Notes for Test 1
Notes for Test 1 amh 2097
Popular in American History race and ethnicity
Popular in History
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Date Created: 09/30/15
gt gt gt AMH 82715 A way of grouping people together based off the country where they were born or have citizenship a way of classifying groups of people who have something in common culturally ex Language religion food and traditions a way of classifying groups of people on the basis of real or imagined physical characteristics seen as innate xed inherent existing from birth Problematic Classi cations Nationaity it doesn t always re ect the way in which a group self iden es Ex 1 Subjects of the AH empire 2 Kurds in Turkey Iraq and Iran Ethnicity it doesn t always provide an indication about the location from which the person emigrated Ex Jewish immigrants Pre1948 Problems with the concept of race 1 it was invented carl Linnaeus 1735 Four races European American African and Asian Based his conceptions of race off of the idea of the 4 bodily humors and the 4 personalities which he equated with groups of people 2 Never any scienti c consensus on the number of races Other authorities Johann Blumenbach late 17005 5 races Jean Armand De Quatrefages early 18005 3 races Joseph Deniker late 18005 over 20 races Dictionary of Races early 19005 hundreds of entries 3 Racial Color Schemes Linnaeus and Blumenbach rst scientists to equate race with color lssues What do you do with quotin between peoplesquot like those from the Middle East Racial color isn t a particularly accurate representation of a persons actual skin tone 4 Using racial divisions people took unquanti able subjective traits ones that vary from individual to individual and presented them as xed biological truths applicable to entire groups of people Beauty Intelligence Energy Levels Cunning Ex Blumenbach and human beauty 5 The biological aspect of race used to justify racial hierarchies Racial and Ethic Hierarchies a system of strati cation based on the belief that different groups are superior or inferior to others Even bigger inconsistency Race is supposedly xed or innate yet whenever the order of the groups on the racial hierarchy changed so too did the portrayals of their physical characteristics 6 is a very rough approximation based on miniscule physical differences Racial Stereotypes Oversimplified images or ideas regarding the characteristics of entire groups of people negative stereotypes why bad positive stereotypes also problematic why 912015 Native Peoples quotWe were enslaved and colonized as American Indiansquot 1500012000 BCE Large nomadic wandering tribes of people from northern and eastern Asian crossed the Bering Strait Groups moved down the coast to different parts of Us and south America 0 late 14005 Columbus 1492 landed in Cuba and made way around for search for faster route to Asia rather than going around Africa 0 early 15005 Spain first to establish long term presence in new world Cortez conquered Tenochtitlanmodern day Mexico city by conquering 200 plus years of control in Latin America and southeastern us 0 Early 16005 British established permanent presence in new world in James town Native population pre Columbus 1020 mil native people in Americas 0 spread of viruses across an area where no similar diseases have occured before ex Small pox kalmura typhis ebonic plague no strong immunity because 1 as they crossed the land bridge they tended to leave sick and dying behind 2 Few domesticated animals compared to Europeans population decline Cortez went to conquer Tenochtitlan roughly 300 mil inhabitants repulsed small pox hit and Cortez was able to come and conquer with only handful of men killed 34 black feet tribe Stereotypes 1 lnferior Race 0 Red Origins Southeastern groupscherokee and creek lndians referred to themelves Red Soil Linaeus 4 personality traitsirritabe and grouchy Why did European colonists embrace it took seriously idea of color race is innate unchanging Color associations 0 Lawmaking 2 Noble Savage Origins European philosophers had theory that colonies in Us were biblical forests viewed people living there as noble Characteristics nobility piety goodness 0 Examples 3 lgnoble Savage Origins individuals who struggle with wilderness on a daily basis 0 Much less positive view of those who reside on that land 4 The Ecological Indian 0 More recent version of the noble savage stereotype Refers to environmentalist Ecologists vs conservationists Pleistocene Extinctions mammoths giant armadillo hunted to extinction The Hohokam50000 indivs living in harsh enviro of the Arizona desert o Altering the Enviro built largest canal system to irrigate farm land 0 Their downfall came from canals so much water was brought in with numerous minerals that they created mineral and vitamin deposits that disturbed the ecological balance Buffalo Clich they used every part of the animal applied only to some tribes Head smashed in buffalo jump 0 Methods create a stampede where all buffalo fall of the cliff o Origins indian boy wandered down