strictly for hanafis it is nearly impossible for thief or fornicator to be sentenced Hadd crime of theft defined narrowly surreptitious taking away of movable property wcertain minimum value not partially owned by perpetrator not entrusted to him from place which is locked Doctrine of banditry is complex minimum is a hold up of drawn weapons to frighten people Is collective crime so all schools except Shafi s say they are all liable for consequences so all should die if one killed someone Hanafis say reverse is true Zinnah i committed to unmarried woman man liable for proper birideprice if slavedamages to owner Qur an imposes flogging but a Hadith says stoning So on basis of certain texts jurists hold unlawful sex to have 100 lashes if free 50 if slaves banishment for one year both men and women Malikis still only banish males Shi as make men shave beards For muhsan stoning applies adult free Muslim previously enjoyed legitimate sexual relations in marriage Sunnis Shi a gt adult free Muslim who is in position to have legal sex and partner is available Homosexual intercourse is equated to unlawful heterosexual intercourse by most schools Most law schools agree pently is death by stoning Maliki sword Shafi Hanbali or throwing him from high wallburning him Shi a Accusation of zinnah for penalty to be applied victim must be muhsan which now means that it is chaste personand further conditions are same as before Punishment is 80 lashes and removal of right to testify until one repents or according to Hanafis forever Punishment can be averted if defendant provides 4 witnesses to support allegations Drinking wine Shafi i punish w40 lashes others follow Umar s example and do 80 FOr nonMuslims it is no hadd offense Hanafis hold that if person drinks other beverages than wine he is only punished for intoxication Apostasy public makes it offense can be disrespecting Qur an Puinshable by death according to most schools Granted 3 days for reflection and repentance if established in court if not returned to Islam gt death Hanafis only do this recommended Shi a only if person was not Muslim before and converted and converted back and both do t regard this as hadd offense Punishment Ta39zir provides grounds for punishment for those who committed had crimes but can t be sentenced to appropriate punishments or crimes that resemble these acts but don t fall under their legal refs Aim is to prevent person from repeating crime has 2 aspects punishment for conduct in past waim of reforming or coercive measure to force person to carry out duties like prayer or fasting Range of punishments are unlimited from reprimand to death penalty Siyasa both ta zir and siyasa are meting out punishment on basis of simple procedures wo formal rules of evidence used as synonyms but diff concepts ta zir is for acts forbidden by Shari ah and siyasa is for any act threatening public order even if perpetrator is not to be blamed for it While ta zir is for reform siyasa is for public interest and to prevent fitna Ta zir can be imposed by both wadi and executive authorities and latter is administered by executive 040114 usuryriba vs consensual tradesale riskgharargambling maysir charity propertymal Riba Jahiliyyah is one of the riba and probably the only riba that is prohibited in the Qur an Riba is of 2 types 1Riba in sale 1 any form of profit in currency exchange becomes prohibited 2 Riba alFadhl excess 3 Riba alNasi a time delay 4 Ribawi goods goldsilver or currency 2Riba in loans 1 any loan that attracts a benefit is interest Mal property sterile vs productive goods sterile goods value only lie in their consumption essentially foodstuffs thing vs benefitusufruct ayn man fa a fungibles vs non fungibles don t have unique valuecommodity do have unique value noncommodity 040314 Peters Jihad chapter smaller jihad military struggle or warfare this chapter deals with that greater jihad internal spiritual struggle it is a collective duty fardh kifaya opposite is the fardh ayn individual responsibility a legitimate jihad has to be announcedcarried out by the imam ruler for Sunnis Shi aTHE imam gt since imam is occulted no responsibility for jihad for lsma ilis gt imam is alive but jihad is interpreted differently assumes division of all the world into 3 groups Dar alSulhtreatytemporary situation so not considered much of a category Dar allslam Islam Dar alHarb war landterritorystates against which Muslim state is to actively engage in some type of military warfare purpose of this fighting is to spread Islam and strengthendefendpreserveexpand the state kharaaj taxes on conquering lands nonMuslim subject populations could retain their own religions referred to as dhimmi populations which is a negotiated status gradual conversion gt paid pollhead tax called jizya prisoners of war typically not killed most common outcome was slavery exemptions to jihad nonmukallafs exceptions to moral obligation minors insane slaves women elderly the summons purpose No compulsion in religion 2 types of jurists independent and wealthy and we re free didn t need state patronage and then functionaries who wrote manuals with loopholes in it because they we re under the government rules of conduct in warfare anything not directly targeted to combatants is morally suspect such as cutting off food supply Don t hurt womenchildren and also don t destroy infrastructure Jihad notes Peters Ch 2 Classical Jihad Common meaning of jihad is to exert oneself to max ability bt legally defined as fighting unbelievers and taking property demolishing their places of worship and smashing their idols Classical fiqh books don t have much info on definition and purpose of jihad There is greater jihad and smaller jihad ultimate aim of jihad is to strengthen islam Enemies to be attacked are unbelievers special way of fulfilling jihad duty is called ribat remaining at frontiers of islamic territory wintention of defending islam against unbelievers Closely connected wjihad is two divisions of surface world territory of islam part of world with muslim rule and shari ah law and territory of war rest of world Shafi i name 3rd territory of treaty when unbelievers have armistice wMuslims on condition of retaining lands but paying kharaj tax on land Hukm of jihad and exemptions it is a collective duty fardh kifayah once a year imam must raid enemy territory shia don t hold this because if should only be carried out in presence of imam and since the last imam was occulted this type of jihad is no longer observed Defense against attacks remains obligatory but this isn t jihad Many conflicting verses in Qur an about whether to approach unbelievers peacefully or fight them Jihad becomes individual duty when imam appoints certain people for raiding expeditions Exemptions minors and the insane because they are not mukallaf legally capable slaves because masters risk losing property women because their constitution is not fit for warfare illhandicapped those who don t possess means for expeditions the best lawyer in town Hanafis those who didn t obtain parents permission debtors One should summon enemies to Islam before attacking them or submit them to poll tax Should be summoned for 3 subsequent days for conversion 4th day for tax refusalattack them Method of attack can be almost any but Malikis are against poisoned arrows Intentional killing of womenchildren is forbidden People who shouldn t be killed are minors and women unless they are fighting additional argument is that by killing them one would be destroying their own property since they would become slaves If Muslim kills someone belonging to those categories it is reprehensible but Shafi i school obliges to pay blood money diyah Those who can t be killed are taken captive Those who can t contribute to enemy force at all like very old men or monks can be left behind Malikis say that enough food and necessities must be left with them so they don t die of hunger and cold Rules about damage inflicted on enemy property Destruction of vegetation and trees wfruits are detrimental to one s interests argument for not cutting vegetation for lsmai ilis and szai i Controversy regarding animals Shafi i and Hanbali don t allow enemy animals to be killed except during battle or eating Muslims aren t allowed to flee from enemy but 3 exceptions if intention is to find better position or lure enemy into ambush or to join other group of Muslims to strengthen their or his position Or if enemy force is more than 2x that of Muslims Malikis and Shafi i hold 3rd reason that they MUST flee when Muslims are convinced of defeat Muslims may ask for assistance of disbelievers Malikis don t allow this because they believe it is only accepted when offer is done spontaneously POW women and children upon being captured are property of Muslims Malikis say that imam may return them but other schools say imam can t Adult male enemies are taken as POW lmam has choice between several fates kill them set them free for ransom or enslave them Malikis say he can also set them free with dhimmi status If they convert to Islam after they can t be killed Same if they convert during fighting lf imam decides to kill them they can t be tortured or mutilated Some earlier scholars say that killing POWs are forbidden or at least reprehensible Aman is protection of nonMuslim s lifefreedomproperty and is binding upon all Muslims 2 situations one is quarter granted during actual period of warfare Other is safeconduct granted to individual nonMuslims at borders of Territory of Islam First form doesn t include protection of property or freedom They may still be enslaved Individual aman accords protection of all 3 life freedom property If aman is violated offender is liable to pay blood money in case of manslaughterwounding Collective aman can only be granted by the imam and sometimes by army commander A woman slave or minor is also allowed to grant someone protection against Muslims validity of aman by slave is only contested by hanafis and malikis Aman can be given by words or gestures Outward appearance is decisive not intention It is only accorded for a certain period of time not exceeding one year Shafi is and Hanbalis say it shouldn t be longer than 4 months it ends by return to enemy territory Armistice is treaty of peace with enemy who remains independent and not subject to Islamic rule May travel freely in Islamic territory but wo permission to settle permanently lmam guarantees safety from attacks by his own people but not from other enemies The conclusion of armistices are legal and all schools except Hanafis agree that it can be concluded for a specified period of time Some stipulations are in an armistice streaky but these will null and void it that Muslims will remain as prionsers in hands of enemy or that enemy keeps islamic territory occupied stipulation that muslims pay money in return for conclusion of armistice that imam or both parties may terminate armistice unilaterally and resume fighting whenever they wish These stipulations are considered null and void wo affecting rest of treaty that hostages will be killed if enemy fails to fulfill obligations that women of enemy who have ben conerted to Islam will be sent back Aim of jihad is bijection of unbelievers can be attained by 2 means can be converted to Islam or they can submit themselves to the islamic govt wo being converted attain dhimmi status and pay poll tax Dhimmi treaty can t be concluded wall unbelievers such as apostates and Hanafis exclude Arab idolaters Malikis only exclude idolaters of Quraish Peters Ch 4 lbn Rushd lbn Rushd held post of wadi in Sevilla in Cordoba and was also a court physician Book divided in 2 first containing regulations for warfare second to rules of enemy s property when captured by Muslims 1st chapter consists of 7 paragraphs hukm of this activity and people obliged to take part in it enemy damage allowed to be inflicted on different categories of enemies prereqs of warfare max of enemies against which one is obliged to stand one s ground truce aim of warfare 1Hukm jihad is collective not personal obligation The sick and weak are exempt from it and one must obtain permission from parents according to most scholars 2 Enemy all polytheists should be fought except Ethiopians and Turks by Hadith 3 Damage allowed to be inflicted upon different categories of enemies damage consists of damage to property injury violation of liberty or made slave may be done to all polytheists but probably not monks For captives policies are open to imam pardon enslave kill release You can only slay the enemy if aman hasnt been granted only imam can grant aman and some say that free Muslim males can grant it too Some hold that aman granted by woman is also authorized in Islam In times of war Muslims are able to kill adult ablebodied males and can t slay womenchildren unless they were fighting As to slaying hermits the blindoldillinsanepeasantsserfs gt MalikHanifa says they shouldn t be slain and property shouldn t be carried off but enough should be left for them to survive Thawriszai say only aged may not be slain Other opinions on whether damage could be inflicted on property Usually it was reprehensible to do so because it was a destruction of property 4 Prereqs for warfare enemy must have heard summons to Islam 5 max of enemies against which one is obliged to stand one s ground max is twice the number against one s own troops 6Truce only allowed by sheer necessity OR without immediate occasion example of Khawarij Conditions may be made such that enemy pays amount to muslims Not poll tax but also not obligatory 7aims of warfare against people of book is twofold conversion or payment of jizya controversy wregards to polytheists who are not of the book and whether or not they should pay the poll tax Some say it should only be accepted from people of the book and zoroastrians People of Book are exceptional position wrespect to other polytheists because they have been excluded from general rule Peters Ch 5 lbn Taymiyya He was Syrian and Hanbalite Fundamentalist stressed example of pious ancestors Text is about jihad against Muslims who revolt against established political authorities and difference bw war waged at initiative of Muslims and defensive warfare Penalties of disobeying Shari ah are 2 punishment of those of imam punishment of those that can be brought under sway of imam by decisive fight gt kafir Allah didn t permit Prophet to killfight anyone for the reason of summoning people to religion before hijra Then gave them permission and then imposed fighting to them Jihad is emphasized and glorified in mostly Medinese surahs Best voluntary religious act that man can perform Sunan that every community has devotional journey and that of Islam is jihad in the way of God 48 1Jihad s benefits are general in a religious and temporal sense 2Jihad implies all kinds of worship but especially lovedevotion to God 1 two blissful outcomes victorytriumph or martyrdomParadise 3All creatures must live and die in jihad die in happiness in this world and next Most scholars agree that we only fight those who stand in the way of God s religion being victorious aka not women and children or old men One who propagates innovations that are contrary to Qur anSunnah must be punished more severely than person who remains silent Shari ah enjoins fighting unbelievers but not killing those who have been captured If rebellious Islamic group refuses to comply wcommands Muslims agree that jihad must be waged against them such as when Abu Bakr waged war on those who didn t pay zakat Jurists disagree about fighting rebellious group that abandons supererogatory act of worship such as two extra rak at of Fajr Unanimity about fighting those who abandon strict observed traditions Most serious obligatory jihad is unbelievers and against those who refuse to abide by certain parts of Shari ah Latter form of jihad is defense of religion inviolable things lives Former jihad is voluntary fighting to propagate religion to intimidate enemy This form of punishment must be administered to rebellious groups For nonrebellious inhabitants of territory of Islam they must be forced to carry out obligations Ch 8 Jihad Readings The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern Islam Jihad writings serve two aims essentially mobilization of Muslims for occasion like revoltwar or instruction to realtrue doctrine of jihad 103 Qur an is justified as first instance of mobilizing character Many fatwas have been published recently concerning jihad 104 saying that it had become individual obligation based on political motives Modern and Classical Jihad Literature Compared 111 Modern writings on jihad are less legalistic Topics not dealt with in classical fiqh literature 112 definition of jihad principle of peaceful relations bw Islamic and other states all wars against unbelievers were legal wars legal aims of jihad survey of early Islamic military history women and jihad strategical and tactical lessons of the Qur an 115 The Definition of Jihad 116 most literature says jihad means struggle of fighting but also stress that jihad means much more Friendlier connotation than QITAL fighting because derived from jahada striving especially for a praiseworthy aim Translation as Holy War is considered incorrect and resented Other types of jihad are against the nafs or shaytan and is the greater jihad However concept of greater and lesser jihad hadith is not authoritative Jihad is also for good of society against corruption enjoining good and forbidding evil Jihad altarbiya educational and jihad aIda wah spreading Islam 117 for fighting it is restricted by fi sabil Allah so jihad must be connected wreligion not just ordinary war Legal Aims of Jihad Jihad as bellum justum developed in modern Islam Causes for war are 2 categories propagation of Islam strengthening monotheismdestroying polytheism protecting Islamic mission against those who stand in its way defense repelling aggression on Muslim lives and property preventing oppressionpersecution of Muslims outside Territory of Islam retaliating a breach of pledge by the enemy Fighting doesn t serve to convert because then it would be allowed to kill all unbelievers Modern authors emphasize defensive aspect of jihad and that it is only allowed outside Islamic territory when peaceful propagation is being hindered or there is oppression by whomever the Muslims are living under Indian modernists such as Ahmad Khan restricted scope of jihad duty that it was essentially defensive and limited to religious oppression impairing Islam s 5 pillars Thus they emphasized separation of religion and government Prompted because british regarded Indian Muslims as being instigators of 1857 revolt so they wanted to show that Islam was respectable religion aka changing with modern times Tried to achieve 2 aims wpublications on jihad Muslims ignorant of texts of Jihad should be acquainted with them and that nonMuslims under whose protection Muslims live may not suspect Muslims of thinking that its lawful to fight against nonMuslims Point of departure of modernists is that jihad is only reaction against outside aggression They reject the interpretation that abrogation which is what classical Islam uses of the range of prescriptions on jihad in the Qur an 125 Fundamentalists say that jihad is to defend Islam but they repudiate that this is the sole aim and say its main function is to propagate Islam to end domination of man over man and manmade laws recognition of God s sovereignty alone acceptance of shari ah Sole feature that distinguishes fundamentalist from classical text on jihad is both views have identical views on relationship wunbelievers but fundamentalists adhere to classical doctrine of marhaliwa which is evolution in relationship bw Muhammad and disbelievers 129 Interpretations of fight them until there is no persecution and the religion is God s entirely 2193 839 are different modernist emphasizing first part while fundamentalists stress second part Fundamentalists say that we can t apply categories of offensive or defensive to jihad because it is universal revolutionary struggle 130 Ideas of peace are different in that Islam doesn t want a cheap peace in that religions coexist peacefully but a peace under which Islam is the ultimate ruler where all religions belong to God Another difference fundamentalists stress on 97 how shall idolaters have covenant with God and his Messnger that peace treaty wpolytheists isn t allowed only accept peace when Islam is final victor Modernists on the other hand accept peaceful coexistence wIslamic state and rest of the world by 861 and if they incline to peace do though incline to it and put trust in God He is all hearing and all knowing 131 132 Modernists accept the situation they live in and have adopted Western liberal values as part of their Islamic reform Opposed to colonial domination but accepted struggle against foreign rule was within secular nationalist ideology where religion played secondary role refer to jihad as struggle for sake of fatherland and defense of religion This is very similar to classical doctrine but difference lies in interpretation of fatherland For modernists it is war conducted by Islamic state against non lslamic