Intro to Islam Bundle Notes
Intro to Islam Bundle Notes ISL 310
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This 63 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarah Bawany on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Bundle belongs to ISL 310 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Hyder in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Islam in Social Work at University of Texas at Austin.
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Introduction to Islam Discourseway of speaking that is informed by power hierarchies Reificationfallacy that results from the treatment of abstract ideas as though they were concrete Essentialismreligionsregionspeople have fixed timeless traits Culture Talk quot Every culture has a tangible essence that defines it Culture seems to have no history politics or debatesquot Orientalisma prejudiced Eurocentric discourse that denigrates ArabsMuslims as the quototherquot Good Muslim Bad Muslim Culture Talk Discourse in service of Imperial Political Establishments Quotes Said39s quotthe principal dogmas of Orientalismquot West quotrational developed humane and superiorquot Orient quotaberrant underdeveloped and inferior quot Issues in Teaching Islam Civiizations Mutually Inclusive Composite civilizationsdrawing from each other not mutually exclusive Intrafaith dialogues and tensions Interfaith dialogues and tensions Issues of authority resistance marginalization Who has authority to speak for religion Who establishes himher What are the contesting views of that authority Who listens to them How certain groups have been marginalized in the Muslim societysuch as women other sects different languages dress music etc Creative spirits of Muslim peoples Persian saying quotYou can afford to take liberties with God but be careful with Muhammadquot Religions of ArabiaJews Christians quotPagansquot Hanifs Zoroastrians anti conversion Important Events in Muhammad39s Life 570 CE Born in Mecca Tribe of Quraysh quotAge of Ignorancequot quotThe Trusted Onequot 595 Married Khadijah 2 Phases of Islam Prehijra called Age of Ignorance Jahiliwah Phase after is Islam submission 61 OCave alHira verses begin to descend Principles of Qur39an Unity of God l39awhid Submission to God Islam and one who submits Muslim God referred to by many names most supreme of which is Allah All of God39s creation blessed with Messengers X48Adam Moses Noah Abraham Jesus quotThere is not an animal on the earth nor a being that flies on its wings but forms part of communities like youquot 638 God quotspread out the earth for his creaturesquot 5510 Relationship bw God and humans Humans are God39s servants and vicegerents Humans have no exclusive claim to Earth God39s spirit breathed into first of God39s human creations AdamEve created from Adam Adam and Eve ate fruit of forbidden tree No original sin transgression not sin progeny of Adam is not fated to repeat those mistakes No discourse of female temptation Reason given for diversity quot0 People We created you from a single pair of malefemale and have divided you into nationstribes so that you may know one another The noblest of you in the sight of God is the most pious of youquot 4913 Bond bw God and creation is strengthened by Belief in One God uttered through shahadah Accountability to God and the belief in Judgment Day Devotion 5 Daily Prayers Discipline Fasting in Ramadan Community Building Pilgrimage to Makkah Hajj Generosity Almsgiving Striving in the way of God Jihad Enjoining Good forbidding evil Loving the Righteous the Prophet his family his companions The Night Journey alMiraj was in 619 Makkah gt Jerusalem gt Heaven 622 CE Most Makkans had turned against Muhammad Migrates from Makkah to Madina alHijrah First Muslim community established in Medina Muhammad an arbitrator Creates just order wo blood shed first political unit of Islam in Medina 630 CE Fall of Makkah Ka39ba regains status as Islam39s holiest site General Amnesty for most Former enemies 632 CE Death of Muhammad Muhammad known as Uswa Hasanathe beautiful model of conduct 3321 Hadithsayings of the Prophet collected into books during the 9th and 10th centuries 2 parts Chain of Transmitters isnad Hadith wmost continuous chain sahih unreliable or broken transmission hasangood more broken inconsistent wQur39an daif weak Main text matn Sunnahways and customs of the Prophet that are idealized precedents for moral behavior Hadith Qudsi noblelofty saying attributed to God by Muhammad but not found in the Qur39an Example quotI was a hidden treasure that wished to be known so I created the universe so that I might be knownquot Some are contested Question of who should succeed Prophet Consensus of community elites Member of the Quraysh Designation by Prophet and his family members Blood lineage kinship 680Karbala forces of Yazid few thousand and Husayn 72 and Husayn is killed Shi39aleaders should be from Muhammad39s successors Sunnileaders should be from Quraysh and be decided by community39s most pious Kharijitesany righteous member of community could become leader Rejected the idea that faith not works determined one39s rightful membership in the ummah Actions more important than faith Withheld judgment to God Spread of Islam through trade migration conquest knowledge Advent of Sufism tasawwuf many pious Muslims wore woolen suf garments more humbling type of garments considered to be in the first rank saffi awwwal of the Ummah in prayers quotfirst safquot took lineage back to People of the Bench ashabi Suffa raised platforms in the masjid for Sufis embraced purity safa over impurity devote more time to God than allotted pray much more than 5 prayers a day fast for months give most of income rush to prayers eager to participate in devotion forsaking world and thinking constantly of God not necessarily theological considered somewhat extreme but they are not forbidden Two Perspectives on Institution of Leadership Caliphate nondivine institution which succeeded institution of Prophethood Within Sunni community this became legitimate institution 4 Rightly guided caliphs Abu Bakr Umar Uthman Ali all also connected to Prophet by marriage to his daughters etc Subsequent leaders were ordinary men whuman frailties Umawad and Abbasid dynasties followed quotrightly guided quot Two Perspectives on Institution of Leadership Imamate Divine Institution wdivinely appointed imams Within Shi39a community this was the legitimate institution Male descendants of Prophet from his daughter Fatima The followers of this institution did not recognize any of the Caliphs as legitimate spiritual leaders Islam39s First 2 Dynasties Umayyads 661750 based in Damascus Abbasids 7501258 based in Baghdad Islam39s Neighbors Byzantine Roman Empire Competing views of nature of Jesus Christology After official adoption of Christianity by Roman state some of these views embraced and others rejected at times wforce Sassanid Persian Empire Christians Christians and Jews didn39t agree on nature of Messiah Controversies within Christianity Was Jesus man God or both What happened to him after he died and rose again from the dead Does he still exist independently or did he fuse wGod Can God actually come down to earth and live as a human being be killed die on cross Is Jesus coequal to God or IS he God Jesus In Islam Islam struck middle ground Jesus a great prophet of God Word of God Spirit of God Sign of God Performed miracles Born of virgin Maryonly woman mentioned by name in the Qur39an If God could create Adam wo father and mother he could create Jesus wo father Judaism Shared wIslam a belief that God didn39t posses human form reject Trinity Regulation about rituals of food hygiene circumcision Islam questioned idea of one group of people being quotchosenquot People of the Book The Qur39an Torah of Moses Psalms of David and Gospel of Jesus have their origin in the single divine source quotPeople of the Bookquot were granted protection dhimmis allowed to have their own religious authorities and laws as long as they paid Jizya tax didn39t attempt to convert Muslims and remain loyal to the state Conversion to Islam Shahada quotI declare that there is no god but God and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Godquot quotLet there be no compulsion in religionquot 2256 No consistent pattern Erroneous Notions about Conversion quotConversion by the swordquot Little attempt to convert nonMuslims in the first centuries of Islam Deprived state of essential revenues Islam was an egalitarian tradition that didn39t privilege one ethnicity or class over others Conversion is an quotall or nonequot process People still retain belief systems many practices that evolved and are part of particular communities Dome of the Rock Earliest example of Islamic architecture built bw 691 693 Makkah was in hands of rival caliph at this time Area had been largely abandoned bw Roman destruction of the quotSecond Templequot in 70 CE and arrival of Muslims in 638 CE Its significance to Jews Abraham39s sacrifice of his son Isaac occurred Significance to Muslims Muhammad ascended to the heaven from here Muslims also believe Abraham39s son that was meant to be sacrificed was Ishmael Built in accordance wIocal tradition of Jerusalem Dome of the Rock looks like Christian Church of Sepulcher and built close to it measurements are very similar Central govt after Prophet appoints governors to different regions to manage affairs As long as they were getting their money they didn39t care what was happening Damascus 661 becomes capital of Umayyads under Mu39awiya Mu39awiya known for ruthlessness and firmness with which he ruled but admired for his discipline lnhabitants supported Muslims against Byzantine rulers Basiica of John the Baptist Prophet Yahya in Islam Umayyad Mosque Musims bought certain areas of the shrine Basilica and convert it to a masjid known as the Umayyad Mosque Christians allowed to hold services on Sunday 2 faiths shared the same building Centrality of Prayers ibadatacts of worship Pun ca on Ghusl bathing Wudhu ablutions Privileging right hand over left SalatNamaz 5 times Intention niyyah Broken into units rak39ah Prayers in congregation Friday Prayers Celebratory Prayers Mihrab Niche in the wall that indicates the qibla direction of Ka39ba in Makkah Minbar pulpit lmam prayer leader Muslim Calendar Lunar Year Lunar 622 CE Hijramigration of the Prophet from Makkah to Medina 354355 days Current year 1434 The Qur39an Tafsir exegesiscommentary Ta39wi allegorical exegesis Tafsir bi al ra39y speculative interpretation Miraculous ljaz or nature of the Qur39an Uses of the Qur39an prayers decorative calligraphy ward off evil Brings Baraka blessings to the one reciting and listening Shu39ubiyyah Response to nonArabs to the Arab domination Mawai nonArabs identified as such during the first few centuries of the Muslim rule lssues wtribalcommunallinguistic status quo Led to founding of Abbasid dynasty against Umayyads and against Arabcentrate rule Founding of Baghdad 762 along the Tigris River wAbbasid dynasty House of Wisdom 813 Transation Research Library Largest collection of books by the end of the century Mathematics Astronomy Medicine Scientific Process Engagement wtraditions of the past these had to be taken further questions asked about methodology instruments Medicine disease transmitted through tiny airborne organisms theory of germs Sick should be quarantined and then treated Study of anatomy remained in use for 600 years lbn alHaytham Worked on light lenses physiology of human eye Father of Optics work with lenses led to invention of modern camera Removed cataracts surgically whollow needle Paper ChinaArabiaEurope Paper helped Muslims to speed their knowledge Europeans using parchments at this time Traditions of borrowing and synthesis fostered the idea of human beings coming from a single unit quotWe have created you into nations and tribes so that you mayquot Baghdad had many paper mills Translation and research committed to paper Prof didn39t accept another position away from Baghdad bc 400 camels needed to move his books Muhammad alKhwarizmi quotAlgoritmiquot 850 Mathematician astrologer geographer Uses the sciences of India and of ancient Greece to create new mathematical models Algebraquotal jabrquot working wboth sides of the equationsubtracting a number from both sides His Arabic works were translated into Latin in 12th centuryintroduction of the Arabic numerals and zero cipher to the West Book of Ingenious Devices inspired by Greek works alAndalus Spain Cordoba Rivaling Baghdad In the 10th century 9351013 largest city in the world Street lights and paved roads 9th and 10th centuries Cordoba cathedral today began as a mosque Architecture inspired architecture of gothic cathedrals lbn Rushd Aristotelian philosophy and Islamic theology are quottwin sistersquot Oversaw translation of Aristotle from Greek into Arabic Maimonides Rabbi philosopher physician Introduced lbn Rushd into Judaism Islamic Epistemology and Sources of Knowledge in the Islamic World 1Qur39an Multiple Interpretations 1 Tafsir literal exoteric commentary 2 Ta39wil symbolic esoteric commentary 2 Hadith many contradictory hadith 3Sunnah not always consensus 4 Prophet39s Family and Companions not always united Sources of Knowledge in the Islamic World Ijmaconsensus of the community How is the community defined Ijtihadruling by an established authority What is the source of this authority39s ruling Qiyasanalogymetaphor Limits of interpretive license Logichow can it be balanced wfaith EmpircismExperienceDreams Inspirations credibility TeacherLegitimacy Credibility Religious Authority 39Alim 39Ulama Terms Sufiwool purity benches around mosque Mysticismspiritual apprehension of truth that is beyond outward understanding TheosophyPhilosophy professing to achieve knowledge of God Gnosisknowledge of the divine Marifat Ali ibn Abi Talib Muhammad about Ali I am the City of Knowledge and Ali is its Gate Ali39s writings Nahj alBalagha Peak of Eloquence Abu Dharr alGhifari d 653 close companion of Prophet objects to some polices by Umayyad empire one of the most prominent advocates of Economic Justice in early Muslim communities The Faqir par excellance enjoys poverty not tied to material world content wsustenance from other world Possess nothing but be possessed by God Salman aIFarsi d656 Persian born barber symbol of spiritual adoption Bilal Habashi d641 First muezzinone who calls community to pray From Ethiopia Abyssinia African American community calls themselves Bilalian community Uways aIQarani Contemporary of Prophet who didn39t meet the Prophet The Prophet on Uways quotThe breath of the Merciful