into area and witnessed buffalo piling up so many falling that they squished him into the wall and smashed his head 0 Individual Tastes prefer female over male because hides were easier to work with Fire 0 Natives used re to burn land and drive out animals Pocahantas Colors of the Wind 0 Subvert stereotypes superhuman runs as fast as the deer picks up a bear cub and didn t get mawled o Embrace Stereotypes Writing 101 1 Opening Hook 0 Do Not a Use sweeping generalizations quotThroughout history immigrants were treated unfairlyquot b Do not open with a de nition from Miriam Webster 0 Instead a Open with an interesting and relevant quote fact or gure b Lead with a bold but speci c statement From the mid to late 19th century power dynamics determined whether or not Irish immigrants received favorable treatment in US 932015 The British 0 Not a homogeneous people 0 Picts Britons Celts Then a series of invaders Romans 1st century Saxons Angles 5th Century 0 Normans 11th century Vikings 0 Late to the new world game 15005 Spanish French and Dutch and settlers 1607 British from Jamestown Jamestown Who goes Second and third sons Who are they and why would they want to go to the new world Oldest son inherited everything just wait for daddy to die off wouldn t have land to inherit if second or third son quotKnights gentleman jobs not involving hands merchantsperfumiae and goldsmith and other adventurers2 d and 3rd sonsquot 393 Died Rapidly Starvation came during drought Disease malnutrition inadequate med supplies drinking out of river Powhattans Numbers 1005 down to 16 0 Ex Fernandino Wainman died of disease year after arrival and William West 393 Who would actually want to go to the new world 0 The bored ex 2nCI and 3rd sons 0 Religious ex Puritans quakers and catholics The desperate ex Convicts and indentured slaves oz Who goes where 3 key colonies Virginia Massachusetts and Pennsylvania 1 Virginia situation John rolfe saved the colony grew tobacco expensive luxury in Europe Got more people to come over here to pro t off the goods Who grows the tobacco Import labor from slaves and group of Europeansindentured servants is 2 types of is laborers in England who couldn t nd work convicts by 1700 roughly 170000 over half coming from Europe were is 60000 convicts how are is treated Wealthy pay for shipping and then worked to death with severe punishment for those who broke the law Coony s attitude towards new arrivals Pro immigration anti immigrant wanted immigrants for cheap labor but didn t want to give them many rights 2 Kings gone wild henry xiii creation of the Anglican church also known as church of England catholics vs Anglicans o Disagreement with Anglican churchdisagreement with british monarch persecution dismemberment Catholics est colony in marlyand 16305 Puritans est Mass Bay Colony 16205 type of protestant Puritanism 1 A reform movement to change the church of England 2 the haunting fear that someone somewhere may be happy beiefs oppose catholics but wanted church to be more strict oppose to excess and worldly pleasuresdrinking dancing parties plays celebrate goas give example for others on how to live attitude toward migrants encouraged emigration and wanted more people to join their society but only if they conformed to their way of life 3 Pennsylvania Quakers Beliefs all believers had a priesthood con ict with other religious groups drew in members and effected money Anglican william penn Charles ii granted huge tract of land by king Quakers a small religious faction in England How do you ll all that land Welcomed and encouraged people of every group So attitude towards immigration Pluralism 1 Coexistence of an array of different groups or belief systems 2 The belief that various religious ethnic and political groups should be allowed to thrive in a single society 3 basic models of American attitudes toward immigration 1 want immigration for labor anti rights Virginia 2 exclude all but those like us Mass 3 pluralism Penn What are WASPS o WASPS White Anglo Saxon Protestants Selective group who actually meets these in colonial and rev America 982015 From Africa to Slavery Background slavery 0 Atlantic World The Spanish takeover of Hispaniola and Havana lnitially use native population for labor conquistadors took over land Experimenting with sugar 1502 rst African slaves arrive Bartolome De Las Casas Spanish priest horri ed of slavery affecting native groups 0 The Asiento 1517 Stereotypes Africans are the same hundreds of different people dozens of diverse languages a range of different alliances and allies Naked Africans in huts have trade networks that stretch to coastal cities in cairo and allow access to goods in Europe and asia The Middle Passage Part 1 Slave Factories small forts European slavers ally with coastal powers sometimes soldto go after enemies African slavery vs transatlantic slavery African debter prisoner of war committed crimetemporary service not based on color of skin Time on the shore spent time waiting for ship in bondage branded Tight packing vs loose packing fewer