state Fundamentalists 133 don t conform to present situation and their ideal is to establish true Islamic state upon principals of shari ah carry on struggle of early jihad movements don t believe in separation of religion and politics religion dominates all activities and their reject secular ideologies like nationalism Modernists react defensively to Western penetration by adopting western values and reforming religion in light of these new ideas well suited for Western elite Fundamentliasts reacted in selfassertive manner by rejecting al things western and emphasizing real Islamic values New Interpretation of Jihad Doctrine Islamic International Law Bellum Justum is the just war theory that battle should have a reason Modernists argue that jihad offers this theory 133 134 Separation bw Islamic international law and general international law Christianmodern international law founded on fact that its considered binding by all states concerned Islamic law isn t interested in relations bw Islamic states because ideally there is one Objective is to provide Muslims w code of behavior in relations wnonMuslims So its prescriptions are binding for Muslims Islamic rules are internal and unilateral describing how to treat POWs or enemy prisoners and also decrees how to act if they fall into enemy hands Whether or not enemy regards these rules as binding isn t of concern to Islamic international law NonMuslims that aren t protected by aman or dhimma can t claim right under Islamic international law 135 Many authors profess Islamic international law to be a universal system but they adhere to classical doctrine One author justifies new interpretation of classical doctrine by saying that there is an increasing trend in Muslim world towards revival of islam and implementation of its concepts 137 important characteristic of Islamic international law writings is that in most of them point is stressed that it is superior to positive international law 138 Evidence is found that since IIL s inception 13 cent ago it stood for principles only recently recognized in modern international law such as equality or reciprocality 140 Treatises on Islamic international law can be roughly divided in 2 some take modern works on international law as starting point and compare various topics wislamic prescriptions If they cn t find them they make them themselves wQur an amp sunnah Other authors don t go deeply into theiroeies of positive international law and depart from classical Shari ah to fit mold of Western inspired system One author elaborates on corporate personality theory in IIL and says shari ah helps better decide whether international personality should be conferred to a given territorial community than positive international law He says that Islam establishes sociocultural unity representative political leadership and unity of legal system He says they can remedy situation in positive international law No unanimity of source of international law s obligatory character Some think it is in subjective will on individual states 142 Islam offers clear solution to controverseises of validity of legal rule which is the obligatory character of Islamic international law Islamic internatnioal law is grouped into 2 headings 1principle of peaceful relations bw islamic and other states diplomacy treaties 2internatnional relations in wartime Iawfulunawfu wars ultimatum and declaration of war treatment of enemies and property POW safeconduct and quarter conclusion of war classical works on fiqh discuss only 3 kinds of treaties collective amanquarter temporary armistice or truce and permeanent treaty of dhumma 144 modern authors say all kinds of treaties are allowed in IIL 146 one author asked about use of atom bomb by 860 he said that production is permitted but use restricted to retaliation of nuclear attack by enemy Classical law says that imam has choice bw 4 policies of POWs to kill enslave ransom or free Modern authors argue from 474 that the imam s choice is restricted to liberation w or wo ransom Killing is forbidden Wiritngs in this chapter have apologetic character Classical doctrine is represented as legal system IIL is best of all possible systems Ch 7 A Modernist Interpretation of Jihad The Qur an and Fighting 2 methods of Qur an interpretation 60 1explaniing verses in traditional order such as grammaticalhistorical stylistic legal philosophical 70 verses considered abrogated this method doesn t do justice to Qur an being primary source of Islam 61 2collecting verses of certain topic and analyzing them in interrelation so that their purpose becomes clear and is in Shaltut s view exemplary method of interpretation 1 Shaltut uses this method Nature of Da wah foremost principle was unity of Creator and worshiping Him quotQur an says it wants toquot honor man by keeping him from worshipping something that doesn t hear and is quotneither harmful nor beneficial call of natural reason and not alien to human intellect message affirms those messages prior to it mission doesn t force people to believe in it because that would be insulting to it since someone forced into it will not respect it Qur an instructs that God didn t want believers by force but by study reflection contemplation 65 and that man has free will to choose This is what Divine Revelation is founded on All prophets are given clear arguments but Muhammad was granted an additional quality he was the prophet least inclined to use compulsion to make people believe 67 Former prophets used miracles but God refused to conform to desires of heathens when they asked for miracles in same way repentance by coercion can t be accepted Verses of Fighting 70 Qur an concerned w2 kinds of fighting against Muslims and against non Muslims 1against Muslims internal affairs of ummah to protect community against rebellion and mutual hostility Verse 499 teaches that justice of settling dispute bw groups aims to safeguard religious brotherhood 2Qur an talks about this extensively concerning armistices treaties aims etc 1 When Muslims were forced to emigrate from Makkah verses were sent with permission to fight wjustification of injustice The first verses of fighting point out that God helps those who fear him and not to use war for destruction or corruption or for oppressing weak They also agree that war is inevitable and necessary to preserve order Verses indicate reasons for fighting but verse fight unbelievers that are near to you shouldn t be compared wthem because those indicate reason while this doesn t It informs muslims that when enemies are manifold to figh tnearest first and then so on 79 no verse in Qur an supports fighting for sake of Islam for conversion only 3 reasons for fighting as explained by verses stop aggression protect Mission of Islam defend religious freedom Poll tax isn t financial compensation for granting one life or preserving their religion but is symbol of submission and desistance from harmful acts Connection between verses of forgiveness and fighting 2 categories of people who examine Qur an adversaries of the religion who look for arguments against it and group of Qur an interpreters wzeal to harmonize inconsistencies and are inclined to abrogation 80 Some verses say to fight and others encourage forgiveness Interpreters hold that fighting abrogated forgiveness 81 alRazi says in his tafsir that Allah might have brought verses in pairs where one abrogated the other but this isn t cutting it with the adversaries that the Qur an is inconsistent Verses of forgiveness are meant to shape morality and not infringe on pride and honor Verses Concerning Organization of Fighting 82 handbook for warfare of nation that wants to acquire honor are based on 3 elementary considerations strengthening morale of nation preparation of material force practical aspects of warfare Qur an also deals with these The verses remind reader that fighting is int he way of God who will give the right reward for the sake of the weak for righteousness towards fellow men against tyranny to suppress evil that those who s struggle in the way of God are given unlimited reward reminds of divine promise Verses comprise factors that lead to weakness or cowardice and encourages believers to sacrifice themselves for sake of God 84 Second element preparation of material power Instructions of Qur an concerning benefit to be derived from iron and factories verse of force derived from iron and that God sent it down for believers AlRazi also said that use of cavalry was recommended in older religions just like in religion of Muhammad third element is practical aspect of warfare Qur an deals wthis from many angles 1exemption from military service old age sickness inability 2declaration of war 3call to jihad Q warns against tardiness and sluggishness because of painful punishment 4 Purging enemy from dissenting and dissatisfaction 50rganizing mobilization should be in proportion to needs if everyone is needed then everyone must set out etc 6organization of army amp distribution of unities over defense 7obedience of supreme command observance of battle order 80 warns against flight from battle order 92 9 if many enemies nearest must first be attacked to clear road for army from any hostile obstacle 10 military secrets are a NO because considered hypocrite 11 truceif enemy is inclined to it as well and if they show signs of sincerityfidelity 12 captivity and POWonly when havoc has been caused in the land and taking of captives is allowed may imam choose to liberate them or ransom them 13 treatises and observancevery important in Q and made to replace disorderwar wsafety peace 14 if treaty will cause harm imam can denounce them 94 openly Practical Application of Qur an Prescriptions concerning fighting stages in lives of Prophetbelievers were 1secret mission wsmall group of close followers 94 2 public mission to clan and mankind 3 period of no negotiations where Makkans tried to exchange property power sovereignty 4 period of violence oppression torture 5emigration to ethiopia 6artful tricks and plots of conspiration 7seeking refuge in Ta if 8 Emigration to Medina 9 Enmity bw Muslims and Jews in Medina 10 provocation 11 jews break pledge from these events it shows that Messenger only fought those who fought him and there was no aim other than repelling oppression warding off rebellion ending persecution Wars by 1st 2 caliphs were completion of building for which Byzantines and Persians laid foundations witheir own hands during gProphet s lifetime Caliphs had no choice other than to repel evil and secure boundaries and religion Prophet had previously sent them letter Both resisted so armies were set out to fight them once they heard THEY themselves were sending out army to fight Wars Muslim conducted in first period 100 were not to force people into religion subjugate them or humiliate them or for greedpower Qur39an UNIT 1 AND 2 Class 1 1 Scriptures 1 Moral guidelines How to live one s life 2 Relationship between humanity amp God 3 What will occur in the afterlife Eschatology if there is one 4 Narratives stories of the ancients parables mythology amp cosmology 1How do practitioner use their scriptures They recite the passages for teaching purpose for devotional purposes Application of the moral guideline prescription gt they look to the Quran Spiritual and mystical inspiration Difference between textual religion and non textual religion As soon as you canonize something and you can focus your concentration on it makes it possible for you to look deeper into it So Muslims interpret the passages of the text to elaborate theology law etc A source of certainty consolation gt psychology or emotional suppo Physical Quran is treated with respect rules etiquette The use of the quran as an amulet or holy object Commercial object Template canvas for art Calligraphy Reading Mattson Chapter 1 1ln the reading it talks about Khawla bint Thalaba who was going through hardship with her husband She went to the prophet for help and came back disappointed But there was a revelation that was sent to the Prophet regarding her issue God has heard the words of she who disputes with you regarding her husband and made her complaint to God God hears your conversation Verin God is All hearing ALI seeing Those of you who shun their wives by zihar they are not their mothersunjust and false 2Mattson uses this example to show that the messenger of God was deeply involved in the lives of those around him This story shows that God s speech can be elicited by the concerns of ordinary peopleThis also shows that even though the revelation is transmitted through the Prophet it is not a response to his concerns alone but rather the community of other times and places as well 3The Quran also consist of doxologies for example Mulk 671 Blessed is He in whose hand is the dominion and He has power over all things 4The Qur an also consist of Prelslamic Hebrew and Arabian prophets to show how the resistance and hardship Muhammad faced in his mission is similar to his ancestors in faith We sent messengers before you to the communities of old and we never sent a messenger but that they mocked him Hajr 1510 5How Muhammad received God s message How the Qur an describes itself in relation to other forms of God s speech and guidance to humanity 1 The story of Abraham the birth of Ismail the zam zam 2 The true Hanifiyya Muhammads family abstained from eating meat sacrified to idols and shunned rituals they deemed idolatrous 3 Muhammad s ancestor ties with the jews of Yathrib 6The Arabic Language 1 Even though the pre Islamic tribes of the Arabian Peninsula were not united when it came to political or religious authority they did share many important aspect of culture Seventh century the Arabic language distinguished the Arabian tribes from other groups The written wasn t developed much but oral communication was highly sophisticated Ex Poetry Qasida epic poetry Labid one of the great pre Islamic poets 7The Jahiliyya 1 Pre Islamic times forgiveness and mercy wasn t part of the culture rather manliness Muruwwa was what was respected 2 Class 2 Author of Qur39an is Allah Muhammad is recipient agent of transfer was Angel Gabriel sometimes appeared in the form of man but usually not visible to anyone else Revelation came either in his head or after a buzzingringing sound with pressure etc Tanzilrevelation something that is sent down Oral format gt Kitabbook ie scripture written gtMemorized Memorized text oral vs Read Text relationship with memorized text would be more intimate internalized less intimate more pertinent to your life more easily applied less relevant or easily applied easily at hand performable at any instant performance required preparation more accessible for consultation less accessible easy to forget more certain enduring permanent easy to accidentally modify distort harder to changedistort good mnemonic devices written texts are more amenable to analysis both intra and intertextual interpersonal interaction individualizedself instruction Structure and style of Qur39an reflects its oral nature For example the order of the verses and chapters do not follow chronology of revelation nonlinear Thematically jumbled up no distinct thematic units Basic themes repeated frequently one God Day of Judgment Allah39s attributes and interspersed throughout scripture Qur39anrecitation first word revealed was iqra39read recite Surah 96AIAlaq Arabic at the time was a defective script editing took place that put dots and punctuation on it Salatbefore Islam simply meant supplication asking God Musalliprior to Islam meant second upvery close behindin a horsecamel race lmamprior to Islam meant the lead in a horsecamel race islamgerund or manar verbal noun quotingquot verb an action historically Islam is the religion that Muhammad taught iteray related to root sIm root peacetranquility lt soundness wholeness as opposed to fractured or broken safetysecurity a society not at war or conflict surrender submission to God would lead to the prior 3 used in Qur39an as the religion taught by all the prophets Muslimactive participle doer the one who DOES Islam one who fostersparticipates in creating the soundness security andor surrenders to God term in Qur39an refers to all the prophets as Muslim ie as perfectly surrendering to God Angels described as Muslim anyone who followed the Prophets39 examples and surrendered to God natural objects in the world is also described as Muslim since they act in submission to the divine order theologians described natural ordergravity of plants and animals as their way of Islam academicallyculturally there is a difference between quotIslamicquot and quotMuslimquot Islamicadjective referring to anything to do with the religion of Islam Muslimadjectivenoun describing humansocial action Islamic Art vs Muslim Art Islamic art has to do with Islam itself Muslim Art is just art created by a Muslim Many poems about jurisprudence and Islamic laws poems were very important backthen Some scholars call Muslim culture quotthe culture of the bookquot Class 3Structure and Style of the Qur39an Qur39anrecitation vs Mushafsomething with pages the entirety of the revelationscripture physical copy of the Qur39an also any part of the revelationscripture primarily refers to oral recitation no plural form Structural divisions smallest segment ayah verse gt ayah means sign plural is ayat Surah chapter gt quotwalled sectionquot plural is quotsuwarquot 114 in total arranged not chronologically but in order of length traditional belief is that the order was set forth by Muhammad himself under guidance of Gabriel titles of the Surah are conventional as are the numbering of the ayahs developed by others later that stuck beginning of surah also has the quotbasmalaquot also conventional a remembrancedhikr the Muqatta39atindividual letters that appear at the beginning of some surahs alif Iaam meem muqatta39singular something that is cut off individuated JuzpluraIajza means a part 130 of the Qur39an also conventional Citing the Qur39an ltQ 2227gt MiscellaneousArabic was a defective script incomplete at the advent of Islam early Mushaf was a mnemonic device Did not have dots Was written for those who already knew what it said dots added over time consonants Fa and Qaf different in North Africa vowels addeddeveloped over time bint daughter gt bnt alif 1 aaa sound Table of Contents indices commentary added by translatorseditors parenthetical commentsinsertions Class 4Stylistic Features of the Qur39an Speakerauthor is presumed to be God quotIquot or quotHequot God speaks about Himself to speak in 1st and 3rd person Sometimes quotWequot Not referring to multiplicity but more of a royal We meant to convey powerauthority sometimes referring to God and Angels AddresseeAudience Believers quotMu39min squot quotMu39minoon pquot Muhammad specifically Muhammad and his community Divided sometimes only the males Sometimes only females Muhammad and his family members His wives More generally as ahl albayt family of the house Unbelievers quotKafir squot quotKuffar lpquot Hypocrites Polytheists Openly disbelieving People of the Book Ahl alkitab Jews Christians All of humanity Rhetorical Features nonlinearity repetition of themes phrases rhyming rhythm figurative metaphorical language allegory Adam created out of clayEarth gt referenced to fleshmatter not to say quotuf quot to parents metonymyusing one word to express category of things condensed languagequotelliptical languagequot words missing all the time assumes prior knowledge from Bible assumes ability to read between the lines contains fair number of prescriptions commands gt do39s and don39ts have become basis for Islamic law vast majority of Islamic law not found in Qur39an prohibition of wine gt extended through ANALOGY to other all intoxicants rules about prayersalat not described in Qur39an at all other than times of prayer and command of prayer can be concrete or abstractethical storiesparables prophetshistories of past peoples exemplary stories mythical moments gt creation of Adam and Eve oaths quot by the nightquot rhetorical questions quotHaven39t you seenquot conditional passages quotWhen the earth convulseslf something happeneduquot Translationlnterpretation Interpretation happens across languages quot time quot place quotexpenence Tafsir commentaryinterpretation of Qur39an exoteric that which is concrete and obvious and understood on the outside accessible to all Exegesis interpretation of scriptural texts Ta39wil explaining the meaning of the Qur39an esoteric mystical hidden highly individualized Class 5 Surah AlBalad Begins with two oaths quotI swear by this land and by the ties of parent and childquot Then gets to main point quotlndeed We have created mankind into toil and strugglequot Moral commands after quotsteep pathquot Steep path refers to two roads in previous verse easy path vs steep path Lots of rhetorical questions Last few verses are ethics that were opposite in tradition then Patience mercy having faith being cool headed were opposites to the definition of muruwwamanliness back then Lots of dualities right hand vs left hand those who have faith vs those who reject our signs feeding vs famine Forward looking aspect Surah AdDhuha 2 oaths at the