DNA and Virus notes
DNA and Virus notes BIOL 190
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Anna Stidham on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 190 at Towson University taught by Professor Joseph Velenovsky in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology Health Professions in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA is one of two nucleic acids that contain genetic instructions used in the development and function of all known living organisms with the exception of RNA viruses The main function of DNA is long range storage of information This information is often times compared to a set of blueprints or a recipe or a code Areas or regions of the DNA that store or house this information are called genes and these genes come in versions called alleles Within DNA molecules are stretches of area that do not house specific genes These additional areas house information for structural purposes and the regulation of the information stored within the genes themselves DNA is made from 2 long polymers of simple units called nucleotides Nucleotides in turn are constructed from a single unit and phosphate unit and one of four different types of nitrogenous bases The two long polymer units create a molecule suggestive of a twisted staircase or double helix The sides or backbone of the double helix are comprised of alternating sugar and phosphate units In turn each sugar is attached to a single nitrogenous base Nitrogenous bases for DNA come in four varieties Adenine Ihymine Qytosine guanine It is the sequence or order of these four bases within the DNA molecule that store the genetic information for a particular organism DNA itself is organized into structures called chromosomes Chromosomes are not only made of DNA but contain proteins called histones whose job are to help compact and organize the DNA molecule along with helping to control which parts of the DNA molecule are being transcribed DNA polymers can be very large molecules containing millions of nucleotides The larger the chromosome the more nucleotides comprising it Because DNA is made of multiple nucleotide units attached to one another this polymer may be referred to as a polynucleotide The sugars in DNA are deoxyribose sugars They are classified as pentoses because they are 5carbon sugar units In between each sugar of the DNA backbone is a phosphate molecule The phosphate molecule attaches to the third carbon atom of a sugar above it and a 5carbon atom of the sugar below it This asymmetric bond gives the molecule a sense of direction In a double helix DNA molecule the direction of the nucleotides in one strand is opposite to their direction in the other strand the strands run antiparallel One DNA strand is labeled from a 5 end to a 3 end while the other strand will be labeled running oppositely with a 3 end to a 5 end 0 The 5 end of the strand will always end in a phosphate group while the 3 end will always end with an OH group a DNA double helix I1 Gmnplmrilary base mining 2 Ladder summation quotTUFCQQI39I ICICIIWI E U IEII Old l39n39i F39 l 1Wplementary DESES 13W nal513 n39i I39Jhl mash ram Eazh I nspi uata gran li391k5 the 339quot C lb 43f 33910 Sug 39 TD TE 51quot noer I24 ling neat mggau along the Lmkwno E39I39IC J T45 have Hm p Flyd39UQT il l EJEI39IUk I313 treks hawE twee l h39y gEl39l tows I r I TI39IEZ Hum 915 tmti l Hm quot EL EttaET 39 Question 1793 are antimalailai f and 0 The two DNA strands are held to one another at the site of the bases by hydrogen bonds 0 The four nitrogenous bases are divided into two classes 0 Purines include adenine and guanine are recognized by the fact that structurally they consist of two fused rings 0 Pyrimidines include Thymine and Cytosine are recognized by the fact that structurally they consist of one ring Putin 5 Fwimiulimes HHEI IIHE ua n ma C39 ijgine Tl39 fmmE 5 quotIn 1 L 11 ItI M y 1 all who I quotmt H Haw 1 n39F II V quotJEEP all r w in o to a at Yr Phaephme gruup easynbose 0 Genes is made up of the order of the letters 0 Rosalind Franklin 19401950 s working with men in genderdifficult times took Xrays of DNA samples died of Xray exposure proved DNA was two strands and that there was some repetitive parts 0 Genes are of different sizes 0 They are made of four nitrogenous bases 0 Translating device ribosome Gene Mutation happen in transcription 0 Mutatgenesis chemical and physical agents mutagens cause this to occur 0 Xrays UV light 0 Sickle cell mistake in the series of letters 0 CAT instead of CTT in their sequence 0 Sometimes it doesn t matter because the bases could code for the same amino acid but in this case significant difference Val instead of Glu causes the issues 0 Base subsitition O Drives change and evolution on planet 0 An A instead of a G changes the amino acid 0 Base Deletion 0 An A is missing from the code every amino acid after the deletion gets changed Viruses 0 It is a piece of nucleic acid surrounded by protein 0 DNA viruses and RNA viruses 0 All viruses have their own specific shape which is due to proteins and carbohydrates surround nucleic acid 0 Carbs and Proteins are very similar to the cell that they invade 0 They have their own piece of nucleic acid 0 Never get infected with the same virus twice 0 They are specific about what they invade cell specific 0 Polio recognizes and invades nerve cells and doesn t care about the skin cells or blood cells 0 Viruses are pathagens as are bacteria 0 Bacteria are cells and viruses are not 0 A virus requires a cell to replicate itself 0 It invades a living cell to live 0 Viruses will not hurt ourselves if we do not let the virus go to the place it wants to invade O Openings to skins cuts and scrapes should not be open to the environment of bacteria and viruses germs or pathegens 0 Need an electron microscope to see viruses 0 Some Viruses invade Bacteria O Spaceship looking virusbacteriophage will inject virus into the bacteria 0 Step 1 recognition 0 Step 2 injects its own piece of DNA into the bacteria cell 0 Step 3 bacteria takes viral DNA instructions and not its own makes more of virus DNA Step 4 Assemble the virus gets so full Step 5 Lyses and breaks open and releases all of the viruses into the environment 0 Immune system tries to get rid of them cough them out heat your body up to kill 00 them sneeze them out 0 NO DRUGS WILL DESTROY VIRUS I Wait for your body to make immune system cells that will recognize the virus and make one of its own and break it apart 0 Gives you permanent immunity against this virus 0 Problem causes so much problems that you cannot fight it off before your body makes the virus immunity 0 Vaccines injected beforehand similar to the virus but it doesn t cause you to get the disease it just makes you make the antibodies so you can be immune I Booster shot more protection 0 Viruses 0 Cannot be treated with antibiotics 0 Are not cellular in nature thus not considered alive 0 Are mostly disease casuing or pathogenic however we have used viruses as vectors to introduce pieces of wanted DNA into cells in biotechnology Sometimes viruses cause a cell to release toxins which in turn kill healthy cells How much damage a virus causes depends on the ability of the infected tissue to regenerate by cell division 39 Cold virus recover quickly with no permanent damage I Polio virus permanent damage before recovery To fight viruses we rely on our immune system For the immune system to respond to a viral infection takes some time so if you are a virus that causes death or permanent damage quickly a vaccine for this virus is desirable HIV virus that still has no vaccine yet and attacks immune system destroys your natural defense system I Leads to AIDS but not all people have AIDS who are HIV Herpes DNA lays dormant until trigger stress temperatures
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