slaves wont have profit but fewer will die off Deaths 13 will die before even get on ship 13 will die on ship thrown overboard if resist or look ill statistics Methods of resistance Deaths slave revolts 1 per year if couldn t take over the ship suicide was common Resistance The Trans Atlantic Slave Trade Auctions separated stripped bathed and greased Prices varied by healthmales vs females age abilities Unskilled adult male in good health 500 then 5000 now Unskilled adult female in good health 300 then 3000 now Skilled laborer 1000 then 10000 now Seasoning Two part process 1 Teaching how to act how to communicate quotyesquot quotmasterquot how to work 2 Teaching how to think no longer free or an individual Branding rebrand over or next to mark of the company that brought you over Terminology Afr gone through middle passaged not born in colonies seasoned vs Afri Amer born in colonies didn t go through middle passage no seasoning no free memories Slave Trade Destinations Stats Majority heading to Brazil or the Caribbean rather than North America 80 vs 4 Total brought alive 1500518005 1215 million Africans Total including enslavedkilled 3040 million does not include those born into slavery Age of Flexibility 16191670 First African slave arrive in Jamestown in 1619 Back story 20 slaves they couldn t sell in carribDutch were desperate to make a pro t so they bought with understanding to match price Treated like indentured servants 57 years of hell then let free Examples Antonio and Mary Johnson worked as indentured servant set free and marries another former slave moves to Maryland where eventually able to own hundreds of acres of property passed it on through generations and eventually named after farm back In Africa Captain Smith and the Rainbow Smith travels to Africa and cant nd roots of coastal tribe to attack kidnaps during Sabbath and heads back to us owner not pleased and sues him Mass Legis Frees slaves and make sure they get back to Africa How why does the era end Barbados to SC pipeline brought sugar through SC Introduce slave code idiots guide to surpressing people Slave Codes 1 Chattel Slavery Slaves are property owner has absolute control Never be free 2 Racial slavery Inferior race stereotype skin color justi es status of slavery easier to oppress people that are less human to you racial hierarchy led to black slaves and white servants 3 Hereditary slavery Status of the mother determined the slaves status of a child because some owners were fathers to the slave children Miscegenation 0 De nition sex between the races Anti miscegenation aws Maryland 1664 prohibited marriage between white owners and slaves Virginia 1691 prohibited marriage between whites and free blacks Massachusetts 1705 prohibited sex between races keep supremacy down black men and white women whipped man would be jailed and sold far away women support child amp sentenced to indentured servitude white man and black woman both whipped man ned and responsible for care of child woman would be sold Terms How long did they survive Until 1960 s Loving vs Virginia Slave and master relations No ability to consent Wives reactiondidn t have power over husbands but could respond to slaves whip genitals and breasts Types of Chattel Slavery OOOOO39 Plantation southern colonies Virginia Maryland and down hierarchy on the plantation owner rich white manowns severa manager related to owner with hopes to inherit overseer poor white guy no relation dealt with slave business driver black slaveslightly above other slaves Slaves working in eld growing tobacco ricecotton Stats 25 of southerners owned slaves 34 of slaves were on large plantations 3000 slaves in Virginia 1680 16000 slaves in Virginia 1700 46 of Virginia s population 1750 Family slavery in the northern colonies Slaves working with the family in and out of the house Stats 1 of Massachusetts population Both horrible in their own way conditions harsher in plantation slavery but with a group and not suffering alone Mass Treatment is better but alone except for white family that owns you 9102015 The Revolution and early years of the republic Roots 1977 Cultural phenomenon Won a golden globe best tv series Nominated for 37 emmy awards won 9 1732 last of the 13 colonies founded GA 17541763 Seven Years French and Indian War 17631775 Unrest in colonies Royal Proclamation of 1963 o Quartering Act 1765 0 Series of taxes on trade goods sugar documents stamps wills Boston Tea Party 1773 Coercive Acts 1774 tea etc and 17751783 Revolutionary War Terminology Patriots Revolutionaries colonies pro independence of American Loyalists against independence support british monarchy Non WASP perspectives native peoples i IOwNi IO 3 4 History of playing Eur Off against each other NE SE Again Native Americans not a single homogeneous group Iroquois Confederacy splits Mohicans allies with Americans Mohawks allies with British Noble vs ignoble savage Lenape split in Ohio Pro American faction treaty with Americans ignored by 13 colonies when war is over Anti American faction goes to war with