beginning Main point Your Lord has not foreseen you nor is He angry what comes later is better than the first Forwardlooking aspect Dualities Rhetorical questions MoralEthical commands at the end Last verse is wrelationship bw human being and God has to do wworship divine human relationship Qalqalaalso known as quotqutb jdquot Religious Studies Terms Exegesiscommentaryinterpretation on a scripture text includes all types of interpretation tafsir and ta39wil HermeneuticsHOW we study texts ie the method or system or process by which exegesis is produced rules The Story of the Qur39an Notes Chapter 1 God Speaks to Humanity Khawla bint Tha39laba was the woman whose husband Aws ibn Samit rejected her by saying quotyou are like the backside of my motherquot According to Arab customs it was now forbidden for him to touch her Muhammad and Khawla waited for the revelation which finally came disproving that custom Surah Mujadila Qur39an and concerns of Prophet Muhammad reflected the concerns of that present Arab society in 7th century not today39s time but revelation was still revealed in a form that would be able to be understood eternally no matter what time Mecca was a desert town located in the Hijaz aka the NW region of Arabian Peninsula It was the Jurhum family that came to Hajar when she was living around the Zamzam Majhudperson making a great effort Prophet Muhammad was born in the year 570 CE The same year a church was built in Sana39a Makkans disrespected it and Abraha sent an army with an elephant to destroy the Ka39ba Story is related in Surah AlFil 105 Muhammad39s grandfather 39Abd alMutallib is credited with rediscovering Zamzam True religion of Abraham is called AlHanifiyya In 7th century Arabia oral communication was sophisticated Written language was seldom used quotQasidaquot was the highest form of epic poetry in prelslamic Arabian times Muruwwamanliness Among prelslamic Arabs forgivenessmercy were looked down upon Norm was to seek revenge Mu39allaqatpoems that were 39hung39 mu39allaq with respect on the Ka39ba Jahiliyyatime of lawlessnessprelslamic period Ja39far ibn Abi Talib made the speech to King Negus of Abyssinia Hilftreaty Treaty of Fudutreaty for prelslamic Quraysh devised after visiting merchant had been robbed ensured that justice would be sought for anyone who had been done wrong However treaty mostly benefitted the Quraysh rather than poor free or slaves For example 39Abdullah ibn Jud39an the very man who called for the Treaty and hosted the oathtaking ceremony in his home used to make his living by selling the children of prostitutes Quraish used to call themselves and all the tribes who settled with them in Mecca quotthe Humsquot word used to signify quotzealquot in promoting Makkah as most important Arab sanctuary Yatimorphan Muhammad was known as alAminor the trustworthy At approx age 35 resolved dispute between Quraysh from rebuilding Ka39ba Tahannuthseclusion Bedouin language regarded as pure Arabic children sent there when babies to learn the language and learn their values Makkah was more of a trade postpermanent encampment rather than a city Nelson Supplement Notes CH 1 Tradition says that Qur39an was revealed in 7 Ahrufdialects to accommodate other tribes Idea of revelation as a discrete book is present references to Qur39an39s existence in heaven as a tablet 8521 22 and tradition says entire Qur39an was sent down to first heaven on Layl atul Qadr and then given to Muhammad in parts Before his death Muhammad was given a final review al39are alaxir of revealed material during month of Ramadan Qira39attext systems form of reading7 some say 10 or 14 Qur39an divided into aj39zah singularjuz Each juz divided into 2 Ahzab singular hizb and each hizb into four Rubat singular rub Further sectioning usually unmarked 39asr which designates recitation of approx 10 lines Further marked in 14 places in margin by sajdah Mutasabihatphrases of varying length which recur throughout text wlittle or no variation Nelson 134 Notes In Arabia the north and west was Byzantine Roman empire to NE was Sassanid Persian empire to SE was AbyssinianYemenite civilization Arab originally means quot Pastoral Nomad quot Kahinsprelslamic seers Mu39allaqatquotHanging Odesquot 7 most admired poems suspended from walls of Ka39ba Famous poet was Ka39b bin Zuhayr son of Zuhayr author one of the hanging odes Odes Qasidas constructed w3 major sections 1Remembrance of the lost beloved 2The quest 3The boast quotthe Karimquotgenerous hero Surahs from early Makkan period focus on existential and personal issues Later Makkan period is more discussions of sacred history and prophets known in Biblical traditions Surahs from Medinan period reflect Muhammad39s new position as politicaleconomicsocialmilitary leader and address societalhistoricallegal issues 35 pillars are discussed in early Makkan surahs shahadah salat zakat Fiqhlegal judgment Shari39alslamic way of life Early Makkan surahs are hymnic quot By thequot Sense of directnessintimacy as if hearer is being asked quotWhat will be of value at the end of a human life quot Affirmation of oneness of God has many interpretations 1Deity has no partners of equals 2 ln moral sense having no other aims goals thoughts beyond one reality or one deity 3 ln theological sense can refer to interior unity of deity that in God all attributes seeinghearingknowingwilling are in some sense one some say to give the deity separate attributes threatens the unity of God 4 Unity involves knowing and seeing nothing but the one deity mystical theology Different tenses referring to God such as quotyour Lordquot quotAllahquot or quotWequot prevent deity from being defined in anthropomorphic terms Stereotype is that Islam is religion of fear where Christianity is religion of love in their view What gives early Meccan surahs their depth psychological subtlety texture and tone is the way the future is collapsed into the present the way the day of reckoning is transferred from fear of future to sense of reckoning in present Some commentators characterize tone of Qur39anic recitation as one of sadness Huzn Sells 159196 Notes Two important effects of tajwid are maddextension and ghunnahumming or nasalization Qur39anic recitation Style of tartilsteady even chant wo elaborate melodic flourishes Second style tajwidtajawwudmore elaborate style Tahlilfirst part of shahada Hayycome come alive live Falahfulfillment of the worlds HuznQur39anic sound quality of existential sadness at separation of humans from their source In Shi39a adhan recites tahlil in 2 places where Sunnis do it once They also say quotHaw 39ala khayri l39amalquot quotCome alive to the best work quot added after quotFalahquot They also may add two others quotAsh hadu anna 39aliyyan waliwu llahquot quotl testify that All is the Wall of Godquot quotAsh hadu anna 39aliyyan hujjatu llahquot quotl testify that All is the proof of Godquot Wali means close friend or position of authority by master mawla also saint Shi39as believe that All was first Imam and God39s hujjaproofevidence lnqilabform of tajwid where n is overlapped by m such as in quotdhanmbiquot ldghamfinal n of penultimate word is elided wfollowing y and given partial nasalization Amplified tone of warning with which surah ends Qur39an Verses Discussionalways know whether you39re reading a Makkan or Medinan verse Divine Guidance 227 54448 2216 Makkan verses revealed in Makkah Medinan verses revealed in Medina These verses establish the authority basic principles validates the Taurat Hijraemigration to Medina establishes difference between Makkan and Medina surahs Hijra happened because Prophet needed to establish societygovernment in Medina was safer there Makkan verses were more existential and spiritual about the nature of Islam more abstract than concrete more about the concept of Islam Medinan verses more about law and establishing society 227descriptive describing its nature not prescriptive telling someone this is what should be done 54448reassurance that this happened before in the past to other prophets that he is a part of the process Revelation Process 2185 Ramadan and fasting s 97 Laylatul Qadr 171056 Qur39antruth in intervals Muhammadbearer of news 443 Qur39an revealed during blessed night 2532 Those who question why Qur39an was not revealed all at once 5921 hypothetical descend Qur39an upon mountain 8521 22 Qur39an is revered honored 567779 Noble Qur39an that should be touched by the pure only Nature of God relationship bw God and His creation 2255showing that God is more than human omnipotent tawhid reference to Muhammad intercede except by His permission He wills everything including us 226 1718 Allah is the Truth and He gives life to dead and has power over all things Allah39s signs moon stars 592224 reciting portion of 99 names 5016 Nearer to him than jugular vein 2435 42 Allah is a light in the heavens and the Earth to Allah is the eventual coming 8 112 tawhid oneness of God 198893 God is not low enough to take a son 552627 everyone must pass away but God will always endure UNIT 3 Class 6 Prelslamic Background of the Qur39an Ismaili Fatimids renamed Fostat Cairo Ctesiphonold name of Baghdad Geopolitical Conditions NWByzantine E Roman Empire capital was Constantinople is Greco RomanHellenistic in culture Greekmajor language Latinlanguage of law religionOrthodox Christianity NESassanid Empire Muslims refer to it as quotFarsquot and Persia some Indian cultural influence capital is Ctesiphon religion primarily Zoroastrian languageOld Persian Pahlavi SWAbyssinians vassal state under Byzantium Christianity SHimyar Yemen Throughout Arabian peninsula languages are AraboSemitic Religion in peninsula is indigenously polytheistic but many Jewish tribes in certain parts some Christians Arabia is important to surrounding empiresstates for trade routes but POLITICALLY insignificant OikumeneNile to Oxus region aka Middle East Major cultural features of the Oikumenein Late Antiquity200 BCE600 CE ends wadvent of Islam Period after 600 technically referred to as Medieval period Emergence of large enduring empires which leads to politicaleconomic stability and cultural investment Constant warfare at the borders of these territories no fixed boundaries Expansionist ethos Rise of long distance trade carry on ideas languages religions cultures etc relies on political stability rise of merchant classes and mercantile ideals Market Ideals accounting precision in accounting honesty reliabilityconsistency social gracenetworking contract egalitarianism competition success based on merit wealth gt temptations of corruption through power or threatening monopoly collusion usury fraud currency fraud weights and measures These metaphors are in the Qur39an banking investment trade contracts Contracts marriage even gift giving receiver should have right to reject gift doesn39t require anything on part of giver Even another word for Day of Judgment is Yawm alhisaab Day of Accounting Class 7 Growth of cities city life idea of cities as centers of quothigh culturequot writing literacy books libraries monuments major architecture infrastructure roads bridges etc law enforcement courts judges Religious landscape of the Late Antique Oikumene ltl gt 3000 BC 800 BC 200 BC 600 CE l ll AniquityAncient Late Antiquity Medieval 1800 17001100 1300Moses 0Jesus 600Muhammad Abraham Zoroaster Ramsis ll gradual trend towards monotheism over polytheism throughout this region AND trend toward ethical religion over cosmological religion ie rise of ethical monotheism Cosmological Religion vs Ethical Religion religion that emphasizes functioning of cosmos world Religion that emphasizesenvisions individualsocial conduct virtue as its purpose godsGod is to be appeased through giftsofferingssacrifices God doesn39t need gifts satisfaction gods are not ethical models but rather centers of power God wants us to be ethical gods do not want ethical conduct from us God is a model of virtueethics hierarchical egalitarian Class 8 Polytheism vs Monotheism deity reps a single qualitycharacteristic the deity encompasses multiple qualities some of the qualities might not be goodadmirable evil God is good gods are localized geographically The God is universal gods are limited or finite in power and knowledge God is infinite in power and knowledge immobility portability inescapable can39t move or hide anything from Him heaw moral burden wmonotheism can seejudge intentions not only acts The inner not only the outer responsible for all Creation and all events theologically problematic Class 9 Arabia in Late Antiquity climate hot dry sporadic rainfall water river rain clouds symbols in Qur39an of God39s Mercy vegetation imagery fruits heaven is a garden Trade in Makkah caravans Yathribmore agriculture gt nomadic society pastoralismanimal husbandry is industry source of wealth gt other sources of wealth slaves land SocialPolitical Relations Warfare bw tribes brigandry piracy highway robbery slavery more fluid institution endemic human beingsbodies as commodities hierarchy in culture gt classesgrades of people free vs slave male vs female gender highly patriarchal wealth nobility families gt Qur39an introduces EGALITARIANISM tradition history memory quotwhat our forefathers have donequot family kinship main organizational unit in society tribe gt clan gt families patrilineal descent traced through the father Artistic production portability poetry music textile crafts jewelry pottery gt not architecturemonumentssculpture Politics no centralizedoverarching govt but rather tribal dominances and alliances Law not centrally imposedenforced not codifiedwritten rather it is quotcustomary lawquot theme of vendettarevenge gt getting back at the one who wronged you image building intimidation ferocious violent in order to protect yourself family and belongings values of the vendetta of prelslamic period bravery quotmuruwwaquot violent merciless boasting pride independent rebellious antiauthoritarian hot tempered recklessness impetuousness Jahl gt Jahiliyyah Juhalaignorance Opposed by ProphetQur39an which advocates Hilm forbearance patience lenient controlled Class 10 Arabian Religion polytheistic Jews in Southern parts of peninsula some Christians has notion of Allah as high God under which there are other deities Qualities of Allah in prelslamic view thought of Him as remote uninvolved wtheir lives if you had a complaint you39d go to local god first gt can39t appeal to him directly not allknowingallpowerful followers of the cult of Allah were known as Hanifs Hunafa39 founded by Abraham and centered at ka39ba already used to circumambulation ka39ba also housed deities of many other types ka39ba regarded as sacred territory gt sacred taboo otherworldly set aside places gt certain things you do to separate yourself from worldly vs profane mundane haramvicinity around the ka39ba haraamprohibited murder is haraam not bc its forbidden but bc life is SACRED so its forbidden to take it away haraam gt sinful gt prohibited places times gt taboosacred gt haram of ka39ba sacred month gt Muharram Karbala for Shi39a Ashura from Jews haremprivate domestic space where womengirls and family resides Arabian religion was in transition phase bw older tribal values and newer mercantile values Muhammad Qur39an entered into this and espoused ethical monotheism lslam takes selectively from both tribal and mercantile value systems and overlays it widea of single deity and accountability to Him Assembly and Promulgation of the Text Assembly Promulgation Writing Canonization Collection Distribution These all happened in stages 1 stage during Prophet39s life In earlyMakkan phase Qur39an was memorized by Companions gt Hifzmemorization Prophet engages scribes to write Qur39an down this writing was not on paper but on existing materials cloth bone leaves leather About 25 scribes ended up having personal full copies by the time of Muhammad39s passing collections of verses Collection of versesSurahs doesn39t necessarily indicate uniform order of Surahs Sunnis believe Qur39an has been preserved in correct order Shi39a believe that some verses have been removed relating to Ali etc 1Abu Bakr first compilation first caliph 2 year reign 1 Soon after Prophet39s death many memorizers of Qur39an died in battle so Umar suggests official compilation 2 Abu Bakr hesitated bc afraid of innovation and doing something the Prophet didn39t do bida39ainnovation but decides to do it 3 Assigns Zayd b Thabit who used to be chief scribe to check all personal copies and making sure he could find written documentation of all the verses he himself had memorized and to collect and collate those copies and put verses in order 4 Stoning verseUmar swears he heard Prophet reveal stoning verse but no one could find it at all 5 Zayd39s collection goes to Umar 2nd caliph10 years who gives it to his daughter Hafsa who holds it for a long time 2Uthman 3rd caliph 1 heard that people were reciting Qur39an differently in different parts of Muslim world bc vowels and dots hadn39t been established 2 makes him decide to make Hafsa39s the official copy have it duplicated and distributed and to destroy personal copies 3 makes committee led by Zayd to write it out from beginning to end in book form purpose was to preserve letter and pronunciation of Qur39an 4 task finally accomplished burned other copies one of the permitted ways to dispose of the Qur39an 5 term quotmushafquot comes into play Variant readings Surah Allkhhlas standard means Uthmanic version Standard Qul huwa Allahu ahad Say He is God OneAlone Variation Qul huwa Allahu alWahid Say He is God THE oneOnly Surah AlLahab Standard Hammalatal hatab carrier of wood Variation hamilatun alhatab carrier of wood Surah AlFatiha Standard Sirat with a saud way road path Variation sirat with a seen way road path lzutsu Chapter 3Chapter 4 Notes Only form of argument Arabs could use for their actions was that they saw their forefathers doing it Jahiliyyah had 2 characteristics worldliness and tribalism Worldliness reflected itself in the desert environment of the Arabs they couldn39t imagine anything beyond that khuludlong life Interestingly in Jahiliyi literature women speak of wealth making one immortal while men scorn it karamgenerosity Pivotal point of Islam is the hereafter so failure of seeking khulud would no longer drive one to despair karimnoble quotasabiyahlimitless unshakable attachment aka tribalism zanimstranger adopted by a tribe used in the Qur39an in its pure form but used to be an insult Muhammad defined religion superior to blood ties We now think of moral virtues as personal qualities inherent in the individual Arabs however considered moral virtues the precious communal possessions inherited from ancestors Man39s honorglory majd came to him as an inheritance wtribe Kharijisomeone who built up his own fame alone wo any illustrious family Hasabtribal glory Honor was key concept in preIslamic society kept up by spirit of ibaIiterally meaning refusal or refusal to bow before any authority human or divine yet this is what Islam commanded No position was as intolerable to a noble man as that of abdservant But Islam demanded this Qur39an turns this all around wverse quotSurely the noblest akram of you in the sight of God is the one who is most Godfearing atqa among you XLIX 13 Blood vengeance also a supreme law of the desert to which Allah responded quotThe true servants of God are those who walk on Earth quietly and gently and who when the oppressors address them reply 39Peacel39quot 2564 Aqabahsteep ascent quotto free slaves give food on the day of famine to orphanpoor man believeencourage each other wpatiencekindnessquot Al Balad Mukhbitikhbathumblemindedness Tadarruhumbleness Istakbarato consider one39s self big haughty insolent arrogant Pessimism for Earthly world preIslam striving for eternity honor harsh environment didn39t allow them to imagine anything beyond the world lsutzu Ch 5 Notes Main purpose of text is to show basic antagonism bw Islam and Jahiliwah Qur39an adopted and reformed the idolatrypaganism customs to suit the monotheistic religion Generosity was proof of nobility Not so much a virtue as much as a blind impulse rooted into the heart Islam also stressed generosity but the difference was between doing it secretly and making a public show of it Generosity coming from pride is in vain From some parts of Qur39an seems that some were outwardly good but regarded Zakat as a sort of maghamfine Females at the time thought generosity to be foolish as it could compromise the family Courage was also another virtue of the preIslamic Arabs which was largely a matter of unrestrained impulse Islam transformed this with its same force channeled towards serving the cause of Islam courage in the way of God Farrarrunaway from the battlefield looked down upon and chided both in pre lslam and Islamic times In Jahiliyyah courge was groundless wo direction Qur39an provided it with definite direction Loyalty another important virtue Wafabeing born of a particular consciousness of blood fellowship Related to covenant God made a covenant with His creations Told from Qur39anic verse that on DoJ men will be divided into classes of sadiq and kafir amanahtrustworhy honesty is opposite of khiyanahbetrayal treachery