Biology BIOLOGY 1113 - 0010
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CHAPTER 1 Archaea constitutes a domain or kingdom of singlecelled microorganisms these microbes are prokaryotes meaning that they have no cell nucleus or any other membranebound organelles in their cells Bioinformatics the use of computational tools to store organize and analyze the huge volume of data that results from highthroughput methods Biology scienti c study of life Controlled experiment designed to compare an experimental group with a control group Deductive reasoning involves logic that ows in the opposite direction from the general to the speci c 0 quotlfthen logicquot Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA genetic material 0 Each chromosome contains one very long DNA molecule with hundreds or thousands of genes each a section of the DNA of the chromosome 0 Encode the information necessary to build all of the molecules synthesized within a cell which in turn establish that cell s identity and function 0 Arranged in a double helix 0 Made up of four chemical building blocks called nucleotides A T C G Emergent properties new properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases 0 Not unique to life Eukaryotic cell contains membraneenclosed organelles Evolution process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today Gene expression the entire process by which the information in a gene directs the manufacture of a cellular product Genome the entire library of genetic instructions that an organism inherts Genomics study whole sets of genes in one or more species Hypothesis is a tentative answer to a wellframed question an explanation on trial 0 Must be testable 0 Can never prove a hypothesis lnductive reasoning derive generalizations from a large number of speci c observations lnquiry a search for information and explanations of natural phenomena Model organism a species that is easy to grow in the lab and lends itself particularly well to the questions being investigated Natural selection evolutionary adaptation o The natural environment selects for the propagation of certain traits among naturally occurring variant traits in the population Negative feedback a loop in which the response reduces the initial stimulus o EX insulin signaling the uptake of glucose by cells the response decreases blood glucose levels eliminating the stimulus for insulin secretion and thereby shutting off the pathway Positive feedback an end product speeds up its own production 0 EX clotting of blood in response to injury Prokaryotic cell lacks a nucleus or other membraneenclosed organelles o Bacteria and Archaea Proteome the entire set of proteins expressed by a given cell or group ofceHs Proteomics study of sets of proteins and their properties Science a way of knowing an approach to understanding the natural world System biology exploration of a biological system by analyzing the interactions among its parts Technology to apply scienti c knowledge for some speci c purpose Theory much broader in scope than a hypothesis general enough to spin off many new speci c hypotheses that can be tested generally supported by a much greater body of evidence CHAPTER 2 Anion negatively charged ion Atom smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element Atomic mass the mass number of protons of neutrons top number Atomic nucleus at the center of an atom protons and neutrons are packed together tightly in this dense core 0 Protons give the nucleus a positive charge Atomic number number of protons unique to each element also equals number of electrons in a neutral atom bottom number Cation positively charged ion Chemical bond atoms stay close together by either sharing or transferring valence electrons Chemical equilibrium the point at which the reactions offset one another exactly Chemical reaction the making and breaking of chemical bonds leading to changes in the composition of matter Compound a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a xed ratio Covalent bond sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms Double bond sharing of two pairs of valence electrons covalent bond Electronegativity attraction of a particular atom for the electrons of a covalent bond Element a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions Energy the capacity to cause change Essential element elements that an organism needs to live a healthy life and reproduce 2025 of the 92 natural elements Hydrogen bond bond between a hydrogen and an electronegative atom N O F lon a charged atom lonic bond any two ions of opposite charge can form this bond transfer of electrons lonic compound compounds formed by ionic bonds salts Isotope different atomic forms of the same element Mass number same as atomic mass Matter anything that takes up space and has mass Molecule two or more atoms held together Neutron electrically neutral part of atom Nonpolar covalent bond the electrons are shared equally because the two atoms have the same electronegativity Orbital the threedimensional space where an electron is found 90 of the time Polar covalent bond when an atom is bonded to a more electronegative atom the electrons of the bond are not shared equally Potential energy energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure Radioactive isotope the nucleus decays spontaneously giving off particles and energy Reactant starting materials Salt ionic compounds Single bond one pair of shared electrons covalent bond Trace element required by an organism in only minute quantities Valence bonding capacity usually equals the number of unpaired electrons required to complete the atom s outermost shell Valence electron the outer electrons Valence shell the outermost electron shell Van der Waal s interactions individually weak and occur only when