comes to me from Yemenquot Prototype of Sufi who has faith wo explicit evidence Meets Prophet through dreams according to tradition Becomes symbol of man who encounters prophet spiritually rather than physically Hasan alBasri d728 Lamented worldly conquest quotWhatever is on earth is perishing save His facequot Q 5526 Weeping is a virtue Subtle criticism of the political establishment Hasan alBasri to his disciples learn from dogs 10 virtues emphasized that all creations should learn from one another 1Sleep little during the night fervent soul 2Complain not of the heat or the cold patient heart 3 Don39t leave behind an inheritance true devotion 4 Do not be angry or envious true belief 5 Keep away from those who devour poverty 6 Don39t have fixed abode pilgrimage 7 Be content wfood that is given moderation 8Sleep where you find yourself satisfied heart 9 Never mistake who is your master spiritual awareness 10 Always be hungry virtue of questing for knowledge piety etc and there is never enough of it Jafar asSadiq d 765 Great grandson of Husayn ibn Ali Wrote first mystical commentary of the Qur39an ta39wil 4 Aspects of the Qur39an 1Expressions for the common people Muslim 2Allusions for the gifted Mu39min 3Touches of grace for the saints Walialso means friend 4 Realities for the Prophets Nabi Sadiq39s Human Topography 1Nafsbase soul oppressor zalim is ruled by it Zalim loves God for the zalim39s sake similar to ld 2QaIbthe heart the quotmoderatequot is ruled by it The moderate loves God for God39s sake similar to ego 3 Ruhspirit those ruled by it are the winners The winner loves God by annihilating his will in the will of God similar to Super Ego lbrahim ibn Adham d 790 First teacher was Christian monk Renounces princely life in Balkh in Afghanistan after seeing suffering around him and starts asking questions finds answers in Islam Poverty faq r Abstinence zuhd a Renunciation of the world b Renunciation of the joy of renunciation giving up pride c Demolition of the importance of the world or the renunciation Trust in God tawakkul tst phase of Sufism quotPiety mindedquot opposition to the status quo Marshall Hodgson Rabia alAdawiyya Love for Love39s Sake 1Former slave born at a brothel escaped that life traditional stories not fact necessarily 2 Didn39t get married 3 Had male disciples 4 Lived in Basra 5 Most profound discussion of love came from her 6 Hasan alBasri was in love with her 7Story of her wanting to burn paradise and quench hell in order to take away devotion from fear or desire but instead for the sake of loving God 8Wrote quotMunajatquot Intimate Conversations wGod Junayd from Baghdaddisciple of Rabia Love qualities of the lover be replaced by the qualities of the beloved Annihilation fana in God39s love and remain baqa in His will No rationalism or logic in love and faith Truth can only be spoken off through quotishaaraatquot subtle allusions Mystical secrets should not be revealed to those unschooled in mysticism Junayd d910 Developed doctrine of fana removing everything within you from you for the sake of God Annihilationextinction in the divine Unity wdivine Result of this fana is quotbaqaquotcontinuance or abiding in the will of God Baqa Removal of the temporal from the eternal according to Junayd Residuethat which exists after quotfanaquot Uses verse 5016 for this justification jugular vein Junayd39s quotsoberquot approach to Islam Balance bw God39s legislative code based on the literal interpretation of the Qur39an and the Sunnah shari39a and the mystical code based on ta39wil or allegorical readings tariqa Mystical secrets should not be divulged to those untrained in the mystical sciences Intoxicated Sufism Rejection of the shari39a Rejection of the community of common Muslims Freedom from praise of humans Abu Yazid alBistami aka Bayazid Son of a Zoroastrian Indian teachers Forgetfulness of the self is remembrance of God Very different from Junayd39s reasoning of mysticism quotGlory to Me How great is My Majesty quot To him the Prophet39s Heavenly Journey becomes model worthy of emulation for the humans Husayn Mansur alHallaj executed 922 Studied wJunayd in beginning but Junayd refused to make him his quotdisciplequot Traveled to Gujarat and Sindh in 8 Asia quotAna39l Haqquot Uses metaphor of moth and flame candle candle being the beloved moth the lover Seeing only God and losing the Self Pharaoh quotI am your highest lordquot 7924 Pharaoh only saw himself and lost me Husayn saw only me and lost himself Redemption of lblisSatan Kitab attawasin named after mysterious muqatta39at letters in the beginning of Surah Yasin Accusation of Doctrinal Error Hulul quotdescent of God into human bodyquot Surah allkhlas Wine becomes popular metaphor to express sense of intoxication when one loses himself to God Tensions bw Sobreity sahw and Intoxication sukr Legacy of Hallaj Great victorious martyr Drunkardgood and bad Bold foolish petty Qadariwah vs Jabariyyah Free will vs predestination Umawads 1 st dynasty of the Islamic world argued in favor of Jabanyyah Their opponents argued individual possesses free will is responsible for hisher decisions and thus choosesdenies the absolute will Madhdhabs of Sunni sectUsul alFiqh Hanafis Hanbalis Malikis Shafi Many of these laws correspond to geographic regions Theology in Islam quotKalamspeechquot Pro and con arguments regarding disputed matters of religion The Mutazilite School of Kalam Rational Argument and reason used to make sense of religion resurrection of the soul but not of the body humans have free will no vision of God possible since this would place him in space middle position bw Shi39as and Sunnis Qur39an is created The Ashari School of Kalam God39s OmnipotenceHe has power to determine all things whether good orbad Human free will is impossible bc God creates all things The Qur39an is God39s speech therefore eternal and uncreated AlAshari d941 First a Mu39tazilite Rejected figurative interpretation Bila kayf wo asking how AlGhazali Synthesis of various ideologies His views of shari39a shaped by Sufism Mysticism cannot be understood through formal studies it has to be tasted by quotecstasy and moral changequot The lncoherence of the Philosophers Disagrees wAristotelian conception of cause and effect quotthe most we can actually establish is their repeated concomitancequot God is the only real cause of all events Shi39a Partisans of Ali Twelver lthna Ashariyyah Fivers Zaydis Seveners lsmailis AlAzhar University Founded in 972 by the Fatimids lsmaili Shi39as Large libraries and research centers Scholars from various parts of the world Crusades Knight of ChristFaithful of Saint PeterPilgrims Christian access to Jerusalem Pope Urban ll39s attempt to unite Christendom under his leadership Countering the rise of Muslim power Created many divisions within Christians and killing of Jews Christians and Muslims Bitter legacies Saladin 1187Crusaders defeated under his leadership The Mongol Invasion 1258 Baghdad sacked by grandson of Genghis Khan Abbasid caiphate ends Mongols were after Bayt alHikmah An Introduction to Islam Notes Chapter 1 Muslims are second largest religion w157 billion members Five basic beliefs required of Muslims 4 final judgment includes quotdoctrine of last thingsquot which is debated bc of the tension whuman free will Falahsuccess prosperity Dhimmimember of quotpeople of the Bookquot Madhhabschool of Islamic Law Din wa dawlareigion and state Egypt in its classical periods were approx 30002200 BC Old Kingdom or quot pyramid agequot Innovator lkhnaton 1353 instituted monotheistic cult about 1000 years after fall of Old Kingdom which was to exalt pharaoh as a god Cult of OsirisOsiris thought to be king of Egypt jealous brother Seth associated wdesert tried Osiris to get throne Isis Osiris39 wife searched for body and revived him and became impregnated Seth was out hunting one night found the body and cut him into pieces Isis gave birth to Horus who watched over Egypt Supreme Egyptian virtue was Ma39atjustice depicted in form of woman weighing scales wfeather At post death trial if bad human crocodile monster devoured human but if innocent then soul went to Elysian Fields Topocosmcomplex but harmonious relationship of individual society time loca on Mesopotamia different than Egypt No seasonal regularity open topography Ruled by many different groups More pessimistic view of life ancient story of Gilgamesh These people Sumerians first civilized that region Others are Babylonians and Assyrians both Semitic All are aggressive assertive innova ve Sumerians invented writing spread to Egypt First written code of law was Code of Hammurabi in Babylon Mesopotamia had advances in math astronomy architecture Egypt liked consistency Mesopotamia liked variety One of Babylon39s gods was Marduk who vanquished Tiamat demongoddess of chaos People always believed that justice came from gods King is seen as agent of Marduk Similar to Mandate of Heaven by Chinese Terah Abraham39s father took him and Sarah from Babylon to Haran headed to Canaan for a new life Ethical monotheismGod is just and good and requires righteous behavior from His creaturesfoundation of 3 Abrahamic religions Moses39 story in the book of Exodus Sinai covenant Torah including 10 commandments was foundation of Israel Children of Israel entered Canaan Tension wcovenant wYahweh Prophet Amos denounced Israelites as luxuryloving vain insensitive Conventional understanding for prophet is someone who can foretell the future But PROPHETS really were people who transmit messages from God about the divine world to humans They were not so much foretellers as they were forth tellers Parable of God39s love with the world is in the Book of Hosea who took a prostitute wife and still loved her despite how undeserving she was lsrael eventually taken over by Romans and Jews dispersed New ears was called Rabbinic Judaism which focused on study of Torah known as quotTalmudquot Rabbinic Judaism is really quotclassical Judaismquot Some Jews adopted contemplative disciplined life of purified community apart from society such as Dead Sea community Essenes Others concluded that Romans were evil to be endured These last were the majority in Palestine Sadducees and scholarly Torahobservant Pharisees simple Jews This last group had Jesus born during reign of Caesar Augustus Jesus39 message was not entirely original Jesus did not so much preach a message he WAS message His name was the quotNew Adamquot For John Jesus was the quotLogosWord of God quot Jesus was not the sort of messiah that most people expected or wanted a humiliating sort of savior but his followers thought him so Gospel writes memoirs of Jesus Gospel First Gospel was Mark39s Luke39s Gospel traces Jesus39 genealogy all the way back to Adam Paul was an apostle who first persecuted Christians but later translated Gospel into Hellenistic languages His themes were freedom in spirit and lordship of Jesus lnsisted that God was calling people to responsible life Christ came as fulfillment not as continuation of Torah Paul raised in Tarsus Roman citizen Had theology for both Gentiles and Jews Paul made 3 missionary journeys starting new churches and renewing them Judaism characterized by orthopraxyquotdedication to correct practicequot Christianity characterized more by orthodoxy quotcorrect opinion or doctrinequot lslam resembles Judaism more than Christianity in that law and duty become more urgent that theological reflection or creedal definition Both don39t have official creed Chapter 2 quotIsland of the ArabsquotArabian Peninsula 1 million square miles inhospitable terrain sparse population southern region affected by Indian ocean monsoons Much of southern sector is vast desert known as Empty Quarter alRub al khali connected by narrow strip of desert known as alDahna to Nufid desert in the north West sector of Arabia is called Hejaz and referred to as quotcradle of Islamquot Arabs are Semitesspeak language belonging to large family of related tongues Hebrew Aramaic Syriac Akkadian Assyrian Part of larger language group proAsiatic includes Berber languages Amharic other Ethiopic languages ancient Egyptian Coptic quotSemitequot comes from Shem one of Noah39s sons who came forth from the Ark after the Flood Theory that Semitic speaking peoples originated in the Arabian peninsula Other theories place their origins in Africa or S Mesopotamia Arabs trace roots to 2 sources Norths and Souths Southern branch in Yemen was peninsula39s aboriginal people Norths who settled in Hejaz Najd and Nabataea descended from Adnan descended from Ishmael These 2 branches remain distinct though Islam narrowed gap a lot S branch says they39re descended from biblical forebears Joktangrandson of Dominant way of life was pastoralist people divided into tribes Genealogy was important to them Conservative and consistent way of life Main means of livelihood was to raise camelssheep hunting and bodyguardsmercenaries Raiding known as quotghazwa razziaquot means of adding to clantribe39s stored goods a sort of sport Surah AlAdiyat is vivid passage that preserves spirit of a Bedouin raid Asabiyagroup feeling power that bound together a tribe or clan Family represented by tent Tents together make up hayy which makes a clan qaum Several clans make up tribe qabila Clan has one Shaykh and calls itself by one name Banu Hashim was the Prophet Muhammad39s 39Irdpersonal honor individual39s most valuable possession Attack on honor called for deadly retaliation Honor came through courage loyalty generosity Muruwamaniness Hilmforbearance highest virtue possible for human being Camels were praised often more than women it is said that there are 1000 words in Arabic that mean camel Standard genre of poetry was quotqasidaquot or quotodequot poetry had its roots in religion esp prose of the quotkahinquotshaministic practitioner enabled them do predict future and heal Sha39irpoet one who knows believed that the poet received knowledge from a jinni or satan Birth of poet was celebrated his special power was in curses against enemies Each year in truce months fair held at Ukaz where poets would compete Among 360 idols at Ka39ba were 3 called quot Daughters of Allahquot alUzza Venus morning star chief deity to whom human scarifies were offered alLut Manat goddess of fatedestiny Ka39ba had anthropomorphic deity named Hubal meaning vaporspirit Beside him were the kahinsarrows used to draw lots Some native Arabs were monotheists neither Jews nor Christians called hanif which seems to originate from an Aramaic word meaning quotpaganquot Chapter 3 During pregnancy Amina saw a light emanate from her body by which she could see castles far off in Syria Another