Americans makes them hostile Neutral faction Christians Moravian Massacre 1782 Non WASP perspectives slaves US C 0 Th 1 2 3 African American Loyalists Dunmore s Proclamation 1775 any slaves who want to join with the British will be free few thousand risked African American Revolutionaries trying to get all men created equaD Hoping to expand Black rights Civil liberties Siege of Yorktown where British were held up used African Americans to help build forti cations Fate of Postwar Black Loyalists NY started grabbing people and putting them into slavery Canada eed when black people started to be taken into slavery onstitution 1787 Entire Constitution is one big balancing act pass it by big and small states Founding Fathers attitude toward slavery Distasteful In a bind Rhetoric all men created equal life liberty and pursuit of happiness vs Reality important people are slaveholders Their solution Don t use the word slavery and aim for gradual emancipation September 15 2015 e Constitution and the Early Years of the Republic 17881808 Slavery in Decline Prices for slaves is high fewer and fewer quoteasyquot targets in Africa Good land is hard to acquire soil dried out after centuries of growing tobacco Cotton the most pro table crop is difficult to harvest 4 5 Many Patriot leaders take the ideals of the American Revolution seriously In the North plantation slavery never feasible to begin with Emancipation O Gradual vs Immediate Emancipation PA 1783 An Act for the Gradual Emancipation of Sla very Most Northern states preferred gradual including NH CT RI NY NJ 17801804 VT 1777 chapter 1 of their state constitution Immediate No adult quotborn in this country or brought over sea ought to be holden by law to serve any person as a servant slave or apprenticequot Loopholes Children could be kept in slavery until adulthood Ought vs shall Enforcement mechanism no enforcement no negative consequences for keeping slaves Founding Fathers Shoot and Miss O Attempt to end the slave trade Article 1 Section 9 Article one Section 9 in plain English US could prohibit or tax the shit out of the slave trade in 20 years but no sooner Their assumptions Slavery will stay unpro table With no ability for slave owners to import from Africa the institution of slavery will die out over time The Reality Invention of the cotton gin Founding Fathers Attitudes Towards Naturalization 39OO Naturalization citizenship Article 1 Section 8 Gives Congress the authority to create a quotuniform rule of naturalizationquot Congressional Debates in the 17905 3 Basic Positions No limits Vast tracts of land to people ie Huge areas of land to populate Period of Assimilation residency requirements Restriction immigration Naturalization Status quotAny alien being a free white personquot eligible for citizenship Assimilation period start with 2 year residency requirement eventually settle on a 5 yearreq type of people who were immigrating over Thel sh A Brief History of Ireland English take control in 15005 Henry 8 Religious con ict Catholics vs Protestants Oppression Religious Henry tried to force the Irish to Protestant by tearing down Catholic churches and killing those that refused to convert Economic plantation system by Elizabeth take private prop Away from Irish put sheep on it fence it in and say quotwelcome to Irelandquot Social and political forced to work as tenant farmers to grow food for English and export out of Ireland Penal laws prohibiting irish from voting attending schools or owning weapons English stereotypes of the Irish tried to justify trying to take things away from them 1 OWN Racially inferior Great chain of being blacks Black Irish black on the inside Brainwashed by the Papacy the pope Violent Communion Transubstantiation Catholics believe the bread and the wine become the actual body of jesus Protestants generally believe the bread and wine is just a representation or metaphor for his blood and body History of rebellions Henry 8th took over Irish are ghting back against British inherently violent connotation A very brief history of the potato Best crop for the irish Potato blight of 1840 s Blight fast spreading fungal infection that can affect vegetables Mass famine gorta mor or quotGreat hungerquot Pop decline British assumption god is just visiting his will hurting people he doesn t like Why leave 000 Irish indentured servants starting in 17th century Large s in 19th century Attraction of American jobs English oppression political religious and econ Overpopulation when the of people in a country exceeds the amount of resources available to support them ex Potato blight Jobs for Irish 0 Men Bare knuckle boxing illegal Day laborersconstruction uncertain Full time at factories hard to get few pay rights Mis coth manufacturing womens jobs Mining good pay dangerous Railroad good pay dangerous Women Mills creating cloth Domestic full time maid Street waIkers urban areas male pimp pays well New anchor immigrants women send over most and live longer Life in America popuation 15 million immigrants 1860 45 million mid 19005 