Virtue of patience also part of the courage described by Arabs Mattson Ch 2 The Prophet Conveys The Message Ziharpractice of Khawla39s story Qawa39idprinciples foundations Sirabiography of Prophet TabaqafRijalbiographical dictionary profiles those who collectedorganized according to historical period In 1st century validity of reports were raised which was where the science behind hadith was established isnad and matn which largely defines Sunni Muslim community Shi39a and Sunni both agree on validity of Qur39an and actions in life of Prophet but interpret differently the matters of law and theology and some acts of Prophet Asbab alNuzul Occasions of Revelationcontain context for many Qur39anic verses Jalili modeway God speaks in the Qur39an that emphasizes His power sovereignty transcendence Jamali modebeautiful softer intimate tone that emphasizes nearness to humanity Qur39an criticizes Makkans for using blind emotional attachment of ancestors to justify their actions but aims to redirect their actions to a better alternative for a stronger attachment to Abraham Abraham39s story conveys that although reason is important for truth it must be engaged in struggle to achieve guidance Logic is necessary but not sufficient enough to be employed by seeker of the Divine Qur39an argues that its not reasonable for people who hate daughters for themselves to believe that God would choose to have daughters Not female inferiority bc also treats concept of God having sons the same way Qur39an speaks about God in some anthropomorphic ways but terms are used in metonymical way 99 attributes of God serve important rhetorical and theological purpose Provide unifying thread almost like a refrain as they punctuate esp the ends of verses lltifatuse of multiple perspectives to reflect one divine realityiterally means quotturningquot Surah Fatiha1 st 3 verses in third person 4th verse in 2nd person conveys that God is in complete command over creation but His majesty is accessible to those who turn to Him We and l Qur39an also emphasizes turning to God through His signs clouds creation ayat Qur39an tries to engage Arabs39 imaginations to think beyond material experiences for example resurrection of the dead life after death ONE unseen God etc Qur39an conveys message that God is served both through acts of charitykindnessprayerother forms of ritual worship quotSatanic versesquot rejected by many scholars Distress of Muhammad upon compromising religion by kuffar made him interject verse into Surah alNajm about the three idols being ok to worship Gabriel appeared to Prophet and made him aware of mistake verse 2252 Many find this invalid bc of invalid isnad and content contradicts wbelief that Prophets are infallible Scholars such as lbn Taymiyya understood the infallibility as preventing prophets from PERSISTING in errors they committed End lesson is that God promised and demonstrated to protect the Qur39an from any error omission addition First martyr of Islam was Sumayya shahidwitness slavewoman Prophet and Banu Hashim and Banu Mutallib were boycotted by Quraysh for 2 years after 100 Muslims had left to Abyssinia 10 years after beg of Prophethood Khadija died perhaps weakened by boycott Abu Talib also died Known as Year of Sadness lsra39 and Mi39raj happened after this to show hopeful prospects and nearly a year later he was invited to Medina after Pledge of Aqaba Tribes hoped Prophet would bring peace to the warring tribes esp bc hijra brought 100s of Meccan Muslims to city further diversifying population Prophet established 2 projects upon arriving construction of mosque and pact of brotherhood bw Ansar and Muhajirun Mujahidunthose who struggle in the way of God wtheir wealth and livesin battle Many of Medinan verses are directed towards expanding upon general valuesprinciples expressed in Meccan period Provide guidelines to everything Qur39an promotes brotherhood and acknowledges that there will be time of conflicttension It is important for individuals to act as peacemakers Qur39an also recognizes harm of backbiting and gossiping In this struggle to build righteous community men amp women are partners in faith About 13 of the Qur39an revealed during 10 years of Medinan period Included are 3 longest surahs in Qur39an which is about 16 of written scripture Prophet was close to Umm Ayman who had nursed him when he was young He often visited her and after his death Abu Bakr and Umar did the same Mattson Ch 3 The Voice and the Pen Kutibawritten prescribed Qur39an makes certain points which emphasize writing contractsagreements Arabic script was an abjadconsonantal system lnitial compilation of the Qur39an about a year after death of Prophet during caliphate of Abu Bakr after many Muslims were killed in Battle of Yamama Zayd ibn Thabit undertook the task of compilation Abu Bakr kept the papers whim until he died passed on to Umar who when he died deposited papers whis daughter Hafsa and Prophet39s widow Uthman39s reign saw the second project to compile Qur39an Was a dispute over correct recitation of Qur39an for which Uthman ordered Zayd and other companions to form a committee to write complete transcription of Qur39an New text called 39mushaf39 was made and then distributed all over Medina and empire variant forms of recitation known as Qira39at Uthmanic mushaf also fixed order of surahs before written form companions and even Prophet used to recite passages at random Some jurists used this as acceptable for worshippers to recite any combination of passages Some believe that Qur39anic text has been distorted and some Shi39a believe that some Qur39anic verses talking about importance of All were removed Verse 159 signifies that God will always protect Qur39an According to Muslim tradition Prophet himself validated the different Qira39a by different tribes encouraging diversity Prophet stated about a future group of people who would be radical many people see similarities bw Khawarij and modern terrorists who would kill fellow Muslims for political reasons Abu39lAswad is credited winventing system of markings and short vowels in Qur39an 6 styles of writing calligraphy became standard scripts Maqamart music melody of reciting Qur39an some disputed this bc it took away from Qur39an39s contemplation and instead focused on its intonation in the most pleasurable way Mujawwadmelodic style of recitation Murattalfollowing tartil cear enunciation moderate pace Printing machine for Qur39an was disputed bc didn39t embody same spiritual correctness that writing Qur39an by hand did act of writing out was a form of 39ibadah loss of authenticity sanctity its aura Egypt was center of Qur39an studies but by late 20th century Saudi Arabia had perhaps superseded that Qur39an Verses Revelation and Prophethood 4251 53 Prophet is a mortal and this verse establishes that Qur39an has been revealed to him 352326 Prophet is just a warner others before him have been warners as well and have been oppressed there is not a people to whom Allah hasn39t sent guidance 1112 Prophet is only a warner Allah is a quotcustodianquot over all things 8821 22 Prophet is only a reminder not a watcher over them 2252 All prophets before were deceived by Shaitan sometimes but Allah establishes His communications 379 Not like a prophet to tell men to worship himself he instead says to worship God 21 79 Message has been revealed to people before extravagant people were destroyed 41 6 Prophet is only a mortal to whom Allah39s revelations and truth have been revealed 17905 53 Disbelievers ask for proof from Prophet miracles to prove himself Shaitan is open enemy to mankind Unit 4 Cosmology Class 11 Orders of beingscharacters gt Angels Fitra Allah gt Humans gt Plants Animals gt Things I gt Jinn Humans moral agency judged not judged inanimate i Ego Forgetfulness Allah AttributesNames of God 99 names of God actually more names are how we call upon God names allow us to think aboutimagine God Creator alKhaliq RealityTruth alHaqq Merciful arRahimal Rahman Just alAdl Judge alHakam forgiving alGhafur living alHayy faithful alMu39min used for humans as well the OmniscientallHearingall seeing alAlim alSami39 alBaseer the OmnipotentallPowerful alAziz a Qadeer Nature tawhid quotunity onenessquot but literally means quotunificationquot 1that there is only one God all quotgodsquot are in fact the same one ontology 2that one should worship only one deity ethics 3all creaturescreation is united through God ethics metaphysical basis Humans insan made of clay or earth Adam adam literally means earth nature 1humans are all created according to a certain quotfitraquot nature gt is oriented toward God ie an innate desire for and knowledge of God gt fitra hindered by these 2 things 2 Forgetfulnessobliviousness knowledge is remembering something we used to know AA Our fitra 3 Egocentrism my ego prevents me from understanding and acting correctly gt quotnafsquot ego self Shaytan is a personificationreification that pulls us away from God gt rebelliousness that gets in our way gt primary marker is of Shaytan is 1st sin pridearrogance These two qualities of forgetfulness and egocentrism can cause humans to rebel againstdisobey God gt sin Humans are torn between our fitra nobility of character and our egos nafs and our forgetfulness Right choices are important bc human are morally accountable Angels malaaika made of light by nature perfectly obedient to God no possibility of corruption Gabriel Angel of Revelation Azra39il angel of Death lsrafil blows the horn announcer of Day of Judgment Jinn demons spirits genie not very well defined made of fire like human beings have a capability to make moral decisions it is presumed that they engage in their own jihad lblis Satan only name jinn in the Qur39an first identified figure to be referred to as Shaytan lblis is NOT Shaytan but he is the FIRST to be referred to as him since Qur39an speaks of multiple shayateen Shaytan is a large quality force that is exhibited in particular persons Class 12 Shaytan continued force not a single personbeing arrogance towards God no physically coercive power gt described as a whisperer waswas functions through deception towards us Jihadstruggle bw humans and Shaytan ltl gt Wrong perception God Humans Shaytan Right God always on top no possibility of overcoming divine order Conflict bw Shaytan ltgt Humans lt this is the test A Jihad Shaytan permitted to existfunction as our adversary Lesser jihad vs greater jihad gt difference emphasized by Sufis Lesser is external struggle military Greater is against the Shaytan in you within the nafs Source sunnah of the Prophet hadith Communication from God to creation Allah l l humanity animals messenger rasul plants prophet nabi things ordinary persons Shi39aimams family of Prophet Sufispopular beliefsaints elevated categories SunniCompanions of Prophet Types of Communication 1Wahy 1 very precise wordforword revelation from God to humans 2 goes to smaller category of human beings gt quotrasulsquot or quotmessengersquot who are charged with task of conveying the precise Message to the people 2 llham 1 communication from God but not as wordforwordprecise ilhamquotinspirationquot 2 for Prophets who are not charged wconveying that inspiration precisely 3 purpose for Prophet is to remind and warn what their existing scripture already says 3 Hudan 1 quotguidancequot most general form of communication given to all who seek it 2 guidance is a promise from God to continue from the time of Adam until the end Class 13 Sheikh Umer common argument from nonMuslims is on preservation of Qur39an quotlsnaadquot science of proving a saying quotTawaturquot huge number of people from every era from Prophet till writing down and today learned it memorized it The linking that goes all the way back infinitive to be infinitive gt quotprocess of multiple transmissionquot something being transmitted so many times through so many sources reciters of Qur39anstudents that you have no doubt that that particular verse is in the Qur39an quotmutawatirquot active participle gt text verses that is known through tawatur so verses are described as mutawatir not confirmation of word of God it engages existence its about epistemology ie how do we know what we know Qira39at come from different ways of pronouncing words Different modes of recitationqira39a reached us through Tawatur gt mutawattir Those that didn39t reach it are still preserved today but are known as non mutawattir quotisolated reportquot report of one person or few people Tajwid perfecting the pronunciation of the letters vocalization Class 14 continued from communication and Class 15 Qur39an identified 5 messengers gt Muhammad Qur39an Jesus Gospellnjeel Moses l39orah David Psalms Abraham ScrollsZabur Differences bw revelations scriptures as explained in Qur39an inaccuracies that crept into the scriptures over time through problems in transmission and preservation gt quotTahrifquot changes in human societypracticesabilities Muhammad is presented as seal of prophets Qur39an final revelation message scripture regarding the Torah vs the idea of chosen people regarding the GospelNew Testament vs the trinity and Christ as Goddivine People of the Book Jews and Christians Q What about changes in the Qur39an Extreme Answer 1 real changes have occurred and the Qur39an must be reinterpreted in light of modernity Bahayis in Iran Extreme Answer 2 Nothing has changed no need for modernist interpretations favors concrete application of Qur39an Timeline Sacred History Allah creation in general quot6daysquot creation of creation of human souls angels concerned bc they cause bloodshed no universe cosmos angels and out of a single soul nafs God teaches Adam name of all things beginning created from nothing jinns covenantal moment hierarchy early life made of water mithaq names knowledge each soul testifies to witnessing God as Lord shahada language free will which only GOd had important to 1st basic belief of Islam aql trap on things you need naming this is how knowledge works RebellionFall of lblis God expels lblis from heavenJannah gives him permission to tempt Adamlead him astray gt jihad Adam Eve and Shaytan in the Garden God forbids them to eat from certain Tree of Eternal Life vs Tree of Knowledge in Bible Shaytan tells them to eat bc they will be like God and immortal As soon as they eat they realize they39re naked and they start to make clothing for themselves God finds out chastises them Biblical standpoint repentance doesn39t happen no reconciliation thus the need for Christ Qur39anic standpoint circle is closed right away with forgiveness Adam and Eve repent and seek His forgiveness so God forgives them but tells them they need to leave actually they39ve already left quotthe state that of Jannah that they39re inquot will go live in Dunya instructions look for signsguidancerevelation etc from Me don39t trust Shaytanhe is ALWAYS your enemy wear clothes taqwa Taqwaself protection shield protection through faith by holding fast to God Dunya phase root word means near low gt that which we can perceive phase of materiality that which has to do with matter or tangible out of spiritualityabstraction physical odies mortality doesn39t make sense if we don39t have bodiesin Jannah wethey would be immortal death is inexorableinexorable experience phase in which moral responsibilityidea of morality moral law moral responsibility gt taklifburdening taskcharge phase we are given to seek guidance from God wahi ilham hudan ayat ends for the individual with death ends for all wDay of Judgment End of the worldDay of Judgment phase dayyawm same day as when God created world in 6 days but long period of time day is relative to place 3 Words used to refer to Day of Judgment Yawm alQiyamah Day of Resurrection gt regathered as in the covenantal moment accounting of sinsdeeds Yawm alHisab Day of Reckoning Yawm alDin Day of Religion gt din as from same room at dayn which means debt so religion is a repayment of a debt we will be accounted for that contract Akhira phase conventionally the after life ie later literally means quotother othernessquot recompense for our dunya performance 1heaven JannahGarden root meaning means hidden obstructed from view quotecstaticquot state outside of one39s normal state rivers flora 2hell Jahannum Gehenna trash heap dump Fire Class 16 Cosmology continued Akhira similitude mathal similarity bw dunya and akhirah experience Diagram 4 Critical relationshipsethics Allah RabbLord T Servant T hood T around ME is a boundary moral limits hudud gt to cross the hudud is to commit a major sin Service TV Ibadah Me gt gt gt gt gt gt gtOthers 39Abdservant gt representationkhilafa of God and divine attributes I am 39abd visavis God I am a khalifa visavis others same as caliph 39ibadaservanthood the 39abd expresses his or her 39ibada through acts of worship referred to as 39ibadaat khilafa gt representation through correct social action mu39amalat Rules of both 39ibadat and mu39amalat are encoded in shari39a 7 Law Shari39a gt Ethics Etiquette Seerahdescriptive biography of the Prophet vs Sunnahprescriptive example of the Prophet Hududboundarieslimits also the acts or transgressions of the limits Hadd punishable crimes IN QUR39AN are theft amputation adultery flogging according to Bible punishment was stoning so in SUNNAHpunishment was stoning false accusation of adultery flogging highway robbery terrorism death penalty capital offense drinking wine nothing apostasy nothing homicidemurder capital offense forgiveness or equivalent punishment blood money tradition of leniency for Hadd punishments according to Qur39an there needs to be 4 eyewitnesses to act also the punishments described by the Qur39an for doing these acts God has rights on us since we are his servants and others have a right on us bc of principles of khilafa Mattson Ch 4 Later generations of Muslims became confused with terms in Qur39an like quotGod spoke to Musaquot bc of conflict wanthropomorphism Then questioned whether Qur39an was eternal quotwordquot of God or not Came to form doctrine of created Qur39an gt Mu39tazilite Ahmad ibn Hanbal believed it was unacceptable for humans wtheir limited understanding to impose categoriesconcepts upon God only God has the authority to describe himself and only through revelation do we have some knowledge of his nature After Mihna Sunnis dominated by Asharites and Mathurdis Both rejected createdness of Qur39an Mihrabniche in the wall indicating qibla Some debate about displaying Qur39anic verses since it was never done at the mosque in Medina Verses chosen to be displayed on Dome of the Rock are related to Messiah and Christianity seem to have been articulating distinct identity wrespect to Ahl al Kitab Many nonArab Muslims contributed to literary development of Arabic during Abbasid times such as Persians in Iraq Rituals in Islam are not meant to harm the body they are to make us aware of the way we use our bodies Idea that physical purification can lead the way to spiritual purification Debates about women being able to touch mushaf when menstruating Debates about using Qur39an for healing relics amulets etc Several practices use water with Qur39an recited over it Wahhabis argue that this is idolatrous Surah Yasin often recited to one who is dying bc it is soothing to know about how God resurrects the dead Ziyarapractice of visiting graves debated over whether one can ask those righteous in their graves to make dua39a some call it shirk others say its no different than asking a living person to make dua39a for them Also debated about exquisite shrines over graves lzutsu Ch 6 Qur39an divides human qualities into 2 categories positive moral properties and nega ves Dualism bw believer and unbeliever mujriminsinful guilty Sometimes Qur39an divides men into 3 categories wintermediate state bw both ends Those who are lukewarm in their faith Mostly the nomadic Arabs of desert that formed this Companions of Paradise as in Qur39an are those who remain constantobservant of prayers who give alms who believe in DoJ who fear punishment from Lord who guard private parts keep covenants give right testimonies Also see 3335 for those who go to paradise Muslim those who surrendered mu39min those who believe sadiq truthful sabir patient khashi39 humble mutasaddiq those who give charity sa39im those who fast hafiz alfuruj those who guide private parts and those who remember God constantly Also thankfulness and repentance Zaqqum is a tree in the bottom of hell that awaits those who made lies against Gods mustakbirone who is too big wpride to accept Qur39an taghione who is insolent and presumptuous fajirone who forsakes command of Allah or rules of moral conduct barr pl abrarrighteous qasitone who deviates from right course and acts wrongfully munafiqhypocrite mustah39zi39unone who mocks Revelation jests it kharrasone who says by conjecture wo knowledge is condemned in the strongest terms Much insults towards those who never donated or gave charity to the poor mukadhdhibone who cries lies hammazbackbiter hallafoath mongerer utulrough and rude zanimignoble 7 characteristics mentioned of the bad in LXVlll 816 takdhib swearing haphazardlylack of truthfulness backbiting hindering good transgression rudeness being ignoble nature 