legend caravan traveling to Syria stayed in Bostra major center of Monophysite Christianity Bahira monk noticed Muhammad was shadowed by a cloud while it was sunny Invited Quraysh to dinner and asked Muhammad questions Discovered seal on his back in the shape of a cupping glass Wahyauditory inspiration revelation After call to prophecy a long period of time occurred where contacts wdivine source didn39t recur This is called the fatra and continued long enough for Muhammad to get depressed Revelations resumed wSurah AdDhuha 93 Namusangelic message as described by Khadija39s cousin Waraqa ibn Nawfal either a Christian or hanif One unforgivable sin is shirkassociating partners wGod one who does this is a mushrikidolater Surah that most points out Allah39s greatness and unity is Surah 112 Surah Al lkhlas For a very brief period according to one source Muhammad acknowledged worship of these 3 goddesses alongside Aah but later realized by means of revelation that the permission to do so had come from Satan Surah 53 1923 The satanic verse was removed from Qur39an at God39s command according to one historianexegete Abu Bakr freed the slave Bilal who became the Prophet39s chief mu39adhincaller to prayer Abdslaveservant of Allah lbadatvarious acts of worship lsra wal Mi39raj Night Journey and Ascent Muhammad sleeping near Ka39ba Gabriel came and split open Prophet and washed his insides in a golden basin filled with faith another version has Zamzam Then Buraq steed whead of woman and body of horse was brought and led Muhammad to Jerusalem and then up into heavens Sufis place great emphasis on this journey For some time Muhammad regarded as poet sha39ir kahin or madman majnun Nabione to whom GOd has spoken Rasulapostlemessenger charged wcommunicating what God has told him to others All rasuls are nabis but not vice versa Conversions of Umar and Hamza made it safe for the Muslim to worship at the Ka39ba for the first time Medina has experienced much tension and fighting bw two major Arab tribes Aws and Khazraj Early Jews were outnumbered and in the middle 618battle bw both in Bu39ath Muhammad and Abu Bakr left Makkah together leaving Ali in his bed on the night the Quraysh planned to kill him Hid in a cave for 3 days Sept 24 622 Ali also arrived safely to Medina Became start of Hijri calendar July 16 622 Medinans known as Ansarhelpers Those who made Hijra were known as Muhajrunemigrants Constitution of Medina united all the tribes not by kinship but by religion Emigrants needed to find jobs in Medina but disadvantaged bc of lack of agricultural experience Tried manual labor then broke traditional truce by raiding Muhammad received revelation that although breaking truce was sinful persecution of Islam was more so Relations wJews became difficult when new qibladirection of prayer was established from Jerusalem to Makkah Battle of Badr was started when huge caravan was coming home to Makkah and 300 of Muhammad39s followers intercepted it w900 Makkans against him Muslims victorious 625Battle of Uhud mixed success 627Battle of Trench 10000 Makkans against 3000 defenders Persian convert suggested trench Stalemate at the end Makkans retreated 2 wks later Jewish clan of Qurayza found to have been planning rear attack with Makkans and were attacked after Makkans went home Not an antiJewish act but an antitreason act 628Muhammad led host of pilgrims to Makkah for Umra but were denied Was his way of testing the waters Returned the following year for three days The year after 630 conquered Makkah After losing Khadija Muhammad married 10 wives and took 2 concubines Most marriages were political others were caring for bereft and unwanted women Married Zaynab Zayd39s wife after he divorced her Controversy but settled in 3337 granting permission to marry her Chapter 4 Shura selected Abu Bakr as khalifa which caused resentment Riddaapostasy where Arab tribes began to reassess close associations maintained wMedina under Muhammad39s leadership Egypt conquered by general Amr ibn alAs in 640 Byzantines also surrendered Greek forces retook Alexandria in 645 Process of Arabization and lslamization in Egypt was gradual bc of Christian Coptic minority ArabIslamic empire centered in Damascus Abbasid capital in Baghdad Peoples of the Book were granted dhimmiprotected status under Islamic governments forbidden to build new houses of worship on new sites but they could repair existing ones required to wear distinctive clothing pay jizyapoll tax kharajadditional land tax Before Umar died he realized the trouble that the search for a successor could bring so he appointed a shura to represent Muslims to select new khalifa Uthman was chosen but weakest candidate and a compromise of powerful rivals Ali didn39t punish the killers of Uthman and cancelled some of his appointments AishaTalhaZubayr caused resistance They were defeated in Battle of the Camel Mu39awiya refused to step down when Ali sent a new governor Ali and Mu39awiya met at Siffin in May 657 Mu39awiya demanded punishment of Uthman39s assassins at the least and seemed to favor the shura Clever trick by Syrians put Qur39ans on their spearpoint and faced Ali39s men wcry quot Let God decidequot Suggested by Amr ibn alAs who was also the arbitrator for the Syrians Iraqi arbitrator was Abu Musa alAshaari Kharijites left Ali after arbitration Very Quranically based movement dedicated to divine justice Hasan 2nd Shi39a imam and Husayn 3rd Shi39a imam Fatima their mother died during caliphate of Abu Bakr exalted woman also regarded as quotvirginquot and quotqueen of women in paradisequot After All was killed Hasan ruled as caliph but abdicated power to Mu39awiya Mu39awiya one of the greatest leaders in Islamic history molded by hilm forbearance and discipline 680tragedy at Karbala where Husayn was martyred Ta39ziyapassion play in IraqIran to commemorate Husayn Abbasid movement promoted first caliph Abu Muslim who was a mawali Gained movement and in 750 killed off all Umayyads except one Marwan II caliph at the time fled to Egypt and was later murdered Abd alRahman tried founding Umawad dynasty in Spain First Abu Muslim then Abu alAbbas succeeded by more powerful brother Abu Ja39far who executed Abu Muslim to make his control total Reigned as al Mansurthe victorious Abbasids ruled in the name of returning ummah to primitive state but resembled the old Persian shahs Abbasid age was glorious period 0 medieval Islamic civilization quotBelles lettres adab were popular Lots of progress in science math and medicine Peak of Abbasid power during Harun alRashid39s rule coincided wCharlemagne in the West Abbasid capital established in Baghdad after revolution in 758 mid10th century was end of caliph39s absolute rule Several Persian Eastern Turkish tribes were having heavy influence on waning caliphate Group of Buwayhids Shi39a Persian soldiers held caliph prisoner in his own palace and used him as legitimator of their own policies 10th and 11th centuries were bad for caliphate but Persians excelledknown as Renaissance of Islam Period of alGhazali39s time Turkish converted to Sunni Islam and established great Ottoman empire with Istanbul as its capital Genghis Khan was a Mongol conquered most of central Asia grandson Hulagu executed last Abbasid caliph in Baghdad Turkish also assimilated somewhat to Mongols Mongols and Turkish collectively called Tatars Ottomans took title of caliphs after 1517 but it was after their rule that 3 great Islamic empires were established called gunpowder times 1Mughals named after Mongol in India 2Safavids in Iran established Shi39ism as religion 30ttomans in Eastern Mediterranean Shi39a dynasty established in Egypt in 9th century known as Fatimids Started Al Azhar University in Cairo which still remains top religion school in Islamic world Sultanate of Delhi founded in 1206 Chapter 5 Another name for Muslims is muwahhidinunitarians upholders of divine unity Islamic eschatologyquotdoctrine of the last thingsquot Judgment day whumans being resurrected was unsettling to Arabians who didn39t believe in bodily resurrection before Islam Divine decree and predestination is known in Arabic as quotAlQada wa39lqadarquot Most frequently debated of all lslamic concepts Sayings of Prophet Muhammad tend to be more predestinarian than the Qur39an is lmanfaithbelief Mu39minone who believes Mu39min gt Muslim in Qur39an quotOrthopraxyquotright practice is what characterizes Islam39s sense of right religion Here Islam is closer in spiritpractice to Judaism not Christianity C stresses doctrinal clarityunderstanding by means of creeds dogmas theologies lJ view religion as way of life and ritual patterning of that life under God Taharapurificationwhich is half of faith Both spiritual and physical Right hand used for normal things such as eating and drinking shaking hands left used for dirty things Najasaimpurity external to the person Wet discharges urine blood pus feces DOESN39T include sweat milk saliva tears 2 of the 4 Sunni law schools consider semen to be clean Shafi39iHanbali Winealcohol discharges from pigs and dogs need to be washed 7 times wa little dust in the water Hadathimpurity caused by person39s engaging in certain activities Minor AlHadath alAsghar sleeping urine or feces breaking wind intoxication fainting touching human genitals wpalm skin contact bw mutually marriageable persons esp if sexually arousing Major AlHadath alAkbar seminal emission whether intentional or not female orgasm only if wet secretion accompanies it sexual intercourse menstruation postpartum bleeding major impurity brought by human sexualityJanaba Minor hadath is removed by wuduablutions Major hadath removed by ghuslbath Tayammumspecial procedure of wudu when water is unavailable Circumcision of males is strongly endorsed some female circumcision also occurs but not universally regarded by Muslims as being required or desirable Niyyaproper intention sometimes uttered according to certain schools of thought 5 times prayer and saltatalJum39uah funerals and 2 eclipses are required Besides purification for prayer proper covering is also required which is known as sitr Also proper niyya and then face the qibladirection of Makkah Mihrabmarks of qibla in a mosque For Shi39a Adhan they say quotHurry to the best activityquot twice in each adhan and don39t include the Fajr quotPrayer is better than sleepquot lqamacommand to actually rice up and begin service Wording almost identical but lower tone and rapid wno pauses masjidplace of prostration Taslimquotpeacequot which is what salat is concluded with considered to be directed towards fellow Muslims and two recording angels Sadaqacharity Zakat is more like a tax but payable once a year Zakat has a meaning of purity which purifies one39s wealth when the due is paid Property considered illicitly held if no zakat paid on it Categories of property for Zakat include 1cash gold silver 2 merchandise used in trade not personal items 3 minerals extracted from the ground 4 ancient treasurer 5cattle 6crops Before Zakat owed minimum amount of each type of wealth must be owned nisab For first 4 categories equal to 90 grams of gold but tax due only if property has been owned for full lunar year 25 of amount over nisab but ancient treasure rate is 20 Nisab for cattle varies 5 camels 30 cows or oxenbuffaloes or 40 sheep or goats For crops it is 1400 lbs but Hanafi school requires Zakat on any size of harvest Zakat owed by Muslims who have reached majority most say 16 provided that individual declared himself to be adult and person must be sane Zakat owed at the end of the year except for crops during harvest time minerals when extracted treasure when found Recommended that Zakat starts in local cases of need When that is taken care of then distant needs can be addressed Also something called Zakat alFitrcost of one day39s food for one needy person for the feast of breaking Ramadan fast Everyone who can must pay this Intentional breaking of fast is punishableif it is broken by sexual relations one is required to either fast 60 days feed 60 people one meal each or give charity equal to a meal of 60 people This penalty is called kaffarareparation penance Fasting prohibited for pregnant menstruating women or women who just gave birth They must make it up later Travelers may fast if no undue hardship is experienced or they must make it up later Old people minor children sick insane are exempt lf old and feeble can afford it they should give a full meal to a needy person for each day of fasting missed For insane person no religious duties required at all l39tikafspiritual retreat in masjids Ramadan Qur39an revealed Battle of Badr Husayn born on the 6th Khadija died on the 10th Makkah occupied by Muslims on 19th All died on 21 st but was born on the 22nd 8th Shi39a imam died on 21st Name quotRamadanquot comes from root meaning quotsummer39s heatquot and dates back to when Arabs observed calendar that coincided with regular seasonal cycle Muslim lunar year shorter than solar year by approx 11 days Regarded as mercy from God in that Ramadan will fall in all of natural seasons every 33 solar years so that hardships are evenly distributed Muslim lunar year has 12 months Muharram Safar Rabi39u alAwwal Rabi 39al Akhir Jumada aIUla Jumada alUkhra Rajab Sha39ban Ramadan Shawwal Dhu alQa39da and Dhu aHijja 4 months regarded as sacred Muharram Rajab Dhu aIQa39da Dhu a Hijja No fighting allowed except self defense Hilal moonnew moon Days recommended for fasting any 6 days of Shawwal 9th10th11th days of Muharram Fasting prohibited on two major Eids and following 3 days of greater feast and recommended not to fast Fridays unless falling within long fasting period Hajj should be performed only if legally an adult as well as physicallyfinancially capable All debts should be paid off Money set aside should be purified by means of Zakat One39s will should be drawn up before departure in case of death lhramritual wearing by pilgrim which symbolizes state of purity as well as grave clothes One who dies while performing Hajj is considered martyr Ka39ba is a true quotaxis mundiquot where heaven and earth and aspirations and loyalties of all Muslims meet Unity also seen in lhram required by males It is a 2 piece seamless garment erases any distinctions of wealth education class language ethnicity Female pilgrims wear native clothes and may wear a simple ihram garment Male pilgrims through lhram symbolize Islam39s unity and egalitarianism and women through variety of dress symbolize diversecreative character of Islam as global community of faith Hajj observed on 8 12th days of Dhu alHijja in last month of lunar year Last 3 months Hajj season bc pilgrims arrive in