Institutional Catholic Church 0 Schools for the irish Helps assimilate irish o Reminds irish of home Social Movements 0 Bad Timing migration overlapped with 3 social movements 2nCI Great Awakening Evangelical Christianity salvation for everyone convert everyone Temperance Movement alcohol is sinful against God Nativist Movement anti immigrant attitude blows up No nothings 18505 opposes Irish immigration WASPs in the US stereotype the Irish as 1 immoral Irish had pub culture beer was cheaper than bread beer was thick nutritious and lling Drank at pubs for breakfast and dinner after work America has bars Americans hated bars and stereotyped as drunks Would publish names of peoples in bars Irish men drunks Irish women loose Cholera 1832 NYC fecal contamination caused by unhealthy conditions in food and water Irish in bad condition struck hard WASPs assume God is punishing Irish for being immoral 2 Racially Inferior paddy and bridget stereotypical Irish characters drawn to be ugly monkey like savages Simian features compared to African Americans 3 Violent brainwashed and corrupted by Pope Long history of rebels against British Bare knuckle boxing proves their violent but not brought upon themselves UNI I mU39lbULJNI I 4 Invaders WASPs believe theyre brainwashed Irish coming to this country because of Pope trying to take over not because of nancial issues Tied to Catholicism 5 Politically Corrupt settle in ethnic enclaves 5ptsouthie Irish are white and can become citizens They wanted to vote Believe they are voting for one side politically corrupt WASP preference Four factors of success small numbers spread out have to have come to country of positive stereotypes irish prohibited from working in many occupations NINA No Irish Need Apply 39gtUUI 39 September 24th 2015 Civil War Myth 1 Slavery was for blacks own good slavery wasn t that bad Reality Slavery was hell Deliberately Frederick Douglass What happened to his family His mother was a slave raped and sold to the plantation where he was born as an infant Overseers and punishment overseer pulled out ri e and said when I call your name if you don t answershoot Slave owners attitudes towards Black literacy Myth 2 All slavery took place on plantations Reality Slavery existed in the cities too known as urban slavery Douglass working in the ship yards of Baltimore caulking ships Otherjobs working on docks unloading ships artisans construction domestics Stats Myth 3 slaves are passive victims Reality slaves fought back in both ways big and small running away slave rebellions Haitian revolution late 18th and early 19th C 0 Nat Turners Rebellion 1831 Working slowly Social factors Myth 4 Everyone in the North wanted to eradicate slavery Reality wide range of political opinions 0 Election of 1860 Southern Democrats Breckenridge 850k Northern DemocratsDouglass13 mil Constitutional Union Party Bell590k Republicans Lincoln18 mil OOOO Copperheads Myth 5 The south always supported states rights Reality Support for states rights varied depending on who was in power Fugitive slave law 1850 Fined northern of cials who didn t help recapture runaway slaves Captured fugitive slaves have no right to a trial by jury or to have anyone testify on their behalf 0 Northern states respond Personal liberty laws Made jury trials mandatory Ordered state officials to quotact as counselquot for escaped slaves through the trial process Prohibited use of state jails to detain fugitives 0 During the war Southern governors want Confederate government needs manpower Myth 6 South seceded over states rights not slavery Reality South seceded over states rights and slavery Ex Alexander Stephens cornerstone speech Myth 7 Lincoln s primary goal was to free the slaves Reality Lincoln personally loathes slavery but his primary goal was to restore the union Myth 8 The Emancipation Proclamation freed every slave Reality The Emancipation Proclamation only speci es slaves in the Confederacy not the border states still in the Union Ex Maryland and Missouri Why you risk pissing off border states unloyal to unionprepared nation for freeing all slaves o Emanc Proc jan 1863 0 13th Amend passes congress jan 1865 0 13th amend rati ed by the states dec 1865 African Americans in the Civil War 0 Black soldiers Lincoln initially opposed nally allows it takes 3 years Why do Blacks sign uphopes people will think better of them ghting for their race for them to be free Confederate responsepissed Union treatmentpaid less than white soldiers worst assignmentsmanual labor serving on front line Statsbacks 10 month vs whites 13month 200000 served in us army or navy 15 of black pop 37000 died during war Thel sh 0 As soldiers most ghting for the north boston and ny Why Already in north Stats roughly 150000 irish indivs Fighting for north I o o I Irish and pro union not anti slavery What s their fear have to send money back home fear of getting jobs taken away NY City Draft Riot July 1863 Union draft policies rish riot Who do they target Why Reinforces stereotypes
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