atoms and molecules are very close together dispersion forces CHAPTER 3 Acid a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution Adhesion the clinging of one substance to another Aqueous solution on in which the solute is dissolved in water water is the solvent Base a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution Buffer a substance that minimizes changes in the concentrations of H and OH39 in a solution Calorie the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 C Cohesion holds the substance together pH the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration pH ogH 0 pH less than 7 acidic 0 pH more than 7 basic Evaporative cooling as a liquid evaporates the surface of the liquid that remains behind cools down 0 Occurs because the hottest molecules are the most likely to leave as a gas Heat thermal energy in transfer from one body of matter to another Heat of vaporization quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state Hydration shell the sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion Hydrogen ion a single proton with a charge of 1 Hydrophilic water loving Hydrophobic water hating Kinetic energy energy of motion Polar molecule overall charge is unevenly distributed Solute substance that is dissolved Solution completely homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances Solvent dissolving agent of a solution Speci c heat the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 C Surface tension a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid Temperature a measure of energy that represents the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a body of matter regardless of volume CHAPTER 4 Asymmetric carbon a carbon that is attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms Adenosine triphosphate ATP consists of an organic molecule called adenosine attached to a string of three phosphate groups 0 One phosphate may be split off as a result of a reaction with water This reaction releases energy that can be used by the cell Enantiomers isomers that are mirror images of each other and that differ in shape due to the presence of an asymmetric carbon Functional groups chemical groups that are directly involved in chemical reactions Hydrocarbons organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen lsomers compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same elements but different structures and hence different properties 0 Structural isomers differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms 0 Cistrans isomers carbons have covalent bonds to the same atoms but these atoms differ in their spatial arrangements due to the in exibility of double bonds Organic chemistry the study of compounds containing carbon Tetra valence property of carbon 4 binding sites CHAPTER 5 Amino acids an organic molecule with both an amino group and a carboxyl group Antiparallel 2 sugarphosphate backbones run in opposite 5 3 directions from each other Carbohydrates sugars and polymers of sugars Catalysts chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction Cellulose major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells 0 Built from structural polysaccharides 0 Most abundant organic compound on Earth Chaperonins protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of other proteins Chitin carb used by arthropods to build their exoskeletons Cholesterol a type of steroid common component of animal cell membranes and is also the precursor from which other steroids are synthesized Collagen protein that functions as girders of connective tissue in skin bone tendons ligaments and other body parts Dehydration reaction monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other with the loss of a water molecule Denaturation unraveling or losing the native shape of a protein 0 Important because protein function is critical to the shape Disaccharide consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic anage 0 Maltose sucrose and lactose DNA enable living organisms to reproduce their complex components from one generation to the next provides directions for its own replication directs RNA synthesis controls protein synthesis genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents Enzymes most are proteins regulate metabolism by acting as catalysts specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions Fat constructed from glycerol and fatty acids 0 Saturated fatty acids no double bonds between carbon atoms solid at room temperature packed closely together from animal fats o Unsaturated fatty acids one or more double bonds with one fewer hydrogen atom on each doublebonded carbon cis double bonds which cause kinds in the hydrocarbon chain liquid at room temperature from plants and shes Fatty acids long carbon skeleton with a carboxyl group at the end Gene discrete unit of inheritance Glycogen polymer of glucose that is like amylopectin but more extensively branched stored mainly in liver and muscle cells of vertebrates Hemoglobin oxygenbinding protein of red blood cells Hydrolysis a process that disassemble polymers to monomers by adding a water molecule Lipids mix poorly if at all with water 0 Fats phospholipids and steroids Macromolecules carbohydrates lipids proteins and nucleic acids Monomer the repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer Nucleic acid polymers made of nucleotides DNA and RNA Nucleotides composed of 3 parts a vecarbon sugar pentose nitrogenous base one or more phosphate groups Peptide bonds when 2 amino acids are positioned so that the carboxyl group of one is adjacent to the amino group of the other they join be a dehydration reaction Phospholipids 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol attached to a phosphate group 0 Major component of the cell membranes 0 Hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail Polymer long macromolecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds Polypeptides polymer of amino acids Primary structure sequence of amino acids Proteins biologically functional molecule made up of one or more polypeptides each folded and coiled into a speci c threedimensional structure Purine 6membered ring fused to a 5membered ring adenine and guanine Pyrimidine one 6membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms cytosine thymine and uracil Quaternary structure when a protein consists of 2 or more polypeptide chains RNA synthesizes protein mRNA interacts with the cell s protein synthesizing machinery to direct production of a polypeptide which folds into all or part of a protein Secondary structure coils and folds a helix and B pleated sheet Starch polymer of glucose monomers as granules within cellular structures known as plastids which include chloroplasts Steroids lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings Tertiary structure overall shape of a polypeptide resulting from interactions between the side chains of the various amino acids Trans fats unsaturated fats with trans double bonds BAD in processed foods Triglyceride another name for a fat CHAPTER 6 Actin protein subunit of micro laments globular protein Basel body anchors microtubule assembly of a cilium or agellum microtubule triplets in a 90 pattern Cell wall outer layer that maintains cell s shape and protects cell from mechanical damage made of cellulose other polysaccharides and protein Central vacuole prominent organelle in older plant cells functions include storage breakdown of waste products and hydrolysis of macromolecules enlargement of the vacuole is a major mechanism of plant growth Centrioles a pair within the centrosome each composed of nine sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring Centrosome region where the cell s microtubules are initiated contains a pair of centrioles Chloroplast photosynthetic organelle converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules has own DNA Chromosomes carry genes in the form of DNA Chromatin material consisting of DNA and proteins visible in a dividing cell as individual condensed chromosomes Cilia microtubulecontaining extensions that project from some cells Collagen forms strong bers outside the cells most abundant glycoprotein in ECM Contractile vacuole pump excess water out of the cell thereby maintaining a suitable concentration of ions and molecules inside the cell Cristae infoldings of the inner membrane of the mitochondria Cytoplasmic streaming a circular ow of cytoplasm within cells Cytoskeleton reinforces cell s shape functions in cell movement components are made of protein 0 Includes micro laments intermediate laments and microtubules Cytosol semi uid jelly like substance inside all cells in which subcellular components are suspended Desmosomes function like rivets fastening cells together into strong sheets attach muscle cells to each other in a muscle intermediate laments made of sturdy keratin proteins anchor desmosomes in the cytoplasm Dynein large motor proteins that are attached along each outer microtubule doublet Endomembrane system includes the nuclear envelope the ER the Golgi lysosomes various kinds of vesicles and vacuoles and the plasma membrane 0 Synthesis of proteins transport of proteins into membranes and organelles or out of the cell metabolism and movement of lipids and detoxi cation of poisons Endoplasmic reticulum ER network of membranous sacs and tubes active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes Endosymbiotic theory an early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed an oxygenusing nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell the engulfed cell formed a relationship with the host cell in which it was enclosed becoming an endosymbiont Extracellular matrix the meshwork surrounding animal cells consisting of glycoproteins polysaccharides and proteoglycans synthesized and secreted by cells Fibronectin ECM glycoprotein that bind to cellsurface receptor proteins called integrins that are built into the plasma membrane Flagella motility structure present in some animal cells composed of a cluster of microtubules within an extension of the plasma membrane Food vacuole fuses with a lysosome whose enzymes digest food Gap junctions provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to an adjacent cell and in this way are similar in their function to the plasmodesmata in plants consist of membrane proteins that surround a pore through which ions sugars amino acids and other small molecules may pass necessary for communication between cells in many types of tissues such as heart muscle and in animal embryos Glycoproteins proteins with covalently bonded carbs usually short chains of sugars Golgi apparatus organelle active in synthesis modi cation sorting and secretion of cell products Grana stacks of thylakoids Intermediate filaments maintenance of cell shape anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles formation of nuclear lamina Keratin protein subunit of intermediate laments Lysosome digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed Microfilaments maintenance of cell shape changes in cell shape muscle contraction cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells cell motility division of animal cells Microtubules maintenance of cell shape cell motility chromosome movements in cell division organelle movements Middle lamina a thin layer rich in sticky polysaccharides called pectins Mitochondria organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated has own DNA Mitochondrial matrix enclosed by the inner membrane contains enzymes DNA and ribosomes Motor proteins protein that interacts