4 confessions of those in hell not observing ritual of worship not paying zakat vain discourse of religious matters and takdhib Sells 199233 uses word quotspiritquot to relate to temper disposition tendency mood relates to inspiration quotspirarequotbowbreathe Talks about how recitation important to breathing nazmcomposition Qur39anic quotvoicequot key concept in ijaz alQur39an quotQur39an evokes spirit in moments when boundary bw seemingly known and discreet entities is broken downquot Qur39anic sound figures occur in connection w3 moments Prophecy Creation Day of Reckoning in each moment the Qur39an invokes spirit ruh can be referred to as masculine and feminine special attention to sound quothaquot which ties together female pronouns surprise wonder sorrow Qur39an goes beyond temporal through its sound figures it melds 3 discreet moments of revelation creation and day of reckoning Jinn 152627 Man created out of clay jinn created out of hot fire 1850 lblis didn39t make prostration to Adam he was of the jinn 462931 Jinn came and listened to Qur39an and went back to warn the people 551415 Man created from clay like vessels jinn created from flame 721 15 Jinn listened to part of Qur39an learned that God has not taken a son they thought as humans do that God would not raise them Jinn say people used to seek jinn for refugee they sought to reach heaven but they found it protected there are sects among jinns but when they heard guidance they believed in it the deviators are fuel for hell Satan 2938 39Ad and Samood destroyed Shaitan deceived them 1753 Command of Allah to servants to speak good bc Shaitan tries to deceive them is an open enemy to man 356 Shaitan is the enemy wants inmates in hell 8 114 Protection against the whisperings of Shaitan 643 Did not humble themselves in face of punishment their hearts are hardened and Shaitan turns everything bad into good 848 Shaitan made their works seem fair to them lied to them about protection from him but he betrayed them in the end said that he feared Allah 281516 When Musa accidentally killed a man blamed Shaitan for the doing said he is an open enemy then asked for forgiveness 41 18121 Shaitan gives false promises but only deceives them Created World and its purpose 51 567 Allah hasn39t created men and jinn except to serve Him He doesn39t desire sustenance or food 3827 Heaven and earth isn39t in vain that is the opinion of those who disbelieve woe to them 23115 Rhetorical question did you think you were created in vain and that you won39t be returned to God 383 Is it other than Allah39s religion that they seek to follow willingly or unwillingly they will be returned to Him 2441 3 Alah describes birds with expanded wings describes how all creatures glorify Him clouds hail lightning etc signs of Allah 1744 7 heavens declare glory for Him so do all creatures Human Nature 3030 Allah39s creations can39t be altered set your face to the right religion 9545 Man is the best make but at the same time is the lowest of the low 701921 Man is hasty but grieved when evil afflicts him but miserly when good befalls him 4128 lf woman fears ill usagedesertion from her husband no blame on them Reconciliation is better but if you are trying to do good Allah is aware of all that you do 21 37 Man is impatient don39t ask Allah to hasten His signs 11910 Allah gives men mercy and they are ungrateful of it When Allah gives him a favor after distress has afflicted him he becomes boastful saying evils have gone away from him 41 4951 Man always prays for good but if evil touches him he is hopeless The second he receives mercy from God he becomes arrogant and a disbeliever Sacred HistoryCosmogenyEschatology 3682 His command is anything only needs to say quotbequot and it is 2117 59 Those who were unjust changed the saying so they were sent a pestilence from heaven bc they were unjust be and it is 61 73 All praise is Allah39s Who created heavens and earth made darkness and light those who disbelieve commit shirk be and it is His word is the truth Covenant 7172 Everyone beared witness against their own souls and that Allah was the Lord and on the Day of Resurrection we will not remember Creation of WorldLife on EarthIn 6 days 21 3035 Water in every living thing heavens and earth closed but Allah opened it for us great mountains for directions heaven is guarded canopy ozone orbs traveling in their spheres night and day every soul will taste death 754 6 periods of time in which heavensearth was created creates night and day sun moon stars 1036 6 periods of time regulates the affair to Him is the return begins and reproduces all creation punishment for those who disbelieve and reward for those who do good sunmoon made signs for people 117 6 periods of time dominion extends on the water those who disbelieve say that being raised after death is just magic Measuring time 325 Allah regulates heavenearth affair the day of Judgment is a day which to us will be a thousand years 7047 The Day is 50000 years be patient but we think of the day as being far off while Allah sees it as near Human CreationHuman nature FitraCreation Process 62 He created us from clay and decreed a term length of our life 231217 Man made of clay a small seed in a firm resting place womb then the seed a clot lump of flesh bones clothed with flesh caused it to grow certainly 7 heavens 1526 Man made of clay that gives forth sound of black mud fashioned in shape 32711 Man made of dust then his progeny made of an extract of water held in light estimation then completed breathed His spirit ears eyes hearts Angel of Death is decreed to take your soul you shall be brought back to your lord 5514 Man made of clay like earthen vessels argument of parable of fly creative power of God is beyond human comprehension NatureSymbolismParables 31901 In the creations of heaven and earth and alteration in night and day are signs for men who understand Those who remember Allah standing sitting lying down and reflecting on creation say Our Lord You have not created this in vain Glory to you save us from the punishment of the hell fire 2273 Warns of a parable those whom you call upon besides Allah cannot create a fly should the fly snatch anything from them they could not take it back from it weak are the invoker and the invoked 276065 Signs of Allah heavens dart cloud gardens rivers barrier bw 2 seas mountains originatesreproduces creationsrepeats quotIs there a god with Allahquot throughout 2941 Parable of those who take guardians besides Allah is like a spider that makes itself a frail house 1316 quotSayquot at beginning of each part Asking who is the Lord compares darkness and light to being blind and not blind with those who set p partners with Allah 243940 Those who disbelieve their deeds are like a mirage in the desert or darkness in the deep sea whoever Allah doesn39t give light to has no light End of the worldJudgment 502035 trumpet every soul come wwitness WE HAVE REMOVED YOUR VElL so that your sight today is sharp cast every ungrateful doubter forbidder of good in hell s81 signs of DoJ these are signs that are a reminder for all nations 803342 Man will leave his family at the cry of DoJ they will all be occupied wthemselves but many faces will be bright and many will be in dust covered wdarknesswicked s99 Huge earthquake a sign of DoJ every man will be shown their works s101 Calamity men are scattered moths mountainsloosened wool those who have many good deeds will live good life those whose are light their abode will be hell 691332 41 Earth will fall apart 8 angels will bear Lord39s power on that day you shall be exposed no secret hidden right hand book vs left handchain on him cast him into fire chain the length of 70 cubits Qur39an is not the word of a poet 396775 Earth shall beam wlight of its Lord Book laid down prophetswitnesses be brought up judgment given bw them with justice every soul shall be paid back fully many will enter hell in companiesgroups and those who are careful of duty to Lord will be conveyed to garden in companies keepers shall say Peace be upon you you shall be happy therefore enter it to abide they shall praise Allah who has made them quotinherit the landquot the angels will go around the throne glorifying praise of their Lord Unit 5 Major Figures in the Qur39an Class 17 Timeline AdamEve Noah Hud Eber Q Salih Q AbrahamSarahlsaac Hajarlshmael Lot Jacob lsraeldescendd from Isaac Joseph brothers Job MosesAaron Khidr David Solomon the temple Minor Prophets Elijah Elisha Jonah Isaiah Ezra aka Uzair Alexander Q Dead Sea Scrolls community People of QumranEssenes Q sleepers in the cave Zakariah Mary John the Baptist Jesus Muhammad Qur39anic Accounts assume prior knowledge of Biblical accountshistory Story of Noah Gen 6 7 8 9 Sons of God described God realizes how evil man is and is sorry that he created them but finds peace in Noah God commands Noah to build an ark wexact commands of dimensions and two of each kind of animal Makes a covenant with him God commanded seven of each clean animal and 2 of each unclean animal to go into the ark flood was on earth for 40 days and nights Ark stopped when God quotrememberedquot Noah and he sent winds to stop After 150 days waters decreased and ark rated on Arafat Sent out dove repeatedly to see of any sign of life God then made covenant with Noah that he would never again curse the ground for man39s sake and destroy living things like He had done after Noah made an altar and offered burnt offerings of every clean animal and clean bird Said rainbow is sign of covenant Noah then became drunk in a tent and was naked and his sons covered him up But he cursed his grandson Canaan Themes God destroys bc of man39s sincorruption gt sexual violence bloodshed God uses water to purify flood Promise that God will not destroy life LIKE THIS again symbol of this is rainbow God has less control in this context remorseful anthropomorphized presentation of human emotionsdecision making processes physical sensations are impeded to God Burnt offering sacrifice of plantsanimals but in this case animals Life breath of God nafs Supernatural tall people and long lifespans the number quot7quot Moral law development prohibition of eatingconsuming blood life for a life no social context presented in Bible only Noah and his family gt totally compliant no resistancemocking by his people Qur39an Surah 71 Noah names many signs of God calls to God saying that he has done everything he could calls by night and day in public and secret simply for forgiveness of God and they were wrong and made to drown Surah 75964 Noah warned his people Surah 23 2330 They called him a liar Lord gave him command to make ark and take a pair of animals Surah 29 1415 He lived for 950 years ark was sign for nations Surah 112549 Noah gave speech asking for them to stop being ignorant didn39t ask for anything in return doesn39t claim to be any more than a man people mocked him while he was making ark his son was the only one from family that stayed with disbelievers who thought a mountain would protect him and when he drowned Noah cried to God was mildly chastised and asked for forgiveness Themes Did God destroy the whole world or just that region Reference to other nations a sign Lot of emphasis on social interactionsprophetic activity is foreground gt flood corruption is idolatry ignorance of the Prophet injustice criticism of Noah39s people against him bc they are being told a new story that hasn39t been there traditionally not from our forefathersIiarcrazyonly a mortal the wellborn and wealthy don39t follow him only quotthe meanestquot also if God wanted to speak with them wouldn39t he send an angel Noah39s son doesn39t follow him seeks refuge other than God on a mountain Themes in Abrahamic verses Covenant gt CircumcisionName change 16 faithful to God descendantsnation under him land Middle East blood Sacrifice gt blood obedience Isaac gt doesn t occur gt animal 21 gt quotbinding of Isaac aqidaquot doesn t know about the sacrifice but seems to consent binding of Isaac gt rescue aqida contract aqdcontract covenant also dogmafaith doctrines possibly deceived into it Mercy of God Chapter 18 Ishmael and Hagar Ishmael he hears God s presentation anthropomorphic creative powerful 18 Sarah s conception of Isaac fidelity Abraham s debatediscussion whis father about religion polytheism vs monotheism Abraham breaks the idols to show that the idols are helplesslack power to defend even themselves he destroys all but biggest and frames it by putting weapon around his neck He is thrown into the fire by his own people in Egypt gt God makes the fire coolpeaceful point the One God gtgtgtgt the many idols Shared event miraculous conception of SarahIsaac gt she laughs out of incredulity Abraham s contemplation of the heavens and his conclusions of God uses rational contemplation of faith Themes of Moses verses constant theme of justice and injustice women mother sister Pharaoh s wife he was a killer gt redemption temper jus ce the fight daughters of Midyan the miracles signs the fire shoes off shedding world and impurities and entering into holy place the rod the hand parting of the sea his difficulty speaking gt role of Aaron Pharaoh s arrogant divine kingship Q What were his sins deathbed repentance his body preserved the magicians of the court the parting of the sea the Tablets gt his meeting wGod on Sinai Attitude towards children of Israel Solomon Mary John Jesus in the Qur an previous scriptures Torah and Gospel have guidance and light barren wife virgin woman gt miraculous creation constant reiteration of Be And it is in Sara Mary Zakariyyah s wife theme of second Adam wJesus but with a different spin focus on women childbirth gt Mary especially her miracles signs of God not speaking Zakariyyah and Mary Jesus speaks as a baby miraculous conceptions WhatNVho is Jesus He was raised up by God gt alive didn t die on the cross Some say he was the one on the cross but he didn t die Some say that someone took his place on the cross Jesus is the Word of God but not himself God strengthened by holy spirit ruh Allah Jibril sometimes referred to as holy spirit and also breath conceived virginally witness in front of God on DoJ miracles healing lepers bringing life to dead creates bird of clay talks as a baby theme of speech Mary and Zakariwa told to be silenced for 3 days but Jesus can speak as a baby role is confirmation of the law but also to change it removing restrictions referred to as Christ JesusMessiah Verses AdamEvelblis 2309 God said he will place khalifa on earth angels questioned bc humans would shed blood and create mischief Allah said quotI know that which you do not knowquot Taught Adam names presented him to angels asking for similar knowledge Allah commanded angels to prostrate which they did save lblis who was proud Adam and Eve were to dwell in the garden and warned against a tree Shaitan made them fall from it transition from lblis to Shaitan Adam received words from his Lord taught how to ask for forgiveness 7112550 We were created made to prostrate before lblis did not bc he thought he was better in revenge said he would come at humans from all sides Shaitan continued to tell Adam and Eve that the tree would make them immortal 50 inmates of fire shall ask dwellers of garden to pour their water from Allah upon them but they shall reply that Allah has prohibited that water to the unbelievers 20115123 Adam was commanded but he forgot he was warned that Shaitan was an enemy and that being driven from the garden would make him unhappy was misled by Shaitan and sent down to Earth Allah said that whoever followed His guidance would not go astray nor be unhappy 3871 85 Lord said to angels that He will create mortal from dust and to prostrate to him when done which they did except lblis who asked Allah for a chance to bring as many disbelievers as possible with him to hell Genesis 13 Genesis 1 THE BEGINNING describes in detail how God created the Earth in 6 days Genesis 2 ADAM AND EVE God rested on 7th day and made it a holy day God showed Adam things which he named then created a wife to be his quothelperquot while he was sleeping she was made from his rib said not to eat from Tree of Knowledge Genesis 3 THE FALL Eating from the tree made them realize they were naked Eve was the one who tempted Adam to eat the fruit gave us pain and suffering as a punishment God said that Adam quothas been like us knowing good and evilquot Genesis 5289 Noah Lamech was father of Noah lived 777 years When Noah was 500 became father to Shem Ham Japheth Sons of God began to marry human women Nephilim God saw that humans began to be evil and regretted making them Established covenant with Noah and ordered him to build ark Age 600 at time of flood Rain fell for 40 nightsdays Only Noah left and those with him in ark wife son s son s wives Waters flooded earth for 150 days Tops of mountains became visible after 10th month Sent out raven then dove By his 601 st year water had dried up Noah built altar to Lord and sacrificed burnt offerings of the animals God promised never to curse ground because of humans God blessed Noah and sons telling them to increase in number EVERYTHING on earth is food for you that lives and moves but not eat the meat wlifeblood still in it And you will have an accounting Rainbowsign of covenant Noah fell asleep drunk and naked Ham the father of Canaan told the brothers but the other 2 covered him up so Noah cursed the people of Canaan Genesis 1118 Abraham 21 22 Whole world had one languagespeech People decided to make city in Shinar and Lord confused their language city called Babel That is Shem s family line Shem gt Arphaxad gt Shelah gt Eber gt Peleg gt Reu gt Serug gt Nahor gt Terah gt Abram Nahor Haran Abram married Sarai Nahor married Milkah Terah took Abram Lot and Sari and set out to Canaan but settled in Harran Abram then traveled to Canaan after God told him to Then went to Egypt and told Sarai to pretend to be his sister so pharaoh would be good to them Pharaoh found out and sent them away with Sarai Abram and Lot began to quarrel Lot went east to Sodom while Abram lived in Canaan Lot was caught up in a war bw lands and was captured Abram heard news and went to save him Defeated enemy Kedorlaomer and Sodom praised him Lord came to Abram in a vision Abram asked about a child and Lord told him to look to sky and count stars and if he could count them so shall the offspring be Abram asked how he would know he was in possession of the land so Lord said to bring heifer goat ram dove pigeon He cut all in 2 except birds which descended on the carcasses Abram fell into sleep where God told him his future and made covenant and gave him the land of Egypt to Euphrates Sarai couldn t have children but she gave Abram Hagar When Hagar became pregnant she began to hate Sarai Abram said the slave was in her hands and to do what she wanted so Sarai mistreated Hagar who then fled Angel of Lord said to go back to her He blessed her with lshmael since Lord heard of her misery God changed his name from Abram to Abraham because he is a father of nations Ordered that every male was to be circumcised Sari renamed Sarah and was to be given a son lsaac lshamel will be father of 12 rulers and be great nation Abraham then circumcised himself and everyone in his household God came to Abraham in form of 3 men and bowed to them and asked to make food for them Men told them that Sarah would have a child who laughed and when Lord asked why she laughed She lied and said she didn t God prepared to destroy Sodom Abraham prayed to spare them Asked for lower and lower number of righteous people in city to spare them when it went from 50 to 10 lsaac given to Sarah was circumcised Sarah said that God has brought me laughter Sarah was jealous of Hagar on the day Isaac was weaned and Abraham had a feast so she wanted him sent away God said not to be distressed because Isaac s offspring will be reckoned but the son of the slave will also be a nation Abraham sent Hagar away in Desrt of Beersheba wwater skin When water was gone she began to cry God heard boy cry and angel called to her commanding her to lift up the boy because he would be of a great nation and she lifted him and a well of water was found Boy became archer Treaty in Beersheba Abraham complained to Abimelek about well of water that his servants had seized Two men made treaty and Abraham brought sheepcattle Set apart 7 ewe lambs and said that those were witness that he dug this well Abraham was commanded to take Isaac and sacrifice him as burnt offering Abraham deceived lsaac into thinking they needed a lamb Then built altar and bound lsaac to wood and Lord called to him to stop Saw a ram and sacrificed that God blessed him and his descendants Noah verses s71 all Talks more about what happened before the Ark and what happened to make God command Noah to make the ark 75964 Noah commanded to warn his people called him a liar they were drowned in the ark 232330 Noah warned people chief laughter and called him a mortal madman liar Noah asked God for help who then revealed to him to make an ark and take two of each animal 29141549 950 years all are clear communications None deny God s communications except the unjust Abraham amp Family 67483 Abraham