beginning of Shawwal Lesser hajj known as Umra which can be performed whenever but Rajab is esp auspicious Miqatgates or checkpoints by which pilgrims enter Makkah nonMuslims forbidden there At Miqats lhrams are donned and all pilgrims renew intentions Haramsancuary using same root that denotes sacredness taboo purity or forbidden Muhrimone in sacred state of ihram Forbidden during Hajj intercourse clipping nails hunting wearing perfumejewelry cutting hair uprooting living things arguing talking about opposite sex etc Women39s hair must be covered men required to keep them uncovered Manasik alHajjrites of pilgrimage Tawafcircumambulation of Ka39ba 7 times counterclockwise 3 times during Hajj at beginning after ritual haircutting when blood sacrifice is complete and before leaving Makkah at end After Tawaf pilgrims perform 2 rakat salad at Place of Abraham then perform the rite of sa39y between Safa and marwa With this finished Umra is complete and haircut is required For Hajj pilgrims travel then to Mina on Arafat Perform wuqufstanding ceremony is the heart of Hajj When sun sets pilgrims pack for Muzdalifa open plain on way back to Makkah There Maghrib and lsha are combined and pilgrims collect 49 pebbles for throwing 10th day pilgrims sacrifice animals on Feast of Sacrifice Eid alAdha Whoever sacrifices must share 13 wneedy person 13 wneighbor 13 for own household Flesh may be eaten by sacrificer and others but skins must be distributed to poor After sacrifice get a ritual haircuttaqsir can be accomplished like Umra by nails or removing some hair Marks end of restrictions of lhram White garment can be set aside but sexual relations still prohibited 2nd tawaf usually made at this point Next 3 days known as quotdays of drying fleshquot for sacrificial victims39 flesh After final stoning of devil pilgrims perform farewell tawaf and Hajj is done Some also perform farewell Umra Many then go to Medina to visit ziyara Prophet39s tomb and other important sites Not part of Hajj Some call Jihad a 6th pillar often included in discussions of ibadat Jihad striving exertion in the way of God Greater Jihadindiviudals personal struggle winstincts lack of faithdevotion more spiritual Lesser Jihadif necessary armed struggle against enemies of Islam but sonly as selfdefense Jihad as exertion aimed at spread of Islam but by peaceful means Extremist Muslims consider it military aggression Chapter 6 Qur39an means recitation AlMushaf means the book Another word for Qur39an is alKitabwritingbook alFurqancriterion alHudaguidance AlTanzil the downsent Surahs divided into Makkan and Medinan Early Makkangenerally brief highly rhythmic lots of imagery Often introduced by oaths Middle Makkanquieter more serene style Longer and more formal many passages introduced with quotsayquot refers to God as Merciful Final Makkanreferring to quotMercifulquot ceases and prophet stories are emphasized Medinan Surahslegal and social matters more prosaic intended for specific application Qur39an also divided by liturgy for purposes of recitation One scheme divides it into 30 equal parts number of days in Ramadan called Juz Juz broken down into 2 divisions called Hizb Hizb subdivided into quarters called rub lstiadhal seek refuge from Shaytan quot Sadaqa Allahu alazimGod Almighty has spoken truy should be said at the close of the recitation Art of recitation is called 39ilm altajwid or quotthe science of euphonious recitationquot also known as qira39a or tilawa Tartilplain slow monotonous recitation Mujawwadhighly florid emotional musical chanting Qur39an also used for ritualistic means like protective device from evil spirits amulets placed in a cartaxi Last 2 surahs called the quotTwo Charmsquot and used to ward off evil and black magic Law has been characteristic preoccupation of religious scholarship in Judaism but theology has been central in Christianity Tafsirexegesis commentary or interpretation More common Qur39anic term is ta39wil which later takes on special meaning as allegorical interpretation and is esp prominent in Shi39a and Sufi contexts Tafsir now represents both entire field of Qur39an interpretation and the actual operation of examining the plain text At this level findings of tafsir are not open to serious debate but there are a variety of alternative meanings At level of Ta39wil sectarian issues may affect interpretation of passages Mainstream of Qur39anic exegesiscalled tafsir ma39thurtraditional commentary commentary handed down Greatest achievement of this work was Abu Ja39far Muhammad ibn Jarir aLTaban Another type of Qur39anic commentary is tafsir bi alra39yinterpretation based on individual rational judgment preferred by more free thinker Muslims Identifies somewhat wMu39tazilite rationalist theology Most studied exegete is the Mu39tazilite alZamakhshari Qur39anic text regarded as ljaz alQur39anirreproducable Chapter 7 lsnadopening citation of hadith of people who mentioned it meaning quotsupport prop backingquot Matnsecond and main part of the hadith alBukhari reportedly collected 600000 hadiths Many were duplicates and many were found by him to be weak Came to 9082 hadiths wdiffering isnads Repetitions of Matn counted made it a total of 2602 39lm alrijalscience of men developed to collect info on everyone mentioned in isnads of hadith Essential for them to possess both adlmoral character and thiqa literacy accuracy of the rarest quality before he could be called trustworthy Next level included transmitters wgood moral but literary skills less than perfectcalled saduqtruthful Weakdaif and etc Acceptable hadiths graded according to categories of sahihsound and hasanacceptable literally beautiful Major Collections of Hadith 1MalikMaliki ibn Anas who lived in Umawad period descendant of a Companion greatest work is quotMuwattabeaten pathquot this work is one of most highly respected of all hadith collections and still essential to scholarship and law Taught caliph Harun alRashid39s sons 2Ahmad lbn Hanbalactive in generation after Malik Was orthoprax complied collection of hadith called quotMusnadquot so called bc arranged according to isnads of companions 3 Bukhari and Muslimtraveled extensively to find hadith Bukharipoor sometimes had to beg for food not sedentary scholar but possessed quotHilmquot wrespect to others Gentle and moderate in criticisms very very knowledgeable was tested in Baghdad by group of local hadith experts where they mixed up isnad and matn on person and he correct them all Four Additional Collections of Hadithby alTirmidhi Abu Da39ud alSijistani al Nasa39i lbn Majah These collections called quotsix booksquot or quotsix sahihsquot Shi39a recognize 5 collections and generally accept only those hadiths transmitted by Ali and his partisans Collection entitled quotNahj alBalaghaway of eloquencequot contain sayings attributed to Ali One popular widely used hadith known as quotMishkat alMasabihniche for lightsquot and collected by Husayn alBaghawi Arranged into 26 books Hadith Qudsidivine saying words of God apart from Qur39an ln wording however it is inferior in that it lacks i39jaz inimitability that all Muslims recognize in the Qur39an Hagiographywriting about saintliness Mawlid alNabiprophet39s birthday Chapter 8 Theology considered to be the quotqueen of sciencesquot in the Middle Ages No official Jewish theology or creed They believe in deed over creed Make religious studies for themselves by themselves Shahada is closest thing to creed in Islam Word quottheologyquot doesn39t exist in Islam as natural term more known as 39ilm al lahut39quotscience of divinityquot More common word is 39lmknowledge science Technical term closest parallel to theology is kalamwords discussion discourse Preferred words llm altawhidscience of the divine unity Kalam used as pejorative expression of strict Muslims who distrusts human reasons theologian known as mutakallim sometimes regarded to be more clever than wise and more sharp than sincere Theology only considered to be legitimate when its subservient to religious law shari39a Fiqhscience of Muslim jurisprudenceunderstanding Kharijites known as outlaw Muslims violent and executing anyone committing grave sins Called themselves quot people of paradisequot Azraqitesstrictest Kharijite faction considered theft amp adultery to make one quotmember of hellquot and were banished Najdite Kharijitemoderate only disciplined offenders when they habitually sinned in major way Basra in Iraq was center of Kharijite theological discussion included topic of grave sinner Some wanted to leave judgment to Godthis way of thinking led to Murji39ite position murji39ahope Murji39itesquotPostponersquot aka quotprocrastinatorsquot and very influential Dominant Sunni majority evolved from Murji39a generally ProUmayyad Qadaritesknown for upholding free will Qadardetermination measuring out Opposite position tended to be proUmayyad Jabaritesupholders of absolute predestine Jabrcompulsion Vogue of learning about Greek philosophyscience began wAbbasids in 750 CE alKindi the only Arab to become firstrate philosopher Heavily influenced by neoPlatonic thought Influential successors politicalphilosophical thinker alFarabi and philosophical theologian lbn Sina Abbasids at height of power in 800 wcaliph Harun alRashid caliph of Thousand and One Nights bc of stories about his court in Baghdad Legend Kharijites and Murji39ites debate about grave sinner and new position emerged in the middle Mu39tazilastanding aloof Mu39tazilites considered free thinkers and defeateddetermined as heretical by Sunnis Some superficial similarities bw Mu39tazilites and Christians participated in Inquisition in Iraq imprisoning torturing executing religious experts who didn39t conform to their creed for many years was official school of Abbasid court esp during caliph a Ma39mun who authorized inquisition rise and fall of school was political manner Mu39tazilite thought called themselves quotAhl aladl wa39l tawhidquotquot people of the divine justiceunityquot Agreed that anthropomorphic references of God should be taken as metaphorical for fear of compromising God39s unity Held Qur39an to be created word with time Followed Qadarites in adhering to doctrine of free will not to assert human prerogatives but to uphold divine justice resembled Kharijites in this sense of choices Question of Reward vs Punishment brought up by Mu39tazilite Abu al Hasan Ali alAshari who left his teacher and the theology behind after story of 3 brothers 5 Points of Mu39tazilite Thought Divine Unity Jus ce God39s promise and threat refer to heaven and hell AIManzila bayna almanziIataynintermediate position of the Muslim who sins Enjoining good and forbidding wrong Aqidacreed aka to bind to contract quotThe Greater UnderstandingquotFiqh Akbar is Muslim creed made for community by jurist Abu Hanifa 1We don39t consider anyone to be infidel due to sin nor do we deny his faith Aimed at Kharijites 2We enjoin good and forbid evil 3What reaches you couldn39t have missed you what misses you couldn39t have reached you Directed to Qadarites 4We disavow none of the companions of the Prophet nor do we adhere to any of them exclusively Aimed towards Shi39a 5We leave question of Uthman and Ali to Allah who knows all secret things attempt to unite community 6 Insight in matters of religion gt insight in matters of knowledgelaw Confusing perhaps quotUnderstanding fiqh in religion is more excellent than understanding fiqh in law serving Allah is better than gathering knowledgequot 7 Difference of opinion is token of divine mercy 8Those who believe but say that they don39t know whether Jesus and Moses do or don39t belong in apostles he is an infidel Possible attack on Jews and Christians but also intended to lead people to view all Prophets as worthy of acknowledgement 9Whoever says he doesn39t know whether Allah is in heaven or earth is an infidel 10 Whoever says he doesn39t know punishment of grave belongs to sect of Jahmites which goes to perdition Jahmites named after Jahn ibn Safwan from late Umayyad who denied eternal existence of heaven and hell instead believing that God was alone at beginning and will be alone at end This position is extreme tawhid Other creed quotWasiyat Abi Hanifaquot Fiqh Akbar llmost highly developedsystematic creed probably composed by alAshari Asharites didn39t anthropomorphize God tasbih or stripped Him bare ta39til but took middle course tanzihkeeping pure AlAshari generally considered to be chief rep of what came to be orthodox Sunni kalam 2 of greatest thinkers in Islamic history used Plato and Aristotle in their systems 1lbn Sinaknown in West as Avicenna combined Islamic mysticism wPlatonic idealism Also celebrated physician 2 lbn RushdSpanish Muslim Latin name Averroes Most respected commentator on Aristotle able to combine religion amp philosophy Wrote book against alGhazali39s controversial treatise 3alGhazali had controversial thoughts to philosophy and Islam Chapter 9 Shari39alslamic law literally means quotthe way to the water holequot but also means quotway of right pathquot more than law also right teaching right way to go in life power that stands behind what is right Fiqhunderstanding science of jurisprudence Ra39ypersonal opinions of early Muslim jurists in a collection of text Qur39an is impossible to use as direction of law bc doesn39t provide a lot of practical use Qiyasanalogical reasoning universally recognized as third source of law developed from Ra39y but was generally logically stricter ljtihadto exercise one39s intellect preceded for Ra39y contains within it a sense of struggle exertion same root as jihad ljtihad and Qiyas often used interchangeably but ljtihad is more general One who exercises ijtihad is known as mujtahid Later Muslims tended to imitate predecessors which led to taqlidimitation wo engaging in original ijtihad ljma39fourth source of fiqh quotconsenus of the communityquot developed along Ra39y and Qiyas strongest and most pervasive of 4 sources of law bc it determines how other 3 will be used Ulamalegal scholars means quotthose who are learned quot Not a clergy Some sort of popular ljma works to select them No centralized Islamic hierarchy or religious bureaucracy 1Faqihexpert in Fiqh relatively minor figures not official position 2 Muftilegal expert whether or not in appointed position is recognized for his knowledge and skill in law has considerable authority but in West only in marriage divorce inheritance delivers a fatwaformal legal opinion not Ra39y 3Qadilslamic judge entrusted in all matters of religious law Sunnis recognize 4 schools of law Shi39a developed 3 Sunnis recognize ljma in law but Shi39a do not relying on the imam Sunni form of govt is