with cytoskeletal elements and other cell components producing movement of the whole cell or parts of the cell Myosin interact with actin to cause contraction of muscle cells Nuclear envelope double membrane enclosing the nucleus perforated by pores continuous with ER Nucleoid in prokaryotes DNA is concentrated in this region not membraneenclosed Nucleolus nonmembranous structure involved in production of ribosomes a nucleus has one or more nucleoli Nucleus most of the DNA is stored here bounded by a double membrane Peroxisomes organelle with various specialized metabolic functions produces hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct then converts it to water Phagocytosis engul ng smaller organisms or food particles 0 Plasma membrane functions as a selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen nutrients and wastes to service the entire cell Plasmodemata channels that connect cells Plastids family of closely related plant organelles o Chloroplasts amyloplast stores starch and chromoplast give fruits and owers their orange and yellow hues 0 Primary cell wall secreted by a young plant cell relatively thin and exible wall Proteoglycans consists of a small core protein with many carb chains covalently attached Ribosomes tiny complexes that make proteins according to instructions from the genes 0 Free ribosomes suspended in cytosol function within the cytosol enzymes that catalyze the rst steps of sugar breakdown 0 Bound ribosomes make proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes for packaging within certain organelles such as lysosomes or for export from the cell 0 Rough ER secretes proteins that are produced by the bound ribosomes Secondary cell wall has a strong and durable matrix that affords the cell protection and support 0 Smooth ER synthesis of lipids metabolism of carbs detoxi cation of drugs and poisons and storage of calcium ions 0 Stroma uid outside the thylakoids which contains the chloroplast DNA and ribosomes as well as many enzymes Thylakoids attened interconnected sacs in chloroplasts 0 Tight junctions plasma membranes of neighboring cells are very tightly pressed against each other bound together by speci c proteins establish a barrier that prevents leakage of extracellular uid across a layer of epithelial cells by forming continuous seals around the cells between skin cells 0 Transport vesicles vesicles in transit from one part of the cell to another Tubulin protein subunit of microtubules Vesicles sacs made of membrane CHAPTER 7 0 Active transport cell expends energy to pump a solute across a membrane against its gradient Amphipathic has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region Aquaporin channel proteins that facilitate the passage water molecules through the membrane in certain cells Carrier proteins hold onto their passengers and change shape in a way that shuttles them across the membrane Concentration gradient the region along which the density of a chemical substance increases or decreases Cotransport a transport protein can couple the downhill diffusion of the solute to the uphill transport of a second substance against its own concentration gradient Diffusion the movement of particles of any substance so that they spread out into the available space Electrochemical gradient 2 forces drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane 0 Chemical force the ion s concentration gradient 0 Electrical force the effect of the membrane potential on the ion s movement Electrogenic pump a transport protein that generates voltage across a membrane Endocytosis the cell takes in molecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane PM loses surface area Exocytosis the cell secretes certain molecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane PM gains surface area Facilitated diffusion polar molecules and ions impeded by lipid bilayer of the membrane diffuse passively with the help of transport proteins that span the membrane Flaccid limp plant cell in an isotonic solution Fluid mosaic model the membrane is a mosaic of protein molecules bobbing in a uid bilayer of phospholipids Gated channel open or close in response to a stimulus channel protein Glycolipids membrane carbs that are covalently bonded to lipids Hypertonic solution cell will lose water shrivel and probably die water ows out of cell because the surrounding has more ions and less water than the cell Hypotonic solution water will enter the cell and the cell will swell and lyse water ows into the cell because the surrounding has less ions and more water than the cell Integral protein penetrate the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer o Majority are transmembrane proteins which span the membrane others extend only partway into the interior lon channels channel proteins that transport ions lsotonic solution no net movement of water Ligand any molecule that binds speci cally to a receptor site on another molecule Membrane potential voltage across a membrane usually 50 to 200 mV 0 Minus sign indicates that the inside of the cell is negative relative to the outside Osmoregulation the control of solute concentrations and water balance Osmosis the diffusion of free water across a selectively permeable membrane whether arti cial or cellular Passive transport diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no energy investment 0 Peripheral proteins not embedded in the lipid bilayer at all they are appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane often to exposed parts of integral proteins Phagocytosis a cell engulfs a particle by extending pseudopodia around it and packaging it within a membranous sac called a food vacuole particle will be digested after vacuole fuses with a lysosome o Pinocytosis cell continually quotgulpsquot droplets of