asked Azar if he took idols for gods Showed Abraham a star then moon then sun to prove to people that their worship was wrong bc those always disappeared People argued with Ibrahim about this 116976 Apostles gave god news to Ibrahim brought in roasted calf after they said Peace When he saw that the people s hands were not towards them he became suspicious the wife was standing by and gave her good news of Isaac and then Ya qoub She wonders aloud about her old age and Aah asked if she wondered about Allah s power 1941 50 Story of Abraham asking father why he worshipedcreated idols asked him to follow him to right path warned him against befriending Shaitan Father angered and Ibrahim left saying Peace 21 51 70 Ibrahim asked father about images they said we found our fathers doing this Ibrahim then broke idols except chief idol and when people returned they asked who had done this Ibrahim pointed to the idol when they accused him and he proved to them that they even knew they can t speak They tried to burn him but Allah commanded fire to be peaceful to Ibrahim 3783113 Abraham questioned their worship and said it made them sick Then tried to talk to gods asking if they ate or spoke and then smites them They tried to burn him Then Abraham was blessed with sons and then had a dream about sacrificing son Told Ishmael who supported him and then carried it out God revealed that it was a test Also good news of Isaac 51 2437 Guests of Ibrahim said Peace he brought them a calf secretly from his family gave good news of a boy possessing knowledge and wife came up and struck her face asking if that was possible Ibrahim then asked about affairs of those men who said they were sent to guilty to stone them with clay but they found a Muslim family Stowasser Chapter 2 AdamEve in the Qur an Qur an doesn t mention Eve by name or indicate how she was created Emphasis on 3 of the 5 narratives where Eve is present is disobedience Emphasis on remaining 2 where she isn t present focus on Iblis s disobedience Qur an states that Adam s purpose was to be his khalifa on earth Satan is an antiman force Only in 2nd half of Qur anic story does woman appear Surah 20 and Surah 7 contrast each other one says just Adam other shows involvement of woman Detail from these texts show that in Bible woman stands for sex Medieval interpretation denies female rationalitymoral responsibility According to Tabari Adam named because he was made of various colors of earth Therefore his progeny differed morally and physically Name Hawwa only appears in Hadith defined in relation to woman s creation from man s body Created so that man could find rest in her Snake at the time was 4legged Satan came into Garden through snake and then emerged from snake took piece from tree approached Hawwa and tried to tempt her with it She succumbed and went to Adam with same words Some say she commanded him some say she used lust to tempt him or wine As soon as Adam ate couple s genitals became visible and began to sew leaves to cover themselves Tradition says that was the main goal of lblis shamelessness God cursed woman in that made her bleed once a month for making tree bleed for not making her wise and for being close to death at delivery and snake cursed to slither To Mu tazlia interpreter Zamakhshari Hawwa is guilty even until the end to where the angels didn t permit her to wash Adam s dead body Fakhr alDin Razi Ash ari tafsir is one of the most brilliant defenses against Mu tazila exegesis Addresses different questions such as prostration of angels to Adam his prophethood whether his sin was minor or major Real issue is free will vs predestination Tafsir of alBaydawi more concise Identifies purpose of Satan s whispering to reveal private parts first evil which man obtained from Satan lbn Kathir s tafsir Mohammad Abduh wanted to renew Muslim morality and reform traditional social structures particularly in Egypt Constant debate about role of women AlMaraghi Egyptian Azharite theologian published his own Tafsir saying that were it not for Hawwa no woman would deceive her husband that s what woman was created for Misogynist aAqqad celebrated woman s unique rights but set her as inferior as a goalpost in competitive race staged by males Both sexes used deception to find rest in each other Contemporaries say that God created both sexes as mutually equal halves MosesAaronPharaoh 7103156 Pharaoh offered lslam showed miracle of serpent from rod hand white like boulders Pharaoh s chiefs thought it was enchantmentmagic Hired magicians to prove him wrong but Moses prevailed and the enchanters prostrated themselves to Allah Pharaoh threatened to cut off hands and feet and crucify them enchanters prayed to God that they died as believers Pharaoh s people overcome wdroughts as signs as well as widespread death locusts life frog blood plague They asked Musa to pray to remove the plague and that they would believe But when God removed it they broke the promise Then God drowned them in the sea When children of Israel passed sea and came upon people who worshiped idols they asked Musa to make them an idol Musa chided them and left for 40 nights leaving Haroon in his place Musa came to his Lord and asked to see him but God said he could not bear to but manifested his glory in the mountain and Musa passed out God spoke to him saying that he was chosen above the people whis messages When Musa came back he saw that his people had made a calf out of ornaments which made a sound They then repented Musa was angry and dragged his brother by the head towards him and threw down the tablets When his anger subsided he took up the tablets and saw the mercy and guidance in them Chose out of his men 70 when earthquake overtook them he prayed to God that He wouldn t destroy them because of a few fools among them 107593 Musa sent to Pharaoh but they were proud Denounced truth as enchantment and brought magicians to prove him wrong None believed Musa except offspring of his people on account of fear of Pharaoh Revealed to Musa amp Haroon saying to take refugee in Egypt make houses places of worship keep up prayer Musa prayed for Pharaoh to be destroyed and people prayed to be guided God accepted both prayers and then drowned Pharaoh who then said he believed but it was too late Children of Israel were given many blessings but they then turned away when knowledge came to them 261068 Musa feared that the people would reject him Pharaoh asked whether or not he had himself been brought up among them in the palace And he did a bad deed killed the man Musa said he did it when he was off the right path so he fled until Lord made him a Prophet Pharaoh threatened to imprison him if he took a god besides him Moses asked what about if he brought proof Showed him the serpent Pharaoh began to pursue them later and seas parted and they were swallowed 28146 Pharaoh was evil exalted himself fin land made people to parties slaughtered all sons Revealed to Musa s mother to suckle him and when they feared for him to cast him into river and not fear because he would be brought back to her and made an apostle Pharaohs family took him his wife said he was a coolness to her eyes and to keep him Sister said she knew of someone that could care for him his own mother so he was returned to her Attained maturity and story of him killing a man by striking him with his fist because two men were fighting one being among his party and one among the foes Asked for forgiveness Same man cried to him for aid again and Musa desired to seize him who was an enemy the man said Do you intend to kill me too You desire nothing but tyranny Another man came to Musa warning him that chiefs were consulting to slay him and that he should flee Came upon two women from Madyan who were having watering their flocks so he helped them One of the women came back to him and said her father invited him to reward him he ended up marrying one of the maidens by making covenant with them of serving of employment for 8 years When Musa fulfilled his term he journeyed wfamily and saw a fire on the mountain Told them to wait so perhaps he could bring some to warm them When he got there a voice was uttered from the bush saying 0 Musa I am Allah Lord of the Worlds and to cast down his staff but Musa feared and retreated Voice called him back Commanded him to enter hand into bosom and draw forth white without evil so thiese will be 2 arguments from Lord against Pharaoh Musa said he feared that because he killed one of the people and is not of eloquent speech there was less of a chance of him being heard Pharaoh did reject him and ordered a fire to be kindled for him and a lofty building They were cast into sea and were made imams who call to the fire Musa then given the book after former generations destroyed 201 98 Saw a fire on he mountain was told to take off his shoes that he was in the valley of Tuwa Allah said to serve him the hour is coming Gave him 2 signs staff that became a serpent and hand that turned white God revealed to him his own story of being cast into river returned to mother by sister killing a man staying wpeople of Madyan Told then to go to Pharaoh and ask to send children of Israel to them Story of Musa s confrontation wPharaoh and magicians submitting to God Description of blessings to children of Israel and they disobeyed by making a calf to worship Haroon tried to warn them but the people said they would not cease to worship it until Musa returned and Samiri was asked about his objective 186082 Musa wservant said he wouldn t cease travel until reaching junction of 2 rivers When they did they forgot their fish which escaped and when he asked for the fish servant told him what happened This was the sign they were looking for Found Khidr and Musa asked if he could follow him to learn his knowledge Khidr said he would not be able to have patience First destroyed poor man s boat then killed a boy then rebuilt a wall for townspeople who hadn t helped them 441733 Musa sent to people not mentioned by name and children of Israel saved from injustice Bible Moses Exodus 120 24 31123 Num 11 Israelites were fruitful and kept growing in number A new king became hateful of them to try to oppress them but the more oppressed they were the more they spread Then it was commanded to kill baby boys but midwives refused to comply When king asked them why they said that Hebrew women are vigorous and give birth before midwives could arrive So God was kind to midwives and gave families of their own Man from Levi married Levite woman and she gave birth to son When she could hide him no longer she placed child in basket in Nile with sister watching Pharaoh s daughter went to Nile to bathe and found the basket then sister asked if she could find someone to nurse him Thus baby reunited wmother Then taken to Pharaoh s daughter and became her son and she named him Moses because she drew him out of water When Moses had grown up he accidentally killed Egyptian beating a Hebrew and buried him int he sand Then the next day found 2 Hebrews fighting who challenged him asking if he was going to kill them too When Pharaoh heard he tried to kill Moses who fled to Midian lts priest had 7 daughters who tried to water sheep but men came and drove them away so Moses helped them Priest gave him daughter Zipporah Later the king of Egypt died Moses saw strange phenomenon of burning bush went up to it heard voice took off shoes God told him to go to Pharaoh but to go to elders first because they would listen Then told to plunder the Egyptians God gave Moses signs of snake and leprous hand God said if they didn t believe it to take water from the Nile pour it on ground and it would become blood Moses worried about his noneloquent speech Lord said Aaron would help him Lord met Moses and was about to kill him but Zipporah circumcised her son so Lord left him alone Lord told Aaron to meet Moses Both met welder Israelites who believed them and worshipped Moses asked to let his people go on behalf of the Lord Pharaoh said slaves weren t working hard enough and gave them more labor Gave them straw to make bricks out of Lord promised to free Israelites when Moses cried to Him for help Moses said Since I speak with faltering lips why would Pharaoh listen to me God said he is hardening Pharaoh s heart and though he multiplies His signs he will not listen Aaron threw down staff which became snake Lord sent down plague of blood and frogs Pharaoh then summoned them and said to pray to Lord to take away frogs and he will let the people go But his heart was hardened Then a plague of gnats first miracle that magicians could not reproduce and they said it was a work of God but Pharaoh had hard heart and would not listen Then plague of flies on all except land of Goshen which his people live Pharaoh once again promised but then his heart was hardened Then plague on livestock of Egyptians but not Israelites Plague of boils Then deadly hail Then locusts then 3 days of darkness Pharaoh then agreed and then took back his word Plague of firstborn child death That day commemorated the Lord s passover emphasis on unleavened bread tenth day of first month people were to sacrifice animal and place its blood over their doors so Lord would not destroy them Prophecy of firstborn death occurred Pharaoh told them to leave with what they wanted the Israelites Emphasis on circumcision Sacrifice of firstborn animal to commemorate firstborn plague Moses took bones of Joseph with him when they left Egypt Lord told them to camp somewhere to confuse Pharaoh who started to come after them when he realized the labor was lost Lord told Moses to put hand out to split the sea Pharaoh and army was drowned Song to Lord Miriam Aaron s sister were dancingsinging People traveled on couldn t find water and Lord helped them People began to grumble that at least they had food with Egyptians whilst they were starving now Lord sent them bits of bread for them to gather and bake and whoever collected a certain amount got that amount of bread Bread called manna Complained for water so Lord told Moses to strike rock on staff and bring them water Attacked by Amalekites Visited by fatherinIaw Jethro who advised that what Moses was doing was not good because people were wearing him out Said to divide up and make knowledgeable men appointed over few for disputes Moses listened to his advice God said that if Israelites were to obey him they would be the chosen people Lord was to come down from Mount Sinai on third day People were to gather but not touch it or they would be killed Only when horn sounds could they approach mountain God spoke to them Himself and laid down rules 10 commandments People were fearful God ordered an altar to be made and people said they would obey Moses called up to mountain by God and he stayed there 40 days and nights Commanded to observe the Sabbath on the 7th day Israelites then told to camp with their families Levites not counted wother Israelites Bible Solomon I Kings I 35 8 1011 King David was old and Adonijah tried to become king without his knowledge Performed sacrifices and invited all royalty to feast except Solomon David then proceeded to make Solomon the king Solomon made alliance wPharaoh and married his daughter Built palace in Jerusalem Solomon prays for guidance in a dream and God gives it to him along with what he doesn t ask for wealth honor long life Story of 2 prostitutes and their baby son Solomon known to be very wise Solomon made treaty with Hiram another king of Tyre to help him build a temple that David could not in exchange for food and baths for Hiram s household Ark brought to temple Solomon said prayer of dedication at feast at the altar Queen of Sheba visited when she heard of his wisdom and was overwhelmed by everything of his kingdom palace and him She gave him many gifts and praised God Solomon loved many women even though the nations from which they wereGod had told him not to He had 700 wives of royal birth and 300 concubines and his wives led him astray He ended up following other gods Lord became angry with him and promised to destroy his kingdom after his death Lord raised up an adversary to him Solomon died supposedly a disbeliever Qur an Solomon 341017 Dawud could sing to birds Suleiman controed winds and jinns but at his death a creature ate away at his staff and the jinns then realized that had they known the unseen they would not have stayed in this abasing tormentquot 21 78 82 Sulaiman and Dawud wisdom of sheep story 271544 Heard ant speak for other ants to hurry and hide or Suleiman and army would trample them and laughed in wonder Hoopoe disappeared and brought him news of Sheba and people who were worshipping sun Hoopoe told to deliver message to her and she sent him back a gift Told one jinn to get her throne and bring it to where he was as a sign to her of his miracles Stepped inside his palace with floors as smooth as glass she submitted then to Sulaiman s Lord 381726 Dawud had the power had mountains and birds sing with him two men came to him wstory of ewes Qur an Mary John Jesus 33360 Descendants of lbrahim and Nuh chosen above other nations Mariam born to family of lmran given to Zakariya to take care of found food in her sanctuary Zakariya prayed for son was given Yahya sign being that he would not speak to men for 3 days except by signs Mariam then given news of a son lsa performed miracles compared to Adam as likeness of a man God decided to terminate his stay on Earth and test his followers 41579 It only appeared that lsa had been crucified but he had not Allah took him up to Himself 5467 lnjeel brought to lsa verifying what was before him in the Taurat Followers of lnjeel should have judged by what Allah revealed in it 5109118 When man shall be gathered that day Allah will ask lsa about favor on Mary strengthened her wholy Spirit spoke to people and other miracles Then will ask whether lsa told his people to worship him as God and lsa will say no that all power with the disbelievers was in God s hands 191 34 Yahya given to Zakariya in old age Jesus given to Mary who talked in her defense while a baby 43635 Jesus came with clear signs but some rejected him woe to them 517 Those who claim Jesus to be son are disbelievers Stowasser Ch 7 Mary only female mentioned by name Surrounded by miracles Qur an calls her example for believers because of her chastity faith Both Zakariya and Mariam s story are intertwined wsame words My Lord how shall I have a son Zakariya s family was righteous and Yahya was given wisdom lslamic tradition identified Zakariyya s wife as Elisabeth Zakariyya said to belong to Solomonic line Some say Elizabeth is sister of Mary Seen as resembling Sara by life story Theology debates on whether Mary was a prophet since angels spoke to her Surah 66 establishes Mary s status as example for believers Surah s 4 and 5 emphasize her chastity but also her and Jesus full humanity refuting the trinity HadithTafsir dealt wMary in several ways 1miraculous events surrounding her developedexpanded upon 2scholars found many theological problems for debate such as meaning of spirit ruh and kalima that virgin received from God which also sparks question of whether Mary was prophet 3 attempt to define social applicability of her qualities Mary s mother Anna prayed for child and her husband had a dream to lie with her She conceived Mary and because of her prayer to God neither Mary nor Jesus was touched at birth by Satan which explains why they cry when they re born Mary was righteous and adopted by Zakariyya when her father died Gabriel came to her in form of young man and somehow was intermediary in blowing God s spirit into her During pregnancy she met with Elizabeth in some traditions and John prostrated to Jesus in the womb She could talk to unborn child in womb and sometimes hear it praising God Many signs of Jesus birth according to some interpretations some went to search for Mary and found her and newborn baby surrounded by lights Other signs such as rising star in the sky Debate on specificity of God s spirit whether it was in the form of a man or came directly Debate on Jesus being word of God Some argue Mary to be a man because of her piety and perfection of nature Fatima and Mariam compared and found to be very similar both in Shi a and Sunni thought but especially in Shi a Mary s importance in Muslim tradition some pray through her and other female saints sometimes sightings of her and miracles Unit 6 Ethical Principles of the Qur an Class 23 Spiritual Foundations of Ethics iman faith faith keeping faithfulness in God also has to do with keeping something safe amanah related to Covenant gt trust in God mu min person who has iman will exhibit this trust in God and has patience and steadfastness honest generous etc iman is a 2sided relationship shukr thankfulness gratitude to God appreciation shakirperson who feels shukr AAA Both are twin concepts for lzutsu and in Qur an kufr opposite of both iman and shukr literately means coveringconcealing something ie covering God s realitytruth rejecting God and the Covenantal relationship also presented as a form of lying because its willful different than not knowing Kufr in the ethical sense is reflected as lack of consideration care for others