more contractualist while Shi39a is more authoritarian Madhhabschool of Islamic law literally meaning quota wayquot Five Ahkamprinciples of acts that Islamic law recognizes 1Fardh or Wajibdutiesacts required Performance is rewarded negligence is punished Fardh 39aynobligatory for every single Muslim salatzakat Farh Kifayaattending funeral prayers 2Sunna Masnun Mandub or Mustahhabrecommended but not required Performance is rewarded negligence not punished 3Ja39iz or Mubahindiffierent actions whose performance or negligence is neither rewarded nor punished 4 Makruhactions disapproved but not punished or forbidden 5 Haraamboth forbidden and punishable Sunni Law schools 1Hanafioldest founded in Iraq by Abu Hanifa Ra39y prominent in school39s method known as most liberalflexible of the 4 schools Qiyas was used and perfected by Abu Hanifa who refused to accept position of Qadi 2 Malikifounded in MedinaHejaz by Malik ibn Anas Great collector of hadith Wrote book quotAlMuwattaquot the beaten path was compilation of opinionsjudgments sources 3Shafi39iMuhammad ibn ldris alShafi39i greatest legal scholar in Islamic history Developed main principles of Usul alfiqhislamic jurisprudence 1 greatest contribution is raising the Prophet39s authority to 2nd to Qur39an by saying in his RisalaTreatise Refined use of Qiyas and defined ljma in classical form 4 Hanbaliyoung contemporary of alShafi39i Ahmed ibn Hanbal also trusted Hadith very much Three Branches of Shi39a 1Zaydis closest to Sunnis don39t regard imam as more than human 2 lsmailis recognize unbroken chain of imams down to present but emphasize 7th imam lsmail who wasn39t recognized by majoritygives them alternate name Seveners 3 lthna39asharis Twelvers have 12 imams last of whom left the world and is in hiding Shi39a Authority flows from above to below opposite for Sunnis in theory ljtihad prominent in Shi39as esp among lmamis In practice Shi39a law resembles Sunni fiqh Difference bw Twelver Shi39a law and Sunni law is Mut39atemporary marriage Most prominent Shi39a law school is Ja39fari named for Ja39far alSadiq sixth imam Sunni caliphate lasted 6 centuries until extinguished by Mongols in 1258 Later continued as part of Ottoman legitimacy Buwayhid amirs were Shi39a and took over much of empire by 5th Islamic century Theory of Sunnism was to recognize only one caliph though Sunnism continued wUmayyads after Abbasid takeover Spain by Abd alRahman lll alMawardi was assigned to study the institution of a caliphate He was a Shafi39i jurist served as Qadi under Abbasid caliphs alQadir and alQa39im Wrote Al Ahkam al SulhaniyaThe governmental statuesquot mamate made necessary by revelation not reason Office filled by election rather than designation Shi39ia waymust be an election even if one nominee Candidate must be of the Quraysh Caliph may nominate successor Mut carry title Khalifa RasulAllah and not Khalifat Allah Caliph must nominate the amir commander of the armies but if he seizes power then put up with him which was against Sunni thought Bay39aoath of allegiance Sultanoriginally pertained to temporal power esp military But sultans later started to present themselves as true guardian of faith After fall of caliphate Sultan was supreme Islamic ruler lbn Jama39a put forth extreme view that when unqualified person imposes himself on nation by military right his bay39a oath was automatic and legal Didn39t refer to shari39a when making this claim and wasn39t taken seriously except by Mamluke of Egypt who took power by force lbn Taimiyawanted to rid lslam of abuses was theologian legalpolitical theorist was often thrown into prison by rulers had very idealisticrealistic doctrine Held that only first 4 can be called caliphs rest are imams It is Muslim39s responsibility to establish govts in best way and get rid of bad rulers Was Hanbali jurist but was hard to categorize was also Sufi mystic attacked veneration of saintsvisits to tombs for blessing and intercessions wrote many treatisespamphlet Loyal to Hanbali but considered himself to be a mujtahid For Shi39a imams and caliphs were not the same thing although they were for Sunnis Zaydis aren39t insistent on specific lineage but recognized various descendants from Hasan and Husayn One strict stipulation is that imams may not succeed each other by inheritance to create a dynasty In theology they are Mu39tazilite and tend to be antiSufi In fiqh pursued many methods practice not much differently from the 4 Sunni schools lsmailis and lmamis have strong doctrine on imam as hereditary descended and divinely appointed leaders According to them he is a continuation of work of Muhammad lmamis maintain balance bw inner and outer doctrines lsmailis emphasize batiniesoteric dimension Both believe that cycle of nubuwwaprophethood ended wMuhammad and cycle of wilayasainthood imam friend began wAli and will end on Judgment Day Chapter 10 lslamic Mysticism and the Disciplines of Esoteric Piety Sufism is not a sect but a widespread and manysided dimension of Islamic piety sufiadept of the mystical path of lslam sufword derived from wool safapurity mutasawwifbeginner novice one who is just learning mustaswifone who wants to be admired as a seeker after spiritual truth but is just a phony Tasawwuftechnical term used by Muslims for Sufism Sufis became deeply involved in ta39wil batinhidden zahirobvious dhikrremembrance mentioning sometimes included the whirling dervishes dance Sufis use many hadith that are sound but also include other ones 1those that deal wProphet39s ascetic views and practices 2those that are more theosophical Sufis stress on the hadith Qudsidivine saying Sufism is known as the quotheartbeatquot of Islam Extreme asceticism is not condoned by Muhammad or in the Qur39an Sufis regard Abu Bakr as model of renunciation wArabic term of zuhd embraced poverty voluntarily Umar39s shabby garments became legendary inspired Sufis patched cloakfaqr central idea of poverty is faqirpoor one became synonym for Mutasawwif Hasan alBasri was very pious and strict but best known by early Sufis for asceticism and distrust of sensual world made contributions to kalam known as quotsoberquot Sufi quotAntinomianquot form of Sufism rejected Shari39a Rabi39a alAdawiya was a famous Sufi woman Many stories linking her and Hasan alBasri although they were many years apart Ibrahim ibn Adhamdisciple of Rabi39a took 14 years to travel to ka39ba often compared wBuddha bc he denounced princely lifestyle after some say an antelope spoke to him Ma39rifaenlightenment lbn alFarid greatest Arabic speaking poetic exponent of Sufism said that he composed his verses in a state of trance was pantheistic in learning Egyptian Wine is a metaphor of God39s love Safwapurity is important 2 kinds of poverty 1Faqrrenunciation of worldly goods 2 Maskanapoverty of lowliness wabsolute minimum of livelihood most people don39t seek or desire but find themselves in it tariqaway Shari39a embodies exoteric lslam known as zahir while tariqa embodies esoteric known as bainquot Most of the earlier and Abbasidperiod Sufis down to alGhazali belonged to sober Shari39a obedient group AlJunayd developed fanaannihilation Sufi doctrine commanded by Prophet in dream to teach people for their salvation wanted to be lost in bliss wunion of God Antinomian Sufism rejection of the Shari39a favor of pure dependence on God alone Malamatiyaa branch of Sufism root word means quotblamequot original form was concerned wfollowing God sincerely openly disobeyed divine law urinating publicly for reasons of cutting themselves off from pleasing others Intoxicated Sufism Abu Yazid alBistami quotGlory to Mequot AlJunayd39s disciple was alHallaj drifted from master to master rejected by aIJunayd who said he was mad traveled very intelligent ascetic life Martyred for convictions claimed to have miraculous powers example of moth encircling flame passion resembles Christ Maqamstations Hal ahwalstates moods AlHujwiri said station 1 is tawbatrepentence 2 is conversioninabat 3 is renunciationzuhd 4 is trust in Godtawakkul etc there are about 20 Abu Hamid Muhammad alGhazali known as mujaddidrenewer of lslam 500th anniversary of Islam 33 when Nizam almilk appointed him to his Islamic college wrote on philosophy fiqh logic theology follower of Asharite school fell ill for a long time debated about world vs eternal life finally left Baghdad to live secluded life in Syria became Sufi and spent next 11 years writingtraveling lived very poorly Chapter 11 Masters and Disciples The Forms and Functions of Sufi Orders silsilachain extending backward in time all the way to Muhammad and God type of spiritual isnad linked Sufis where teachings were handed down from master to disciple muridtomorrow39s shaikh was yesterdays faqir or murid disciple Disciple may not go on to other master in Sufism unless previous master allows it refer back to alHallaj reason why he had difficulty wmasters of his daydidnt receive confirmation 1st great Sufi brotherhood founded by Persian 39Abd alQadir alJilani student of Hanbalite fiqh in Baghdad Finally invested w khirqatattered woolen robe certifying Sufi status ribatretreatvery influential and had many disciples Sufi masters became part of hierarchy of saints all the way up to spiritual master called al insan alkamiperfect man who served as polequtb around which world revolved Abd alQadir had simple straightforward message but his followers later began to ascribe miracles to him so that it became a cult had 49 children sons of which continued his order39s activities Qadiri order became prominent spawned suborders like Rifa39i Qadiriyah unlike other orders didn39t have distinctive form of dhikr was orthodox and tolerant but later founder was extreme regarded as quotsword of Allahquot quotproof of Allah quot etc Suhrawardiya Order second of the great Sufi orders esp influential in India and Bangladesh Shadhiliya Order founded in N Africa by Nur alDin Ahmed ibn Abdallah alShadhili more extreme in practices than other large orders despite its appeal Bektashi Order among Turks closely associated wOttoman military elite the Janissary corps independent from orthodox Islam and included Christian traditional folk elements Salat considered not essential Held to esoteric doctrine centering in Ali Muhammad and Allah and recognizing 12 imams of Shi39ism drink wine adherents confess sins to leaders women participate as equals in rituals gather in meeting places called tekkes composed some of the finest Sufi lyric poetry disestablished by new secular govt of Mustapha Kemal Ataturk Badawiya Order very old wwide peasant following Sidi Ahmad became Sufi after transformation at age 30withdrawal long sHences took up residence in Tanta of Egypt became center of new order activities were unusual like standing on roof and staring at sun long silences prolonged screaming going wo fooddrink resented by other Sufi masters in Tanta as foreign intruder His Mawlid is celebrated throughout Egypt known to perform miracles People make ziyaratvisits to his tomb to receive his baraka Red associated whim Mawlid exceeds numbers of Hajj sometimes Rumi and the Mawlawis whirling dervishes circle around sheikh as they spin their form of dhikr named after Mawlana our master Rumi Rumi born in Balkh in N Afghanistan father interested in Suifsm his own son Sultan Walad continued father39s work Elevated to rank of sheikh at age 35 after becoming serious Sufi student at 25 Mastered levels of Sufi training and well schooled in traditional islamic sciences like father encountered unusual spiritual guides most important Shams alDin a Tabrizi became very good friends forgot about his own disciples who went after Shams39 life later stabbed by other disciples and one son of Rumi after being brought back from Damascus a few times mathnawisrhymed couplets written by Rumi book called quotBook of Husamquot by him suggests that predestinarian theology is work of Satan ma39rifagnosis Silsila became important when masterdisciple relationship achieved central position in Sufism Tariqa is passed down by means of silsila ta39ifaassociation organization more technical term for Sufi order For Sufis dhikr becomes central means of worshiping God may be either silent or spoken follows patterns depending on which Sufi tariqa is practiced Dhikr takes 3 main forms 1Dhikr alAwqatset dhikrs of each day following at least 2 of obligatory salat regulated by one39s master who gives permission for it and prescribes specifics Qadaris recite 33 times each sA aH AA 2 Dhikr alKhafipersonal recollection under guidance of one39s sheikh emphasizes breath control becomes quite elaborate long periods of solidarity needed to master 3 Dhikr alHadrathe dhikr of presence communal shared type presence is that of the Prophet Earlier known as sama39listening wmusic and sacred dance munshidspcial singer who leads the group dhikr in performance group dhikr not always musical for some orders disapprove of emotionalism Sama39elaborate form of Hadra centered in music and dance as means of ecstasy sober Muslims regard it as illicit which sometimes degenerates into sensuality Sufi lbn 39Arabi brought Sufi thought to highest point of subtlety and sophistication through philosophy wahdat alwujudthe oneness of being gt controversial considered all created things to be manifestations of God some called him pantheistic lbn 39Arabi was a muwahhidunitarian wrote around 500 works heart of his thought was love allowed him to be tolerant of other religions regarded Muhammad as insan alkamilthe complete human perfect man Unit 2 1258 Mongol sacking of Baghdad 1Consolidation of Sunni lslam into madhabs Hanafi Maliki Shafi39i Hanbali Ways in which Shari39a Law Code is mediated Qiyas Analogy based legal decisions ljtihad Independent legal reasoning one who exercises this is a mujtahid 0 within Shi39a Islam the gates of ijtihad are never closed esp lsmailis for Twelvers they say the imam is guiding religious authorities through mujtahids Ra39y Personal opinion of scholars esp in legal matters based on Qur39an and Hadith ljma Consensus of the pious members of the community Legal Maxim quotAl sulh sayyid al ahkaamquot Amicable Settlement is the best verdict Where disputes are settled Extended households Efficient and lowcost governing Concern for privacy Types of Judges Mufti Stated what the law was in a particular legal statement He issued authoritative statements fatwas o disputants who didn39t receive fatwas in their favor usually did not pursue the matter in courts Qadi Judge mediator Lahore Prophet Muhammad on India quot feel the divine perfume coming from Indiaquot Shrine of Bibi Pak Daman Lahore After Battle of Karbala in 680 a few women from Prophet39s