extracellular uid into tiny vesicles formed by infoldings of the plasma membrane 0 Plasmolysis when a plant cell is in a hypertonic solution its plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall at multiple places causes the plant to wilt and can lead to plant death 0 Proton pump main electrogenic pump of plants fungi and bacteria which actively transports protons out of the cell 0 Receptor mediated endocytosis specialized type of pinocytosis that enables the cell to acquire bulk quantities of speci c substances Selective permeability allows some substances to cross more easily than others Sodiumpotassium pump exchanges Na for K across the plasma membrane of animal cells Tonicity the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water 0 Transport proteins called channel proteins function by having a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or atomic ions use as a tunnel through the membrane 0 Turgid very rm plant cell in a hypotonic solution healthy state for most plants CHAPTER 8 0 Activation energy the energy required to contort the reactant molecules so the bonds can break 0 Active site a pocket or groove on the surface of the enzyme where catalysis occurs where the substrate binds Allosteric regulation any case in which a protein s function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule to a separate site results in either inhibition or stimulation of an enzyme s activity Anabolic pathway consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones ATP bonds between phosphate groups can be broken by hydrolysis when terminal phosphate bond is broken by addition of a water molecule a molecule of inorganic phosphate leaves the ATP which becomes ADP exergonic reaction 0 Phosphorylated intermediate the recipient molecule with the phosphate group covalently bonded to it key to coupling exergonic with endergonic reactions which is more reactive than the original unphosphorylated molecule Catabolic pathway breakdown pathways ie cellular respiration Chemical energy potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction Coenzyme if the cofactor is an organic molecule Cofactor any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme can be permanently bound to the active site of may bind loosely and reversibly along with the substrate during catalysis Competitive inhibition reduce the productivity of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active sites Endergonic reaction one that absorbs free energy from its surroundings stores free energy AG is positive nonspontaneous Energy capacity to cause change Energy coupling the use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one Entropy a measure of disorder Exergonic reaction net release of free energy loses free energy AG is negative spontaneous Feedback inhibition a metabolic pathway is halted by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway First law of energy thermodynamics energy can be transferred and transformed but it cannot be created nor destroyed Free energy the portion of a system s energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system Induced fit caused by entry of the substrate the change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate Metabolic pathway begins with a speci c molecule which is then altered in a series of de ned steps resulting in a certain product Metabolism the totality of an organism s chemical reactions Noncompetitive inhibitors do not directly compete with the substrate to bind to the enzyme at the active site they impede enzymatic reactions by binding to another part of the enzyme causes enzyme to change shape Phosphorylation transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to some other molecule Second law of energy thermodynamics every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe Spontaneous process if a given process by itself leads to an increase in entropy that process can proceed without requiring an input of energy Substrate reactant an enzyme reacts on Thermodynamics the study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter CHAPTER 9 Acetyl CoA converted from pyruvate has a high potential energy the reaction of acetyl CoA to yield lowerenergy products is highly exergonic this molecule feeds its acetyl group into the citric acid cycle for further oxidation ADP regenerates ATP with P which allows the cell to keep working Aerobic respiration oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel Alcohol fermentation pyruvate is converted to ethanol in 2 steps rst releases C02 from pyruvate which is converted to 2carbon compound acetaldehyde second acetaldehyde is reduced by NADH to ethanol which regenerates NAD supply needed for glycolysis done under anaerobic conditions Anabolic respiration catabolic pathway in which inorganic molecules other than oxygen accept electrons at the downhill end of electron transport chains ETC ATP synthase enzyme that makes ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate works like an ion pump running in reverse Carbon dioxide byproduct of cellular respiration Cellular respiration includes both aerobic and anaerobic processes Chemiosmosis the process in which energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane is used to drive cellular work such as the synthesis of ATP Citric acid cycle Krebs oxidizes organic fuel derived from pyruvate 1 Acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate forms citrate citric acid 2 Citric acid is oxidized 4 C02 produced 4 NADH generated 1 ATP a ATP substrate phosphorylation GDP gt GTP 3 Reformation of oxaloacetate succinate forms fumarate reduction of FAD to FADH2 fumarate forms malate by adding H20 malate is oxidized yielding oxaloacetate Cytochromes remaining electron carriers between ubiquinone and oxygen ETC electrons of higher