Kufr lman one Shukr one refuses to denies God be thankfulappreciative lmanShukr do not only refer to humans but also to God Humans are not the only ones described as mu min or shakir because God is too Mu minsends guidance to mankind having faith in humanity promise and the threat idea of God keeping His word ShakirGod appreciates those who are faithful appreciativeacknowledgmentvaluing over the smallest things Three AspectsDimensions of Islam 1lslam 1 submission in an external sense 2 sociopoliticalcommunal identity being part of the ummah global Muslim community 3 selfidentifying as Muslim 1 philosopherspolitical philosophy 4 performance of the requirements of the law shari ah 1 jurists who enforce the law 2 lman 1 belief or faith internal in nature 2 refers partly to spiritual experience or relationship wGod 3 spiritual experience of Godrelationship eg mysticism 4 cognitiveintellectual assent to God s existence and relationship wGod eg theology 3Jhsan 1 virtuous conduct that derives from sense of God s presence taqwa 2 could be called ethicsvirtue gt akhlaq good character adab refinement of conduct 3 Hadith defining lhsan lhsan is worshipping God as though you see Him and even if you can t see Him knowing that He sees you Relationship bw 3 often presented in hierarchy in order with Islam being the lowest and lhsan being the highest but they are distinct traits and can manifest themselves in diff ways The idea of Din is that one should have all 3 of them together Class 24 Hierarchy lhsandoing goodethics lmanfaithdogma Din Islamritual worship Ethical verses discussion Eating flesh of dead brother metaphor sustaining yourself on the flesh character of another human being We are all brotherssisters gossipping mocking backbiting spreading rumors brotherhood of humanity sustaining yourself on another s cadaver reputation emotionalrhetorical impact Social welfarecharity Equality of humanity is emphasized gt economic equality brotherhood Prophet gt others preferabilityidealization of those wfaith and good deeds Basic pillars vs ethical principles Patience during adversity gt don t kill children female infanticide linked to debates on abortion Allah won t place buren on soul that it can t bear won t give you children if you won t be able to provide for them gt verse meant to inspire hopepatienceselfworth Slavery gt manumission Orphans gt protecting rights to property and wealth 3335 encompasses all acts of islam iman and ihsan to be necessary to salvation addressed to bring people to faith Justicemercy gt warfare international relations Divine lawguidance is ideally supposed to lead to human well being Keeping oathspromises not making one you can t keep and if breaking an oath recompense for it Parents treatment should be good gt mothers have special honor if they misdirect you disobey but still be patientkindgentle with them Unit 7 Introduction fo Islamic Moral Law 1Basic EthicoLegal Concepts in the Qur an 1 haraam and halaal 1 HRM sacredness consecration gtpositive holiness setting apart prohibition gt negative 2 this is connected wideas of purity and in contrast pollution gt taharaapurity 3 haraamprohibited illicit restricted 4 HLL solution solving tahlilanalysis opening something untying loosening liberation freedom aka removing restrictionsallowing access to something halaalpermitted licit unrestricted saalihaathasanaat vs sayyi aat saalihaathasanaatvirtuous acts good deeds sayyi aatviciousevil acts bad deeds ma ruf vs munkar root RF knowingknowledge ma ruf specifically means that which is known root NKR unknown WNT P NT NSquot 4 translated as good and evil enjoining good and forbidding evil 5 Two ideas related to this 1 our fitra knows what is good gt Le what God has taughtenjoined and what is evil gt God forbids 1 religion din is remembering 2 therefore munkar can be retranslated from unknown to rejected 2 customary lawsociocultural context indicates what is virtuous and viciousimmoral Urfcustom same root as RF hudud boundaries of moral conduct hudud Allahquot boundarieslimits prescribed by God haqqtruth but IN THIS UNIT it means right as in the sense of a legitimate claim rights law is the distribution of rights rights and duties Jurisprudencetheory and method of derivingconstructing moral law Shari ahmoral law its an ideal expressionunderstanding of what God has wiled for humanity in all times and places commandedencouraged vs discouragedprohibited 2 something only God truly knows mL L LL L 2 Fiqhhuman understandinginterpretation of shari ah many schools of law many interpretations individualized effort 1 many sources the Qur an Sunnah of Muhammad Hadith gt Sunnis 2 Sunnah of imams their sayings deeds etc gt Shi a 3 consensus of the jurists community ijma 4 Analogical reasoning Qiyas Nov 26 Class 26th Other consideration in the Creation of Law fiqh Additional Principles of interpretation 1Public goodwelfare gt Maslaha a The purpose behind the rule of the Sharia is to help human and the collective life If its creating hardship it may not be the right interpretation of the Sharia 2Custom gt Urf Sharia gt Islamic Moral Law 1Ethics ideal conduct what one should or shouldn t do is not enforceable in anyway neither is it necessarily held against in the day of judgement Eg Hijab is an ethical rule but was never enforced by the prophet at his time thus not enforceable Not being generous not held against you 2 Etiquette Refinement of character behavior 3 Law enforceable by the state Rules of Worship gt Five Pillars of Worship forms of ibadat 1Witnessing gt Shahada 2 Prayers Purity gt Salat 3 Fasting gt Sawm 4 Charity gt Zakat 5 Pilgrimage gt Hajj Basic Principles Related to the lbadat While ibadat are about one39s relationship with God they should improve strengthening one39s relationship with others mu amalat lf ones external social conduct is not improved then the ibadat are defective some how 0 The goal of ihsan is not being fulfilled Eg If one does prayer fasting etc But is cruel stringy dishonest etc then the ibadat are falling These pillars demonstrate the idea of sacred space amp sacred time 0 One transcends the world and its time to enter into the presence of God Preparation for entry into Gods presence is marked by a need for purification gt Tahara Tahara is achieved through different means for example Wadu Purity is not equal to morality impurity isn t equal to immortality So what that means is that purity or Tahara is ritual purity 0 Eg of the way that the pillars structures muslim space amp time Shahada gt Beginning and the end of the individuals life as a Muslim Repeated in every prayers muslims life so a constant reminder 0 Hajj gt Required once in a lifetime if you have the money to in one location HaramKaba Sawm gt Once a year during the month of ramadan Space possibility of retreat at the masjid at home for the last 10 days of the month Zakat gt Calculated in a yearly basis not at the same time of the year one a year Space the emphasis is on those which are near so relatives first then neighbors then outside Salat gt Daily activity 5 times a day position of the sun the real punctuation of the Muslims life Peacefully and clean space preferably in masjid Friday prayer gt Jum a there should be an attempt to go pray in the masjid with others gt Direction of the Kaba gt Qibla when you are asked about timespace and about the pillars draw from the above and from the book The role of intention or niyya An internal personal determination known only to God and the person Capacity is also consequently critical One is only required to do ibadat if oen is capable of understanding intending and performing them Example pubertyadulthood wealthfinancial means healthvs weakness debility 1st Shahada gt witnessing and attesting God Seeing God Gods presence 0 O Enables relationship with God Witnesstestify that There is no god but God gt islam and that Muhammad is the messenger of God gt lslam 2nd Salat gt Formal prayer Five times a day location anywhere Particular posterspositions faces the qibla starts in the standing position moves to a kneeling position prostration sitting position with your hands on your knees gt cycle Purpose ensure regular remembrance of God communion with God Friday prayer purpose of fostering community life Class 27 Pillars continued 3rd Zakat almsgivingcharity 140 aka 25 of one s saved wealth excess wealth ie wealth that is savedheld for one year should be a certain amount of wealth for the year how much you would require minimally to live on for one year but some say you should go back to original standards which is less than above A or the norm in prelslamic times greater giving is encouraged sadaqah Qur an lists categories for recipients of Zakat the poor homeless can t make ends meet at all needy can meet ends but are living at cusp of poverty travelers those in bondage slaves debtors etc for the mending of hearts refers to converts who lost family connections wo support system also for interfaith activities charitable organizations or administrations in the way of God Fisabilillah really general understood to be any good work Purposeobjective of Zakat linguistically zakat means purification and increase Idea is that one purifies his wealthincome by giving part of it away Also purification of the heartself Doing things Fisabilillah God compensates you increases you manifold whatever you lost of your wealth for His sake will be returned to you at multiple 4th Sawm fasting Required during Ramadan 9th month encouraged at other various times From dawn to sunset gt no eatingdrinking sex smoking consumption One is also supposed to control oneself from ill conduct sinning aka anger impatience controlling thoughts mind tongue Try to engage in extra prayer supplication dhikr reading Qur an Required for those who are over puberty healthy not traveling not sickweak not pregnant those in battle situations Purposeobjective improving one s selfdiscipline idea is that if you can conquer physical bodily needs you are increasing self control in general to increase one s shukrthankfulnesscompassion meant to foster reliance on God compassion for the needypoorhungry 5th Hajj Pilgrimage to Ka ba in Makkah Required once in a lifetime for those who can afford it Highly complex and symbolic ritual Person enter state of sanctification called lhram sanctified state gt symbolizes leaving the world and entering God s presence Clothing that men wear are like 2 white shrouds which is almost how one is wrapped during their own funeral rituals culminate on the plateau of Arafat which symbolizes people standing before God on the DoJ gt like passing out of life into death When one completes Hajj they are wiped clean of sins gt spiritualmoral rebirth symbolism commemoration of Hagar s running back and forth bw Safa and Marwa to find Ismail water Walking around Ka ba 7 times tawaf Women Gender Sexuality in the Qur an and Shari ah Traditional Perspective Qur an and Sunnah are generally patriarchal Men presumed to be leaders in society in charge of communal life public life and of household Gender Hierarchy in both public and conjugal relations Differences not in ontology nature but in ethics morality laws rules doing gt modern Muslim feminists use the Qur an and say that it doesn t make difference in ontology Males and females are equal in terms of ontology but in ethics there is a difference in hierarchy More severe patriarchalmisogynistic ideas are not found in Qur an but in Hadith and medieval interpretations of Qur anSunnah Keep in mind the differences of interpretations differences of sources and its contexts as well as authenticity of those sources Traditional viewpoints on 3 topics 1Sexual morality 1 considered a sacred act but with weighty consequences so it is hemmed in by restrictions 2 not something to be engaged in lightly 3 permitted only within lawful relationships of 2 types 1 marriage only legitimate between man and woman permissible for man to marry up to four women 2 concubinage man may have slave women wwhom he has sexual relations Not like other slaves for labor but these women have considerable amount of rights Children are considered free inherit from father she can t be soldpassed down if he passes away but she achieves her freedom 4 other than those two it is illicitsinful and termed zinnah fornication 5 Zinnah defined as sex bw male and female outside lawful union as well as sex between 2 people of same sex considered to be like zinnah L act is punishable according to Qur an for man and woman by flogging 100 lashes considered a hadd punishment but can only be applied w4 eyewitnesses to the actual act Jurisprudence is called fiqh Haditha about avoiding the implementation of hard punishments as much as possible Qur an doesn t differentiate bw unmarried and married zina but Sunnah DOES differentiate adultery in Hadith literature gets capital punishment of stoning for fornication flogging adultery punishment seems to have been an attempt to continue tradition of Torah Mosaic law Modesty gender interactions required of both men and women in behavior and dress restrictions on minglingmixing of the sexes restriction on premarital relations nonsexual restrictions in dress in public hijabliterally means curtain separation gt spatial or physical separation but in terms of usage particular garments aka head scarf referred as covering niqabface veiling ie all but the eyes referred to as veiling burqacompletel covering body veiling men should cover from navel to knee should be relatively loose and opaque restrictions on conduct flirtatious behavior sexually aggressive behavior phrased as lowering one s gaze Sunnah has additional instruction to men not to harass women the idea of the stranger someone not related to you by blood or marriage total veiling or burqa which was original meaning of hijab was only practiced by Prophet s wives exalted status mothers of believers Marriage and Divorce marriage not required but not encouraged divorce is not prohibited but is discouraged contract gt negotiated agreement bw two parties Not a sacrament like in Christianity gt husband and wife remain legallyfinancially independent even after they re married wife doesn t take husband s name or share wealth gt not joined widea of 2 souls becoming one bc its a contract the dissolution of marriage can be sought if one side fails hisher obligations or if 2 sides mutually agree 3 bw groomhis father and the father of the bride 4 major elements are agreement stipulations witnesses at least 2 people typically court representatives should be publicized no secret marriages dower value 5 husband is the leader of the home and is also financial provider for family 6 wife has authority as mother over children lzutsu Chapter 7 Inner Structure of concept of Kufr KFR covering knowingly ignore benefits received hence unthankful antonym of iman belief Kufr results in acts of insolence haughtiness Contrasts whumbleness amp taqwa Nowadays seems to mean disbelief Kufr is an attitude which it is impossible for God to adopt towards man rather than mans attitude towards God Kufr nature becomes evident during distress Another word in Qur an Kanud wsame meaning as Kafur KND to be ungrateful refuse acknowledgement of benefit received Context implies that man tends to reveal ingratitude by grudging others small portion of good things received stingy Kafirs use reason to reject revelation Attitude of skepticism which is opposite to unconditional submission HeartsMinds of Kafirs described Those who believe have calm hearts but the ones of Kafirs are like hardened stones Blindnessdeafness commonly used Verses in the Qur an are God advising Muhammad to engage in labor wno benefit Mushriksemantic content has 2 factors NOT following revelation and NOT acknowledging oneness of God Shirk is described as forging a lie against God KafirMushrik also described as one covered by layers of darkness Qur an also attributes shirk to Zann thinking which is generally contrasted to llm knowledge Yakshrusuna comes from KHRS which means doing or saying something by uncertainfalse opinion and is opposed to llm Belief defined as lhtida believe rightly guided accept God s guidance and if imanihtida then kufr could also mean going astray from the right way Dalal also used to be astray examples in Surah Yusuf of brothers describing Ya qoob and women of city describing wife s governor Synonym of calla could ghawiyaghawa go astray from right way and zagha swerve from right course and amiga wander astray blindly Ghawa sometimes used in opposition to ihtida Ghaflah heedlessnesscarelessness also used wdalal and even Muhammad referred to as being in that state before Revelation Hawa is main cause of daa roughly translated as the inclination of a human soul of lusts and animal appetites Following one s hawa as opposed to knowledge is forming wild conjectures concerning God and His religion Arrogance referred to as istakbara derived from root KBR which is basic meaning of big literally means to become puffed up wpride Other words of haughtiness 1Baghaact unlawfullyunjustly against others out of excessive selfconceit 1 fasad corruption is concrete manifestation of inner state denoted by bagha 2 Batirato exult excessively that perhaps he behaves insolently 3Atasynonym of istakbara to be immoderately proud behave very haughtily also to turn away disdainfully against something commanded revolt against ordinance 4Taghasynonym of istakbara attitude of contumely rebellious pride underlying image of water overflowing banks 5 lstaghnaalso excess inselfconfidence underlying meaning of rich or wealthy GHNY like how God is rich 6Jabbarrich enough to stand alone appears alongside mutakabbir Most common expressions for mocking in the Qur an are ittakhadhu huzu an or to take for mockery and istahza a to mock at also sakhiraistaskhara S KHR is same JDL primary meaning is twisting things like ropes those who wrangle in Qur an are the Kafirs who are rationalistsskeptics lzutsu Chapter 8 The Semantic Field of Kufr Elements that help us understand kufr 1Fasiqsynonmym of kafir Semantically close to nifaq hypocrite Swear to be believers out of fear of military might of Muslims Kufr nature betrayed by conduct and do not wish to engage in more pious acts love when evil befalls Muhammad and vice versa about good Always grumbling Conclusion that he is not a downright kafir but is wavering and unreliable 2 Fajirhas no postQur anic history refers to believer who conducts himself badly such as sins of drinking 3Zalimwrongdoer or evildoer injustice tyranny Word very frequent in Qur an God uses it also to refer to someone He will never be towards the believers 1 possible in 2 directions from man to God and from man to man 2 those who transgress BOUNDS of God one who forges lie against God plunge deeply into God s signs kafirs aka those whose hearts have hardened 3 Also to practice an act of zulm is to hurt someone wo any conceivable reason 4 Mu tadiparticipial form of verb i tadaa which meant so pass beyond one s proper limit transgressing bounds Perfect synonym of zalim 5 Musrifto exceed or transgress the right measure SRF unlike zulm and i tida which carry implication of enmityaggressiveness israf seems to primarily mean to go beyond due limits behave extravagantly excessive immoderate Quality attributed to eatingdrinking immoderately not wrong but becomes morally wrong when carried to absurd extreme lzutsu Chapter 10 The Believer lman BeliefFaith is the center of positive moral properties Generally pious heart in awe at the mention of His name basic attitude of Hilm constant devotional exercise fear of DoJ almsgiving wo boastfulness prevention of idle talk no fornication Difference bw mu min and kafir 1what they do in this worldbeliever concerned to do pious works while kafir engages in worldly pleasures 2what they obtain on DoJbeliever gets paradise and kafir gets hell lslam means submission Distinguishable from iman Islam is the first shallow step in faith So all believers are naturally Muslims but the reverse is not always true Contrasted in one passage wqasitone who deviates from right course Akhlasamukhlisto make pure sometimes sincere Huda and Dhikr used interchangeably in one passage Viewed from human standpoint belief is just accepting the guidance to choose the right path and kufr is rejecting guidance Belief and fear used synonymously taqwa earliest concise definition of believer is one who trembles in fear before God Khashya and Taqwa often in same sentence Khawfnatural emotion of fear in general Aroused by God s signs Shukr and taqwa represent 2 proper human reactions to God s signs Thankfulnessbelief Izutsu Chapter 11 Good and Bad Salihgood righteous tied wiman The word Birr is also similar to Salih Qist used wfear and usually refers to a verdict in a trial Fasadevildoing Ma ruf used to refer to good but typically represents what is acknowledgedapproved by Divine Iaw Munkarunknown and disproved Khayr good vs Sharr bad Hasan that which is goodtasting satisfying Hasanah is the feminine form and can mean prosperity happiness Fahsha Fahisha anything foul or abominable Tawib anything pleasant sweet tasting Khabith evil Haraam originally referred to taboo DhanbDhunubsins lthma dhanb alBaydawi says it is a dhanb that merits punishment Mattson