family fled Arabia to seek refuge in India Locals so moved by their piety that many converted to Islam Indiabeloved39s mole the beloved39s tresses Kaale Hindu the Hindu Molebeauty enhancer Organization of the Muslim Spirituality in India Home mothers gender division becomes prominent in many areas circumcision Mosques prayers led by pious Muslims imams 5 daily prayers special Friday prayers attached to quotmakhtarquot place of learning Madrasas learning institutions grammar rhetoric logic Qur39an Hadith Adab Moral Literature Sufi tariqas organization unit way also as brotherhoodfraternity lrada longing Relationship bw student and teacher Muridstudent one who desires Talibseeker Muradteacher one who is desired ShaykhPeermasterelder can39t be referred to by student in the past once a teacher always ateacher Sufi Orders began to form around Khanqah abode of the sheikh lived on Futuh unsolicited gifts Kings endowed these khanqahs Tawajjuhintense meditationconcentration upon the sheikh or God Dhikrremembrance of God Ursanniversary of the saint39s quotunionquot means quotweddingquot in Persian commemorates worldly unites person whis creator Sufi Tariqas trace their authority through Silsilahs chains of transmission From AllahgtGabrielgtProphetgtAliAbu BakrgtHasan alBasri gtSheikhPeer Sufi mastergt Murid student 90 of silsilahs go back through Ali transmission of barakah grace baya oath of allegiance khirqa robe of honor Malala Yousafzai Front runner for Nobel Peace Prize 2013 Reception in Pakistan mixed Stands for Muslim women39s emancipation against the extremist elements of Islam ie Taliban Stands for the Western hypocrisy Mujahideen gt Taliban quotThese gentlemen are the moral equivalents of America39s founding fathersquot Reagan in 1985 Legacy of the Cold War USPakistan collaboration in the 1980s Madrasas turned into military training grounds Patronage of textbooks that take violence as a given Private militias funded Drug lords recruited heroin promoted Regulating Lives in the Worlds of Islam 1Gender 2 Law 3 Marriage 1 quotnikahquot sexuality outside marriage zina is a primary cause of social discord to many Muslims marriage is all about preventing zina Marriage managed by network of rules contract written or oral 2 contracting parties 2 witnesses woman39s guardian in many societies women initiate the marriage and they set all kinds of terms in their marriage contract T NT P N 3 Hanafis and Twelvers relaxed about the guardian 4 GuardianPartnership In most schools the guardian has to secure the woman39s consent 4 polygyny 4 wives 5 DowerDowry Mahr 1 paid by husband to the wife moneyproperty 2 paid in fullsplit into installments 6 Mutah quottemporary marriagequot specified period of time allowed during Prophet39s time but then forbidden in most Sunni communities permissible in Twelver Shi39a communities controversial practice has to have oral contract and dowry any child from that union is considered legitimate and can inherit from both parents Women can39t be married to participate in this practice doesn39t have to be Muslim 7 ldtah duration of 34 months that woman has to wait to see a possibility of pregnancy 4 Divorce 5Sexuality 6Spirituality Kecia All Points Discourse of Islamic Authenticity and its negative effects on intraMuslim debates about sex and sexuality Reuctance to fully disclose tensions and contradictions Gap bw classical doctrines practices present day values silence within many Muslim circles about these issues because they make people uncomfortable Shift in values tension bw classical models and ideas of quotconsent and mutualityquot structure of authority seective citation of the Qur39an and Hadith she is very against this audacity of scholars to speak for God or for Islam Marriage and Slavery Slavery Polygamy Fazlur Rahman God intended to abolish both institutions over time author God establishes justice human will is responsible for injustice advocates a move away from literal readings of the text Issue of Consent consent was not primary concern for many jurists how do we resolve tension bw classical texts and the values many Muslims hold today Dower as safety net for women tension bw classical lslamic sources and modern civil law in countries like the US Marriage Managed by Network of Rules 1contract written or oral preferably written 2Guardian 3 Dower MutahMu39ta Shi39a community Specified period of time Allowed during Prophet39s time but then forbidden in most Sunni communities permissible in twelver Shi39a Communities controversial practices 2 Uncommon Modes of Nikah Sunni community 1Nikah Misyar Marriage in transit 1 marriage contract stipulates that husband and wife give up several rights that are implicit in conventional nikah 2 Nikah 39Urfi customary marriage 1 state not involved in marriage 2 guardian optional in some cases What does Kecia Ali say that Islam doesn39t permit samesex marriage marriage is hierarchical contract bw man and woman issue of sin which would make lslam not much different than the practices of certain JewsChristians such as story of Lot prohibition on sex bw people of the same gender Defenders of Gay Marriage God39s justice requires that women who are attracted to each other women are allowed to follow their innate instincts ijtihad Divorce difference bw Shi39a and Sunni jurists over quottriple repudiationquot presence of witnesses not in one setting Khul39 divorce initiated by women Hanafi school makes this difficult Malikis much more liberal Male Circumcision khitna not mentioned in the Qur39an Female circumcision khafd not mentioned in the Qur39an contesting hadith interpretations issues in translation each word has many meanings and it is difficult to interpret quotexternalquot pressures shape conversations Issues in Interpreting Qur39an 1Determining whether a passage is genderspecific or genderneutral 2Androcentric translations from Arabic insan translated as quotmanquot and not as quothumanquot 3Tension bw egalitarianism and hierarchy in the Qur39an Issues that All raises in the context of Aisha 1Aisha39s marriage must be framed in its historical context 2 Notions of childhood vary from place to place and from time to time 3 Marriage has served purposes other than bringing together two people in love Ali39s Critique of Modern Muslim Views on Marriage issue of authority and where the ideas are coming from Qur39an or hadith Different modes of interpretation what Muslims believe marriage should be and how they actually work conventional gender roles no quotcoherent alternative to the classical understanding of marriagewhich presumes at least at some level male authority and controlquot the classical understanding of marriage speaking as though it has not changed but they have changed been contested debated criticizes quotprogressivesfeministsquot for asserting rather than defending POV and saying that they represent Islam when they don39t know what they39re talking about can39t pick and choose take everything into consideration can39t bring together random verseshadiths to justify their position God is on the side of justice but the injustice that is taking place is on the fault of the human beings An Islamic Ethics of Sex 1What makes sex lawful in the sight of God 1 Marriage union bw two people legal contract different opinions 2What are the basis on which we can answer this question 1 Qur39an and hadith Sunnah 39ulama can39t wish away the entire tradition of interpretation so the 39ulama must be taken into account Answers 1No picking and choosing 2 Individual project in dialogue with others ijtihad 3Traditions shouldn39t be romanticized these are interpretive decisions choices that we make in line with our own circumstances and to falsely say its part of the Qur39anhadith won39t work 4Wary of quotabsolutionist convictionquot be mindful that we39re not creating the same rigid ideology that we are ourselves criticizing Farid udDin Attar d 1220 inspired by Hallaj composed work quotMantaq altayrquot or quotdiscourse of the birdsquot quotlogic of birdsquot has 4458 rhyming couplets story is that quotbirds of the world gather to seek a kingquot Hoopoe the guide Hoopoe in Solomon tradition is who sends messages to Queen of Sheba story of split child built the temple could talk to animals Birds have a king sHe live far away journey to himher is difficult gt name of the King is Simurgh Talks about seeking knowledge in China which is very important knowledge beauty porcelain Feather comes down Hoopoe convinces other birds to look for the feather in China birds are enthusiastic at first and then start making excuses over journey Nightingalesymbol of the lover Hawkcourtly waits on kings guarding kings so didn39t want to undertake journey Parrotwants to find the water of lifeimmortality by following Khidr gt green actually the teacher of Aristotle so parrot said no bc of commitment to Khidr Peacockfallen soul that wants to return to paradise different from other birds that CANT FLY Duckspends its whole life washing outer self quotwater39s the only home I39ve ever knownquot Partridgeloves stones FalconHoma loves kings and earthly powers story says that if its wings are expanded over a person39s head that person will become a king Heronperpetually depressed love fixed on the sea Owlmiserly doesn39t want to leave its corner of choice Finchpessimistic says that we are too weak to have a vision of Simurgh Hoopoe becomes like the sheikhguideimam who answers all the birds39 questions 7 Valleys to the King core of text 7 stations the soul must consider before soul reaches its objective Talab Quest no journey is possible without that thirstdesire to make that journey often compared to intention you disclose before you start praying niyat lshq Love journey is difficult without love in the heart love of all that has been created by God for God wouldn39t create anything that he didn39t love Marifat Gnosis of knowledge not just of world around you or path and its steps that one is traveling on but also deeply hidden knowledge within oneself lstighna contentment and detachment knowledge that no attachment will ever last except for the bond between creator and creation Tawhid unity sentiment that everything comes from God and that everything refers to God Hayrat wonder astonishment you see diversity around you the great accomplishments of nature and you wonder how a limited component of existence can create such magnificence the answer within this world is that that can only happen within the grace the barakat of the creator Faqr o fana poverty and annihilation valley of humility it is this valley that one reaches extinction one realizes how insignificant ones existence is NO pride left when one remembers his own accomplishments he is reminded to look at others not for pride but for humility Ego is annihilatednonexistent Beyond the 7 Valleys is the Mountain of Qaf On the mountain top The station of Fana annihilation When they reach Fana they find Simurgh and encounter BaqaSubsistence famous wordplay breaking apart word means Si 30 and Murgh birds When 30 birds reach mountain top they see a huge reflection not of the king but of all of them together Point is that each individual bird is beholding collective reflection And THAT is the Simurgh The king is their COLLECTIVITY Moves from capital to lowercase Central themes our body is a cage and the soul is what is trapped in the cage to escape God is beyond any attribute or single being communitycollectivity is emphasized the story heavily resonates with many Sufi themes not so much as destruction of self but more of a nonexistence of a self Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi 12071273 the most celebrated poet of Sufism quotThe Poet of Lovequot quotWhen we are dead seek not our tomb in the earth but find it in the hearts of men quot was in a classroom students followed him out mysterious man met in the market whom Rumi invites to home legend has it that they stayed in his office for 40 days and when he came out Rumi was a changed man one of the things being that he composed poetry Shams adDin Tabrizi was the man d 1247 Rumi experiences his barakah grace at the age of 40 Shams kindles in Rumi the fire of love 40000 lyrical verses for Shams quotDivaneShamsquot When Rumi is asked about going to Hajj he says his entire object of devotion is in front of him Their relationship becomes scandalous bc Rumi had family wife children many students Many seem to hate this new man The Ghazal monorhymed ax bx cx multi themed lyrics first rule is that the beloved shall never be named love should be as ambiguous as possible which gives people space to be creative The Ghazal Universe Ashiq Love Mashuq Beloved Raqib Rival ghazal always written from the perspective of the lover the lover is masochistic enjoys pain suffering one of the addressees of the lover is the beloved mashuq and the beloved is actually not very important or nice usually is cruel but the lover is very interesting in how he expresses his relationshipaffectiongrievances with the beloved Beloved teases the lover with the Rival raqib The rose and the nightingale rosebeoved nightingalelover candle and the moth candlebeloved mothlover water bucket and hell torch and paradise coming from Rabia and alHallaj to express themselves and relationship wGod love for love39s sake rope and the gallows Hallaj quotI am the truth sent to the gallowsquot Love ishqlove ashiqlover mashuqbeloved quottrue love means farewell to the mind aqlquot Journey of soul from the Particular to the Universal where laws of land jurists etc is subservient to the laws of the heart deathunion with the Beloved Urs gt consummationwedding DivanE Shams Anthology of Ghazals I gave him so many names Perfect and Imperfect But since he39s absolutely Peerless He has a hundred times more The Masnavi 26000 verses aa bb cc ddrhyme Narrative tighter than that of the ghazal Didactic and at times linear Rumi39s Masnavi quotQur39an in Persianquot gt 2nd most celebrated work in Islam after the Qur39an Begins with Song of the Reed Its a reed that might sound like music to you but is actually the cries of the reed bc it has been separated from its reed bedsource just as we mourn our separation from our Creator this mourning is captured in all the sorrows that constitute our live Some students bring back Shams for Rumi after seeing how sad he was but then he disappeared again Rumor has it that his own sons dumped him in a well When others approached him asking to find him he said quotAna Shamsquot Inspirations after Shams Salah alDin Zarkub the goldsmith moon reflecting the sun Husam alDin Chalabi Shams fana annihilation Salah alDin Baqa stabilization Husam alDin sair ila