energy are transferred to ATP NADH donates H NADH dehydrogenase FADH2 ubiquinone BC1 complex Cytochrome C1 Cytochrome oxidase complex gt forms H20 3034 ATP 0 H comes back through ATP synthase Fermentation a partial degradation of sugars or other organic fuel that occurs without the use of oxygen Glucose needed for cellular respiration breakdown of glucose is exergonic Glycolysis oxidizes glucose 1 Glucose priming 2 Cleavage rearrangement forms G3P molecules 3 Oxidation energy harvesting NAD gt NADH 4 Direct ATP generation G3P gt pyruvate 2 ATP produced 0 Glucose gt 2 pyruvates 2 ADP gt 2 ATP 2 NAD gt 2 NADH GDP phosphorylated to produce GTP GTP more speci c activator of substrates in metabolic reactions used as a source of energy for protein synthesis and gluconeogenesis Lactic acid fermentation pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH to form lactate as an end product used when oxygen is scarce NAD electron carrier Obligate anaerobes carry out only fermentation or anaerobic respiration cannot survive in presence of oxygen Oxygen nal electron acceptor at the end of the ETC Oxidation loss of electrons from one substance Oxidative phosphorylation mode of ATP synthesis that is powered by the redox reactions of the ETC Oxidizing agent electron acceptor Protonmotive force H gradient that results from chemiosmosis Pyruvate can be made from glucose through glycolysis converted back to carbohydrates such as glucose via gluconeogenesis or to fatty acids through acetylCoA can also be used to construct the amino acid alanine and be converted into ethanol Redox reactions transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another Reducing agent electron donor Reduction addition of electrons to another substance CDLJ39gtLJLJII I Substratelevel phosphorylation mode of ATP synthesis that occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP rather than adding an inorganic phosphate to ADP as in oxidative phosphorylation CHAPTER 11 Apoptosis a type of programmed cell death that integrates input from multiple signaling pathways controlled ce suicide Biofilm aggregation of bacterial cells adhered to a surface Cyclic AM P adenylyl cyclase converts ATP to cAMP in response to epinephrine G protein protein that binds the energyrich molecule GTP G proteincoupled receptor a cellsurface transmembrane receptor that works with the help of a G protein vary in binding sites but are similar in structure play roles in embryonic development and sensory reception activate a single transduction pathway Growth factors oca signaling compounds that stimulate nearby target cells to grow and divide paracrine signaling Hormones longdistance signaling endocrine signaling specialized ces release hormone molecules which travel via the circulatory system to other parts of the body where they reach target cells that an recognize and respond to the hormones Ligand gated ion channel type of membrane receptor containing a region that can act as a gate when the receptor changes shape when a signaling molecule binds as a ligand to the receptor protein the gate opens or closes aowing or blocking the ow of speci c ions through a channel in the receptor Paracrine signaling when numerous cells can simultaneously receive and respond to the molecules of growth factor produced by a single cell in their vicinity Protein phosphatases enzymes that can rapidly remove phosphate groups from proteins dephosphorylation Protein kinase an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein many of the relay molecules in signal transduction pathways Phosphorylation cascades the series of protein phosphorylations occurring sequentially in which each protein kinase phosphorylates the next activating it Quorum sensing aows bacterial populations to coordinate their behaviors in activities that require a given number of cells acting synchronously Reception rst stage of cell signaling target cell s detection of a signaling molecule coming from outside the cell signaling molecule is bound to a receptor protein located at the cell s surface Receptor tyrosine kinase plasma membrane receptors characterized by having enzymatic activity enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to tyrosine an amino acid on a substrate protein one RTK may activate ten or more different transduction pathways and cellular responses 0 A kinase is any enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups Response third stage of cell signaling the transduced signal nally triggers a speci c cellular response Scaffolding proteins large relay proteins to which several other relay proteins are simultaneously attached increases signal transduction enhances speed and accuracy of signal transfer between cells Second messengers small nonprotein watersoluble molecules or ions can readily spread throughout the cell by diffusion participate in pathways that are initiated by both G proteincoupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases cAMP and Ca2 Signal transduction pathway a sequence of changes in a series of different molecules often called relay molecules Synaptic signaling local signaling occurs in animal nervous system electrical signal along a nerve cell triggers secretion of neurotransmitter molecules molecules act as chemical signals diffusing across the synapse triggering a response in the target cell Transcription factor special proteins that control which genes are turned on which genes are transcribed into mRNA in a particular cell at a particular time Transduction second stage of cell signaling binding of the signaling molecule changes the receptor protein in some way initiating this process converts the signal to a form that can bring about a speci c cellular response Transductionphosphorylation cascades
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