Chapter 5 Exegesis vs hermeneutics specific methodologyguidelines for interpreting texts First exegetic event was after Prophet s death when one said it couldn t be true and Abu Bakr showed body and recited a verse for proof pg 188 questions 2 issues in interpretation to what extent to any meaning limited by rest of verse or passage what is scope of application of any Qur anic pronouncement ldea that you re already supposed to know old stories Amir abdulQadir in Algeria led revolt against French also important spiritual leader Exiled when French took over and went to Damascus p 230 Ethical Injunctions 2177 Righteousness is not turning face towards East and West but it is believing in Allah last day angels Book Prophets give charity pray zakat uphold promises patience 6151 153 Show kindness to parents stay monotheistic not slay children out of fear of poverty don t do indecencies do not kill the soul except by requirements of justice don t take the property of orphan give full measureweights Be just when you speak and fulfill Allah s covenant Know this is Allah s path follow not others because they will lead you astray 169097 Allah enjoins doing good and forbidding evil fulfill his covenant do not break oaths do not be like her who unravels yarn who disintegrates it after she has spun it strongly Oaths that are made to be deceitful and Allah will punish one who does that Guides who He pleases Do not make oaths a means of deceit like a foot that slips in stability What is with you passes away and what is with Allah is enduring Whoever does good whether man or woman and is a believer will be given reward 172637 Give family their due to the needy do not be wasteful Do not shackle hand to neck or stretch it forth to utmost limit lest you should afterwards sit down blamed Lord makes plentiful subsistence for whom He wills Do not kill children for fear of poverty don t go NEAR to fornication or kill anyone who Allah has forbidden except for just cause or draw near to property of an orphan give full measure Follow not that of which you have not the knowledge 2396 Repel evil by what is best We know best what they describe 31 149 Describes pains of mother during infant carrying Be grateful to Me and parents Do not obey only if they try to make you do shirk but be kind to them Luqman says that even an act the weight of a grain of mustard seed or heart of rock or high above the act will be brought to light Also advises son to keep up prayer enjoin goodforbid evil be patient and these acts require courage Do not turn away from people in contempt and do not be selfconceited 3335 Menwomen who submit are believing obeying truthful patient humble almsgiving fasting those who guard their private parts those who remember Allah muchAllah has prepared for them forgiveness and a mighty reward 42369 Anything in this life is provision what is with Allah is better and more lasting Those who shun great sins and forgive others when angry and respond to Lord and keep up prayer and those who defend themselves against great wrong Also those who are patient and forgiving EthicsEtiquette in Speech 4148 Allah doesn t love public utterance of hurtful speech unless its by the one to whom injustice has been done 491112 Let people not laugh at others because they might be better than them No nicknames Avoid suspicion and spying and backbiting eating dead flesh of brother 59910 Those who made abode in city and faith and are not needy and prefer themselves through poverty and is not selfish and do not have spite towards believersare successful Faithfulnesssincerity 37677 Whoever fulfills promiseguards against evil Allah loves them Those who take small price for covenant of Allah and own oaths have no portion of hereafter and Allah will not speak or look at them or purify them 458 Surely Allah commands you to make over trusts to owners and that when you judge bw people its with justice 589 Guard your oaths lf broken its expiation is to feed 10 poor men or supply them wclothes or free a slave or if can t do any of those then fast 3 days 1691 92 9495 Fulfill covenant of Allah and don t break oaths Be not like one who unravels yarn disintegrating it into pieces after spun strongly which is like making oaths of deceit bw you because one nation is more numerous than another Do not make oaths a means of deceit like a foot that slips in stability Do not take small price world in exchange for Allah s covenant 173435 Do not draw near to property of orphan except in goodly way fulfill promise and give full measure Treatment of parents 41 Be careful of duty to Allah Who created mates of men and women 172324 Serve God and be good to parents Do not say ugh to them or chide them Submit to them gently wcompassion and pray for them 298 Man enjoined to have goodness to parents but if they ask you to do shirk you should not obey 31 1415 Man should respect parents Mother bears him wfaintings and weaning of 2 years be grateful to Allah and parents Only don t obey them if they ask you to associate partners wAah but still treat them wrespect 4615 Man should be good to parents because mom had trouble bearing him Virtues generally S 49 Do not raise voice above Prophet lf evildoer comes wreport look carefully into it Make peace bw 2 quarreling parties but if one is wrongfully acting towards other fight until it returns to justice Do not laughmake fun of others No nicknames avoid backbitingsuspicion 5811 When it is said to you to make room in your assemblies then do so Prayer salatthe command to pray 2238 Attend constantly to prayers and especially middle prayer 11114 Keep up prayer in 2 parts of day and first hours of night good deeds take away evil deeds 2277 To believers prostrate yourselves and serve Lord do good that you may succeed 2945 Recite from the Book keep up prayerit keeps one away from indecency and evil remembrance of Allah is the greatest The essence of prayer 17110 Call upon Allah do not utter prayer wraised voice or be silent wit but seek a middle ground 2177 Righteousness is not turning face towards East amp West but its believing in Allah last day angels Book Prophets give charity keep up prayer zakat uphold promises patience Timings 17789 Keep up prayer from declining of sun till darkness of night and morning recitation morning recitation is witnessed 20130 Bear patiently glorify Lord by praising Him before sunrise and before its setting and during hours of night and parts of the day 30178 Glory be to Allah when you enter upon time of evening and morning To Him belongs praise in heavens and earth and at nightfall and midday Fridays 62910 When call is made for Friday prayer then hasten to Allah s remembrance and leave off trading But when prayer is ended disperse in land and seek Allah s grace Facing Ka baqibla 2144 We have seen the turning of your face to heaven so we turn you to a qiblah turn it towards the Sacred Mosque and turn to it wherever you are 2149150 From wherever you are turn your face towards it repetition again and turn face towards it so people shall have no accusation against you Don t fear them but fear Allah Fasting sawmFasting in Ramadan 2183185 187 Fasting prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you so that you may guard against evil for a few days but whoever is sick or on a journey don t have to do it at the moment and those who are not able to may feed a poor man Ramadan is when Qur an was revealed which was a guidance to menclear proofs Whoever is sickon journey then he shall fast a certain number of days Allah desires ease for you not difficulty that you may give thanks It is made lawful to go into wives on night of fastthey are clothing for you and you for themSeek what Allah has ordained for you eatdrink until whiteness of day becomes distinct from blackness of night at dawn then complete the fast till night and have not contact wthem while you keep to the mosques These are the limits of Allah so do not go NEAR them Penitential Fasting 2196 Accomplish pilgrimage for visit of Allah but if prevented send offering Do not shave head until offering reaches destination but whoever is sick should give compensation by fasting or alms or sacrificing He who cannot offer anything should fast for 3 days during pilgrimage for seven days when you return these make 10 days when complete This is for him whose family is not present in Sacred Mosque and be careful of duty to Allah PilgrimageCommand to HajjProcedures and Contact 2196203 Do pilgrimage but if prevented send offering don t shave heads until offering reaches destination but whoever is sick should compensate by fasting 3 daysalmssacrificing Pilgrimage no intercourse fornication quarreling Seek afterlife not the world Allah is aware of what you do guided you when you were astray 397 Standing place of Abraham whoever enters will be secure pilgrimage is incumbent upon men for Allah s sake 51 2 To Believers fulfill obligations Cattle quadrupeds are allowed to you except that which is recited to you not violating prohibition against game when you are entering upon performance of the pilgrimage Don t violate Allah s signs appointed by Him or sacred month or interfere wofferings or sacrificial animals wgarlands When free from pilgrimage obligations hunt and let not hatred of people who hindered you from Sacred Masjid incite you to exceed limits Help others in goodnesspiety not in sinaggression 59596 To Believers don t kill game during pilgrimage those who do so intentionally s compensation is of what he just killed from cattle as offering to Ka bah or expiation to poor or fasting Lawful is game of sea and its food and game of land is forbidden to you during pilgrimage Command to charity and principles 2261 274 Parable of those who spend property in Allah s sake is as the parable of grain growing 7 ears w100 grains per ear Allah multiples for whom He pleases Those who spend property for Allah don t follow up what they have spent wreproachtheir reward is wAllah Kind speechforgiveness gt charity followed by injury Believers don t make charity worthless by reproach like him who spends property to be seen and doesn t believe in Allahlast day Parable is as parable of smooth rock wearth on it then heaw rain falls upon it so it leaves it barethey shall not gain anything of what they earned Parable of those who spend property for Allah is an elevated garden upon which heavy rain falls that brings forth fruit twofold but if heaw rain doesn t fall light rain is sufficient Believers spend of the good in the earth and not from the bad Shaitan threatens you wpoverty and enjoins you to be stingy but Allah promises forgiveness and abundance grants wisdom to whom He pleases Whatever almsvow you give Allah knows Giving alms openly is well but hiding it is better because it will do away wevil deeds To guide them is not necessary because Allah guides who He pleases Alms are for poor who are confined in way of Allah but do not openly beg s 90 Allah swears by the city that we shall made free from its obligation Man certainly created to be in distress does he think no one has power over himsees him Have we not given Him 2 eyes tongue 2 lips guidance He wouldn t attempt uphill road setting free of slave giving food in day of hunger caring for orphan or to poor man gt right hand people 3 107 Him who calls the judgment a lie is one who treats orphan wharshness doesn t urge others to feed poor Woe to praying ones who are unmindful of their prayer and who do good only to be seen TradeUsuryRibaDebt 429 Believers do not devour property falsely except that it be traded by mutual consent don t kill your people 2275276 Those who swallow down usury can t arise except as one whom Shaitan has prostrated by his touch does rise They say trading is only like usury but Allah has allowed one and forbidden the other Allah does not bless usury He causes charitable deeds to prosper but doesn t love any ungrateful sinner 2278 280 Relinquish what remains from usury if you are believers If a debtor is in difficulty let there be postponement until he is in ease 3130 Do not devour usury multiplying it be careful of duty to Allah so that you may be successful 3039 Whatever you lay out as usury so that it may increase in property of men won t increase wAllah Only charity will increase manifold 831 6 Woe to defrauders who don t give measure fully but weight it for themselves fully Do they not think they will be raised before Allah Gambling 2219 ln intoxicants and gambling in both is a great sin and means of profit but sin gt profit 59091lntoxicantsgambling and sacrificing to stones set up and dividing by arrows are uncleannessShaitan s work who desires to cause enmityhatred to spring by means of intoxicants and gambling Circulating Wealth 960 Alms are for poor and needy the officials appointed over them those whose hearts are inclined to truth and ransoming of captives and those in debts in way of Allah 597 Whatever Allah has restored to His Apostle from people of towns it is for Allah and Apostle and near of kin orphans needy so that it may not be taken by rich Whatever Apostle gives you accept it and whatever he forbids keep back 172629 Give to near of kin his due and to the needy don t squander wastefully Squanderers are fellows of Shaitan who is ungrateful to Lord Do not make your hand shackled to your neck or stretch it to utmost limit lest you should afterwards be blamed and stripped off Shared natures 41 Lord created us from 1 being and its mate from the same kind and spread from these 2 many menwomen Each has rights over the other amp a tie of relationships Idea of clothing 72627 Clothing sent to cover shame and beauty and to guard evil Shaitan expelled parents from garden by removing their clothing and showing them evil inclinations and do not follow the same path Modestyveilingsegregation hijab 243031 Say to believing men to lower gaze guard private parts To the women same but also don t display ornaments except what is apparent wear headcovering over bosoms and not display ornaments except to husbands fathers those whom their right hands possess etc Don t strike feet to show ornaments 2460 As for old women there is no sin if they put off their clothes wo displaying ornaments but if they restrain themselves it is better for them 333233 0 wives of Prophet You are not like any other women if you are on your guard then don t be soft in speech but speak a good word Stay in houses and do not display finery keep up poorrate obey Allah and Prophet Allah desires to keep away uncleanness from you 0 People of the House and to purify you thoroughly 335355 Oh believers Do not enter house of Prophet unless permission is given to you for a meal but when invited enter and then disperse after food do not seek to listen or talk for this gives Prophet trouble but he forbears from you When you ask of them goods ask from behind a curtain this is purer for your hearts and theirs Do not give trouble to Prophet and you can not marry his wives after him ever 3359 0 Prophet Say to wives daughters and women of believers to let down their overgarments this is more proper that they may be known and will not be given trouble Kindness to females 4127 Allah makes known His decision concerning women do not try to marry female orphans while you don t give what is appointed for them and concerning the weak among children that you deal towards orphans equally Marriage is lovemercy 3021 One of His signs is that He created mates for you from yourselves to find rest in them put bw you love and compassion Signs for people who reflect Marriage partners 2221 Believing slaveservantmaid gt ldolatrous woman even if she pleases you They are invitations to fire 423 Give to orphans their property and do not devour it If you fear that you can t act equally towards all then marry such women as seem good to you up to 4 but if you can not justice bw them then marry only one or what your right hands possess 42225 Marry not women whom fathers married except what has already passed or mothers daughters sisters aunts nieces foster motherssisters mother in law step daughters wives of sons who are born of you and 2 sisters together 55 Chaste believing women and chaste are those who have been given the Book before you lawful to you When you have given them dowries taking them in marriage and not fornicating or taking them in secret 243233 Marry those who are single and those who are fit among your slaves both male and female Those who can t marry keep chaste Do not compel slaver girls to prostitution Marriage procedures 2235 It is allowed to respect that which you speak indirectly in asking of women in marriage or keep proposal concealed within minds Allah knows that you will mention them but don t give them promise in secret unless you speak in lawful manner and don t confirm marriage tie until writing is fulfilled 425 Whoever doesn t have within his power to marry free believing women then he may marry those whom right hands possess from among believing maidens You are sprung the one from the other so marry them wpermission of their masters and give just dowries If they are then guilty of indecency they suffer 12 of the punishment of free women Marital lifetreatment of wives 41921 Don t take women as heritage against their will or straiten them in order that you may take part of what you have given them unless they are guilty of indecency treat them kindly if you hate them it may be that you dislike a thing while Allah has placed abundant good in it 434 Men are maintainers of women because Allah has made some to excel others and because hey spend out of their property so women don t good women are obedient guarding unseen and as to those whose part you fear desertion admonish them leave them alone in sleeping places beat them if they obey you don t seek way against them Marital sexuality 2223 Your wives are a tilth for you so go into your tilth when you like and do good beforehand for yourselves Nursing 2233 The mothers should suckle for 2 years Maintenance and clothing must be borne by father No soul shall have imposed upon it a duty but to the extent of its capacity and no motherfather shall suffer on account of his child but if both desire weaning mutually or a wetnurse no blame on them Marital disputesarbitrationfairness 435 If you fear divorce appoint judge from his people and hers If both desire agreement Allah will give harmony bw them 4128 30 lf woman fears ill usagedesertion from husband no blame on them reconciliation is better If you can t do justice bw wives don t be disinclined from them Divorce procedures 2228 232 Divorced women should keep themselves in waiting period for 3 course not lawful for them to conceal what is in their wombs if they are pregnant Husbands have better right to take them back if they wish for reconciliation they have rights similar to those against them in just manner and men are degree above them Divorce may be pronounced 2x keep them in good fellowship and let them go in kindness Not lawful to take anything you gave them unless both fear that they can t keep within limits of Allah and there is no blame if she gives up something to become free If he divorces her she shall not be lawful to him afterwards until she marries another husband and if he divorces her there is no blame on both if they return to each other by marriage When you divorce women and they reach prescribed time then either retain them in good fellowship or set them free liberally and don t retain them for injury or exceed limits When divorced women have ended term of waiting don t prevent them from marrying their husbands if they agree among themselves lawfully 22367 No blame on them if you divorce women when you haven t touched them or appointed portion and if you do pay half of what you appointed unless they relinquish it or he should relinquish in whose hand is the marriage tie it is nearer to righteousness that you should relinquish and don t neglect free giving of gifts bw you 651 2467 0 Prophet when you divorce women do it for prescribed days and calculate themDon t drive them out of housesAllah may bring about reunion So when they have reached prescribed time retain them wkindness separate them wkindness and call to witness 2 just men among you As for women despaired of menstruation if you have doubt their prescribed time is 3 months as for pregnant women their time is that they lay down their burden Lodge them where you odge according to your means and don t injure them if they are pregnant spend on them until they lay down their burden and if they suckle then give them recompense and enjoin good and if you disagree another women can suckle Fornicationpenalty 1732 Do not go NEAR to fornication because it is indecency and evil way 242 5 As for fornicators menwomen alike flog them giving 100 stripes and let not pity for them detain you in matter of obedience to Allah Fornicator shall not marry any but a fornicatress or idolatress and as for fornicatress none shall marry her but fornicator or idolater and it is forbidden to believers Those who accuse free women then don t bring 4 witnesses flog them giving 80 stripes don t admit evidence from them ever these are transgressors Except those who repent and act aright Allah is forgiving


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