lashya return to the createdcreative things Uses all 3 men to get to his own Union quotFihi Ma Fihiquot In it what is in it Rumi39s prose discourses quotThe Prophet is not called unlettered because he was unable to write He was called that bc his quotlettersquot his knowledge and wisdom were innate not acquiredquot Regulating Lives in the Worlds of Islam 1Gender 2 Law 3 Marriage 4 Divorce 5Sexuality 6Spirituality Spirituality and Economics the issue of interest riba Islamic Banking profit made on investment charity is not regulated but in alms it is required and regulated some Muslims say that all types of interest are wrong but others say its only wrong between two people and that businesses and interest are ok Food and Eating Habits haraam vs halal permissibe meat slaughtering of animals goatcowchicken has to be slaughtered in the name of God blood should be drained usually jugular vein is cut Clothing Silk and gold discouraged for men calls for modesty head covering hijab Death Rituals mourning customs visiting graves some say its good to visit some say no because person is part of the earth and there s no reason to mourn if person is dead Bid ah heretical innovation no consensus Chapter 12 Intro to Islam The Islamic Life Cycle and the Family At birth Athan should be recited in baby39s right ear and Iqama in left Also person should chew date and put softened morsel in baby39s mouth marking first feeding outside womb Then Fatiha recited 7th day after birth is Aqiqa when child usually named and sacrifice performed Aqiqarefers to infant39s hair which is shaved off and equivalent amount of donation given Sacrifice consists of 2 male sheep or goats Kunyahonorific name of a parent like Abu or Ummquot Nasab child carries this lbn or Bint Laqabhonorific nickname Nisbaname referring to town where one is from such as Ghazali On 40th day after birth mother is purified and able to resume ritual duties Basmalabismillah phrase often taught to child when young traditionally start reading Qur39an at age 7 Khitancircumcision often when they39ve recited entire Qur39an boys In some regions operation happens at age 1012 and with celebrations sometimes Khafdquotdecreasingquot or female circumcision cutting part of clitoris or making slight scar Operation done in private wo any celebration not practiced universally more cultural and widely disputed Marriage encouraged Prophet disapproved monasticism Didn39t allow anyone to prefer God so exclusively to give up marriage But he didn39t force people to marry nikkahislamic marriage legal contract waliguardia representative of first time bride in Muslim view opposed to western view romantic love is feeble basis for marriage and that it will grow out of the marriage awracovering of body except face hands some say feet zinaadultery fornication Polygyny approved but not common and disliked Can be done for reasons such as widows protection etc but should only be done in certainty of fairness Verse 43 interpreted as monogamy more preferred Urswedding giving rise to arusbride or bridegroom On wedding night many await anxiously after consummation and in some cultures bloody sheet is displayed as proof of bride39s virginity or groom39s potency Mahrquotbride pricequot gift given to bride lf husband divorces wife after consummated she keeps all the mahr if before then only 12 Talaqdivorce God considers it the most detestable of permitted things Repudiation quotl divorce youquot said 2x and then wait about 3 months to see if pregnant or work issues out some do it 3 times all at once but not as approved Inheritance strives to be fair Property divided but if businesses then waqf charitable trust created Ribausury or interest Mahramliterally means taboo as someone a Muslim woman can not marry Haramforbidden Halalpermissible tayyibgood and pure makruhdetestable but not haram 4 types of food forbidden carrion blood pork that which any name other than Allah39s has been announced Food of people of the book accepted marine animals accepted even if previously dead Right hand preferred over everything Not traditionally accepted to eat wleft hand eat wconversation eat while standing Silk and gold not allowed for men but silver and other two allowed for women Perfumes very emphasized women should use it after menstruating Beards encouraged for men and dying of hair to be distinguished from others such as JewsChristians Mutilating body wsurgery to improve appearance tattoos not allowed Wigshairpieces forbidden bc forgery Dying person39s face should be turned toward Qibla and recite the shahada Surah Yasin should be recited upon someone on the verge of death Person dying in the morning should be buried the same day But if afternoon then the next day Deceased is washed ghusl Private parts should be covered Right side washed first Washing in odd numbers scent used salat al janazah prayed quotsalat over the deadquot Janazah prayer has 4 takbirs 1st followed by either dua39a or alFatiha then typically prayer for the Prophet prayer for the deceased prayer for all Muslims Grave normally 46 feet deep niche in side called lahd into which body is placed on its side head towards Makkah Mourning should last three days wailing has been condemned Dead fetus should be buried with a name but without janazah Martyr buried in same clothes he was killed in wo ceremony in cloth wrapping Barzakhintermediate period in grave where person may experience punishment Ch 13 Ideals and Realities of Islamic Community Life Center of town is Friday mosque adjacent to it is the bazaar suq and sometimes a hammamcommunity bath Friends in society of same sex are affectionate in public but never couples Many people spend time in cafes which has games sometimes which makes people always be in touch with each other Egyptians are quite nonviolent as a rule but Yemenis are somewhat fierce and carry a curved dagger in their belts Many recreational events and festivals wedding circumcision Eid Prophet enjoyed footraces and so do many in these countries also wrestling archery fighting contests bw animals forbidden Gambling haraam some consider backgammon haraam bc of use of dice others say makruh if no betting done Movies are popular but are more clean than in the West There are clubs in Pakistan and Egypt but sharply criticized Recently Pakistan has removed alcohol from their clubs in effort of lslamization Smoking is common in Arab countries Indonesians smoke a type of clove One Sufi tariqa by Sidi Ahmad alBadawi in Egypt has teachings within lslam but has old cultural practices Saints not very common in Islam but some special people have elaborate burial sites that are often visited Qubbasdome over burial place Sharifslineages of important people in Prophet39s line Shrine in NE Java at burial place of Raden Paku who is credited westablishing lslam near seaport of Gresik in 15th cent Considered one of the Honored saints aka one of the 9 apostles of Islam who brought true religion to Java ls remembered by name Sunan Girl quotthe saint of Girlquot bc of a battle His elaborate tomb has many hindu designs and inner tomb chamber is guarded by nagas sculpted images of Hindu serpent deity Saint Yusuf Abu alHajjaj tomb has boats on it Only Saudi Arabia prohibits veneration of saints Wahhabi campaign tore down many burial sites and the Wahhabis trace their roots back to Hanbali lbn Taymiyya ziyaratomb visits important to Shi39a 10th of Muharram important day of Ashura for all Muslims but also the day of Karbala for Shi39a so on 9th day Shi39a fast and 10th day they commemorate death of Husayn Many also make ziyarats to city and his grave Ta39ziyaconsolation aka passion play form of theater which tells story of Husayn39s martyrdom and where men beat themselves Husayn and supporters wear green while Umayyads wore red Ta39ziyas were at the beginning performed on street corners or mosques and encouraged participation Ch 14 Major Movements and Trends in Renewal and Reform 3 phases of Islamic history 10rigins to Mongol conquests of 13th century CE which was quotclassical periodquot Superiority of sciences armaments literature etc 1 Dar allslamthe Abode of Submission vs Dar agarbAbode of Warfare which was outside the ummah 2 Mongols and devastation Characteristic genius of Islamic civilization no longer was as brilliant but instead a general degradation while West was gaining selfconfidence 3 Began around 1800 marks time when Napoleon was in Egypt and opened it up to Western influences 1 It was not just due to Westernization that Islam changed bc reforms had been happening within lslam too Shah Wali Allah of Delhi 2 Sufism influenced the shah Wahhabis go back to lbn Taymiwa who was suspicious of Sufis but considered himself a mujtahid Also didn39t insist on particular form of government for Muslims Led struggle against taqlidblind imitation Muhammad ibn Abd alWahhab traveled lands become Hanbali in Iran and then preached strict doctrine of tawhid Became associated wMuhammad ibn Sa39ud and formed partnership which became partnership of Saudi royalty Wahhab followed lbn Taymiyya and turned to Qur39an Sunna Sunni legal positions from first 3 centuries He denounced bid39ahheresy and worked to get rid of it God rid of tomb veneration attacked Sufism elaborate tombs required prayer in congregation but attacked those who shaved beard smoked etc Wahhabis spread rapidly sacked Karbala in 1802 and massacred inhabitants Shi39ism regarded as idolatrous wimam cults Though Wahhabis opposed Sufism they resembled Sufism to some extent calling their system a quottariqa Muhammidyaquot and organized into ikhwansbrotherhoods always ready for jihad Fazlur Rahman says they resemble Kharijis because many oppose them for their use of violence Taliban in Afghanistan profoundly influenced by Wahabbism Other reform movements SanusiLibya used social action to combat European colonialism Combo of Sufi and freeranging but more orthodox Sunnism Sons continue movement to this day MahdistSudan led by Muhammad Ahmad ibn Abd Allah selfproclaimed messiahmahdi the guided one Formed own set of pillars including belief in his own recitation of Qur39an observance of certain dhikrs he developed and no hajj Task was to overthrow EgyptianTurkish masters who ruled Sudan Considered a saint even though he forbade sainthood and shrine visits Movement in West Africa in Nigeria by Usuman dan Fodio Sunni scholarSufi shaikh Had been spreading strict Sunni doctrines throughout the years Condemned cultural practices such as music singing elaborate dressing social customs Led to military type jihad against Gobir leadership Ended wsizable Sunni Islamic state that Fodio39s followers called a caliphate His final years were spent advising on administrative matters in the caliphate teaching continuing to write poetry Regarded as a wall true saint which he strongly denied Grave became a shrine and his son continued his work Movement in India by Sayyid Ahmed Barelwi some think he was inspired by Wahhabis Denied allegiance to any Sunni schools of law Jihad was core of movement against Sikhs and British Sayyid Ahmed died in battle There was a need to reform Sufism Other modernist thinkers started movements that were either apologetic antiWestern or adaptive Common theme was reopening the gate of ijtihad Jamal alDin alAfghani was activist who traveled through countries calling out Muslims to wake updrive Western influences out Outside forces are are not enough to be rid of but change must be brought within the ummah Published articlespamphlets where he could although he was more of a socialpolitical activist than a thinker Pieces were more Afghani39s thinking but reflected the thinker 39Abduh Mohammad 39Abduh born in Egypt interested in Sufism studied in Azhar University Thoughtactivities marked by restraint and reflective tolerance but shared wmentor Afghani the hope of seeing Islam strengthened and W influences withdrawn He was rational theologian neoMu39tazila Core of his thought was ethics claimed right of ijtihad criticized saint veneration was not into old medieval Sufi worldview Sayyid Ahmad Khan identified wIndia liberal Muslim thinker wphilosophical learnings Admired the modern West and founded school at Aligarh which didn39t provide much Islamic education AlAfghani didn39t like him accused of being materialist dahiri and antichrist Also accused of quotnechariquot after nature bc he said that nature operates wo God39s managing Falahsuccess characteristic Islamic words for quotsalvationquot in this life and next Turkey established nationalism by Ataturk who abolished sultanate canceled Shari39a required salat to be performed in Turkish outlawed Sufi activities gt goal was to make Turkey an European country Saudi Arabia is one country that explicitly tries to modernize government through Islam Pakistan created after Muslim League was founded in 1906 in India which provided voice for Muslims Conflicts bw Muslims and Hindus brought leaders like Gandhi and Iqbal Iqbal proposed establishment of separate Muslim region which was birth of Pakistan but didn39t live to see it happen Pakistan started off wcrippling deficiencies in bureaucratic machinery diverse pop economy central geography all of which India had Continuous conflict over Kashmir Conflict bw E and W Pakistan in 1971 Bhutto as woman prime minister Pakistan is poor nation today but wlslamic spirit Activist organization Jamaati lslami founded by alMawdudi which seeks to bring lslamization to all levels of life IndonesiaIslam arrived late but it is the nation with highest lslam population and 4th highest nation in population Indonesian Islam is different bc it is very mystically inclined and exists harmoniously wother religions On Java there are 3 classes of Muslims 1Santrisorthodox and arabicized and conscious wrelationship wMuslims everywhere 2Abanganmajority who are Muslim but syncretized wtraditional customs 3 Priyayi Muslims but deeply influenced by Javanese past wlndian influenced attitudespatterns No Shari39a law but national unity comprised of 5 principles Indonesian pancasila monotheism humanism national unity democracy social justice lslam thrived but Abangan were persecuted politically by Santris so there was mass conversion to other religion In lran Shi39a revolution brought end to Shah Pahlavi39s modernization program He was harsh wopponents Western style of life emerged Long term conflicts bw rulers and scholars People generally venerate imam and have strong sense of leadership towards him as guidance by God Islamic Art and Spirituality 98162 Farid atDin Attar wrote Mantiq alTayr or Discourse of the Birds Previous treatise written by lbn Sina dealt more with intellectual vision which allowed soul to return to its celestial family Ghazali deals wsuffering and helplessness of the seeker who is saved through Divine gracelove Attar deals wspiritual and mystical experience of union Poem begins wlots of praises of God the experience of Ma rifat or gnosis then praise to the Prophet Poem is a reminder that the speaker has traveled there before and is to be trusted and the journey to the Simurgh is one worth making Hoopoe gathers all the birds is chosen as its leader and they journey through the 7 valleys of the cosmic mountain Qaf The 7 valleys are known as Talab quest lshq love Marifat gnosis lstighna detachmentcontentment Tawhid unity Hayrat wonder Poverty Faqr Annihilation Fana Each bird represents a weakness of the human soul Hoopoe represents Sufi sheikh pir In 20th section of story new story of sheikh introduced who falls in love wChristian girl and renounces his religion to try to be with her Only through dream wProphet is he saved and the Christian woman is so taken by his piety that she converts Birds finally reach the Divine thousands became 30 and they insisted upon seeing him Story of Joseph was presented to them and they realized they were traitors in that they hadn t recognized Joseph as a king Then they realize the Self and understand that Simurgh is themselves Annihilation of self through realization of self Jalaluddin Rumi later title was Khudawandagar lord and then Khamush silent Rumi s father was master Sufi titled his work Ma arif Rumi left home city Balkh at age of 1213 Traveled everywhere Sheikh Attar said that Rumi would set the world on fire whis skills Family then settled in Qonya His father died when he himself was 24 Rumi was only trained in exoteric matters and gave fatwas and answered questions on Shari ah Met Bahar adDin Muhaqqiq Tirmidhi who was disciple of his father and then became introduced to Sufism For 9 years he was a disciple under him Became trained in both exoteric and esoteric sciences Shams adDin Tabrizi arrived inspired Rumi s Diwan e Shams then disappeared Rumi created sam a dance Other inspirations were Salah adDin Zarkub and Husam alDin Chalabi inspired Mathnawi Wrote also Fihi ma fihi Ruba iwat Makatibcollection of letters Majalis isabah sermons Music is important in Sufism According to Rumi everything has a literal and hidden To understand the world of nature one has to penetrate into hidden Doctrine of alinsan alkamil the Universal man Doctrine of alwahdat alwujud Many debates about music and its permissibility Irony because of music in wartime jihad of recitation of Qur an etc Some argue that they should not listen with any other intention than spiritual unveiling to be in union Stories The Sheikh and the Confectioner s Boy The quest for reality friend wants friend to buy house near him and add to it for family first friend says we can t always strive for joys and pleasures The King and his 2 Slaves first slave was good and pure talked only good about smelly slave Smelly slave said bad about the good one when he thought the good one said something bad Showed that king knew the slaves nature all along The Thirsty Man who Threw Bricks intoxicated by sound of bricks hitting water and also says that destruction of wall brings him closer to water which he wants to be near From The Sagacity of Luqman describes love which comes from understanding Moses and the Shepherd shows that each person has is own way of lovingworshiping God The Man who swallowed the snake Unit 3 Reform and Resistance in Worlds of Islam Prophets and Resistance Moses Abraham Jesus Muhammad Resistance to Reigning Ideologies Abu Dharr alGhifari d 653 Bilal Habashi d 641 Hasan alBasri lbrahim ibn Adham d 790 Rabia aIAdawiyya d 801 loving God for the sake of love and not fear Bayazid alBistami d 874 considered exponents of intoxicated IslamSufism arguing that God is very close to humanity and He should be treated as such Mansur alHallaj d 922 AA same as above The Event of Karbala 680 The martyrdom of Husayn and his companions for refusing to pay allegiance to Umayyad caliph Yazid Ashura Anniversary of Karbala 10th day of Muharram Public processions flagellation passion plays ta ziya Pilgrimage to shrines of martyrs ziyarat Karbala important because Shi a say if they had just gone with All as caliph this wouldn t have happened Shi a community is reminded of its forever minority position but always reminded of being on the side of those fighting power and reminded of its victim Islamic Revolution of Iranrevolution that few political scientistsanthropologists had predicted because Iran was powerful country lranian Revolution End of rule of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi Political rise of ulama mullahs titles in accordance wknowledgeinfluence Mujtahid performer of ijtihad Ayatollah miraculous sign of God Madrasahs gain prominence as political institutions Causes of the Revolution 1ModernizationWesternization process that was contested 2American support for the Shah and the USUK role in the 1953 ProShah movement 3 Distribution of wealth questioned 4Autocratic rule of the shah Story of Ali Hashemi who is a professor now at Princeton Husayn Mudarassi Story begins in Qom and ends in US Mysticism Sufism vs Erfangnosisintimate knowledge of God tension winstitutions of learning ambiguity of poetry Spellberg Lecture Thomas Jefferson Islam and the Origin of Muslim Civil Rights Jefferson bought Sales Qur an important because it was the first time that Qur an text had been translated in English 1734 included preliminary discourse wmaps genealogy diagrams pictures of rituals etc Sale s sympathy for Muslims went against him He argued against compulsion and failed in translating 2256 from no compulsion to no violence Also defended polygamy citing King James Argued for jihad by comparing religious warfare for different religions as well Regulating Lives in the Worlds of Islam 1Gender 2 Law 3 Marriage 4 Divorce 5Sexuality 6Spirituality Halal in America Defined by IFANCA Islamic Food and Nutrition Council of America all foods are halal except the following 1Swinepork and byproducts 2Animals not slaughtered in dhabihah way gt slaughterer must be Muslim and say the name of Allah and all the blood has to be drained 3Alcoholic drinks and intoxicants 4Carnivorous animals birds of prey carrion or blood 5 Foods contaminated wany of above products Tafsir alJalalayn Composed of 2 Jalals Jalal alDin alMahalli respected teacher of jurisprudence in Cairo Jalal alDin alSuyuti prolific author student of Islamic sciences Halal relates to eating good things and living a life blessed by God Sahih alBukhari Among the most trusted collections of Hadith Compiled by Persian Muhammad alBukhari Records advice from the Prophet to treat animals well Slaughter with very sharp knife preferable lslamophobia first defined in 1991 Runnymede Trust Report lslam is monolithic and can t adapt to new realities Doesn t share common values wother major faiths lslam as a religion is inferior to the West is archaic barbaric irrational lslam is religion of violence and supports terrorism lslam is violent political ideology Mamdani is critiquing 3rd world guerrillas Argues that the guerrillas we supported ended up hurting US Argues that US support for mujahideen led to blowback Points of contention wMamdani Anti Soviet resistance was an American jihad Overstates US influence Misses the fact that Afghans were fighting for freedom Reagan rescued rightwing lslamists via support for mujahideen Taliban s rise mainly a response to Afghan s desire for law and order America s role in Afghanistan in the 80s Tends to follow 2 narratives blowbackUS govt supported extremist that turned on US after Soviet coHapse forgotten AfghanistanUS govt ignored Afghanistan after withdrawal of soviets and allowed country to become host to terrorists Types of political Islam Traditionalists conflate Islam wIocal beliefs accept authority of community power holders and relevantly tolerant towards Sufism Fundamentalists want to purge Islam of local practices and believe only ulema have right to implement shari ah lslamists believe lay Muslims have right to ijtihad want to establish Islamic govt and provide role for Islamic social justice Sunni Tanzims active during Soviet invasion 1Traditionalist parties 1 Harakate Inqilabe lslami Revolutionary Islamic Movement Mohammad Nabi Mohammad 2 Jabhaye Najate Milli Sibghatullah Mojaddedi 3 Mahaze Milliye Islamiye Afghanistan Pir Sayeed Ahmad Gailani 4 Hezbe Islami Khalis faction 2 Political lslamist Parties 1 Hezbe Islami Hekmatyar faction 2 JamiatI Islami Burhanuddin Rabbani 3 Fundamentalist parties 1 Ittehade Islami baraye Azadi ye Afghanistan Abdul Rasul Sayyaf Umm KulthumStar of the East Not just singer but interpreter of religionculture Personal info Father was an imam memorized Qur an introduced the French literature by Ahmed Ramy Poet of the youth studied in Paris works included translations from Persian into Arabic Each line sung in multiple styles Abida Parveen Born in Pakistan Sings poems associated wSufism Sings in tradition to keep classical texts alive Poetry of Baba Farid 13th century Poetry of Bulleh Shah 18th century The Qawwali Tradition Qawlsaying of prophetsaint casting of Sufi idioms in musical performance antireligious exclusivism approaching God as a personal friend Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan Qawwali singer from Pakistan Responsible for bringing Qawwali music to West Made it known to those unfamiliar wthe languages Many of these artists have political influence like Umm Kulthum may even raise money for govt like Umm Kulthum How is Islam experienced Submission to the will of God Drawing closer to God through prayers fasting almsgiving pilgrimage Following the example of the Prophet Following the legal codes of the Prophet and his followers Obeying the scholarsauthorities ulama then more abstract ways such as love ishq poetry ghazal mathnawi music Zuhd renunciation How is Islam Experienced Sociopolitical reform dissent and rebellion Ali and institution of caliphate Husayn and Karbala Hasan alBasri Rabia Mansur alHallaj Abu Yazid Rumi Mu tazila vs Ash arites on Human will and responsibility The Wahhabi Movement Muhammad ibn Abdal Wahhab 170 87 lnspired by lbn Taimiya Began in Saudi Arabia Literal interpretation of the Qur an Only the Prophet s generation should be followed Bid ah innovation is terrible graves and shrines are the worst of bid as shirk idolatry condemned Sufism is terrible heresy Shiism even worse sacked Karbala in 1802 No intercession needed in God s court all who disagreed wAbdal Wahhab branded heretics and apostates hence worthy of jihad Mutawwiyunenforcers of obedience Preferred to call themselves Muwahhidun unitarians lbn Saud 1745 joins Abdul Wahhab Marriage alliances bw families of Abdul Wahhab and lbn Saud 1925 Saud s descendants take control of Islamic holy places Oil boom in Saudi Arabia Reconciling Values How does one read a seventh century problem in a post18th century world AlAfghani 18391897 Reform of the Muslim community possible in the light of the Qur an and the modern sciences raised questions of justice Muhammad Abduh 18491905 Egyptian admirer of alAfghani Peasant family of Egypt Urged people to return to Qur an and Sunnah Caimed right of ijtihad Sayyid Ahmad Khan 18171898 Muslim Reformer in India Essentialism religionsregionspeople have fixed timeless traits Culture Talk every culture has tangible essence that defines it culture seems to have no history politics or debates Orientalism prejudiced Eurocentric discourse that denigrates ArabsMuslims as the other gt Edward Said s 1978 book Issues in Teaching Islam Civilizations Mutually Inclusive Intrafaith dialoguestensions Interfaith dialoguestensions Issues of authority resistance marginalization Creative spirits of Muslim peoples Islam not a foreign faith America as the New Medina Reform Movements springing from America Feminist Movement Amina Wadud interpreting the Qur an wGod s justice in mind AfricanAmerican In 2005 leads prayers for men and women in NY Believes that constant conventions need to be reanalyzed Queer movement AlFatiha the opening Religious Pluralism Sufi movement 1996International Day of the Orphan celebrated on Day of Prophet s birthday because he is a perfect example of an orphan Discourse Intro to Islam Ch 15 Three Forms of Islamic Revival Fundamentalism Feminism Establishing Umma in N America Fundamentalists fight back fight for their worldview fight wtheir resourcesweapons fight against others fight under God or some transcendent reference For Westerners global Islamic revival dated from 1973 OPEC oil price increase because it provided oilrich Islamic countries wnew sense of power Influential movement was Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt by Hasan alBanna who rejected W influences MB came into trouble in later years when one assassinated prime minister and alBanna murdered the following year Leading member is also Sayyid Qutb Believed that authentic source of survival and revival was Qur an He became writer Used to admire west but then grew to hate it Argued that the root cause of humankind s straying from right way was jahiliyyah ignorance His book Milestones got him imprisoned and arrestedexecuted by Nasser Ali Shari ati was W educated Iranian intellectual whose writings did much to inspire Iranian Islamic revolution under Ayatollah Khomeini Succeeded in turning Shi a concerns from quietist to activist forms Abu Ala Mawdudi of Pakistan founded JamaatiIslami Some of his ideas influenced Qutb Issue of feminism brought up in reform Qasim Amin wrote radical book about removing hijab educating women condemning polygamy and not long after his death upperclass women in Egypt were free of wearing the hijab V 3353 ayah that some use to only address Prophet s wives Middle E Muslims began arriving to America in late 19th cent especially after WWI 3rd wave of immigrants were more skillededucated often motivated by desire to escape political oppression Pioneer families 19th century to WWII Transitional families post WWII 1967 Differentiated families 1968 to present gt divided into 3 cohorts by Sharon AbuLaban Pioneer is 1st two waves of immigrants General characteristic of 3rd cohort is lack of interest of assimilating into American life and retaining ethnicreligious ways Large 3 of AA Muslims is due to 3 causes increasing consciousness of Islamic heritage before slavery proliferation of new AA movements widentification wIslam trend of AA conversions to Islam in prisons Chapter 16 Whither Islam and the Muslims Progressive Muslims wNision of an Islam wo Borders
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