Pre-Midterm Notes REL 350
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Alex Kaatz on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Bundle belongs to REL 350 at Missouri State University taught by Dr. Llewellyn in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Islam in Religious Studies at Missouri State University.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Tuesday August 25 2015 Muhammed 610 632 Moved to Medina in 622 Developed a series of rules based on God39s revelation regarding society Some passages are general some are addressed to speci c problemssituations therefore context is important Some passages are understood to correct other passages it eventually forbids the consumption of alcohol but initially it only condemned drunkenness Theory if theological text is divine and contains eternal proof it should contain internal truths rather than contextual ones We can differentiate the times that some of the passages are written based on the style Mecca vs Medina whether they were or weren39t in control of society religious vs social issues We can also tell by commentaries that were written regarding speci c chapters they talk about the subject matter and when they were written earliest ones are probably about 100150 years later Shorter chapters were written sooner The Four quotRightly Guidedquot Caliphs 632661 Abu Bahkr 632634 early convert older man Muhammad39s fatherinlaw chosen by Muhammed to lead Muslims in prayer when he himself was ill Umar ibn alKhattab 634644 Uthman ibn Affan 644656 assassinated Ali ibn Abi Talib 656661 cousinsoninlaw of Muhammad 0 Doesn39t vigorously pursuecatch his predecessor39s assassin o Muhamad39s daughter Aisha started a revolt against him defeated 0 his status started the split between Sunni and Shia the latter of which thought that leadership should be passed down through the bloodline of the prophet Head is called the Imam which in generally is a leader of the community is prayer but in this case is also a descendant of the prophet and is chosendivinely led by God Traditions of succession have mostly died out by now although there is a contemporary Muslim who claims he can trace his Hneage Some believe that the line died out with the seventh or twelfth lmam the last one went into hiding before dying and the tradition will eventually be restored Mahdi will appear near the time ofjudgement to call people back to God39s religion some think this will be the hidden Imam 0 Con ict between him and one of the regional leaders who s in charge of DamascusSyria Ali tries to remove Muawiyah who refuses to step down and starts another revolt They meet in battle Ali is about to crush them when they ask for arbitration Muawiyah accepts that All is caliph but keeps his job as governor Tuesday August 25 2015 Killed by the Kharijites who thought that Muawiyah was wrong and should have been violently crushed continue as a movement for several centuries militant Depending on your beliefs the earlier caliphs weren39t rightly guided bc they weren39t blood relatives only related by marriage and early dedication however they share the same fundamental beliefs although there are other theological and liturgical differences Modern Shia are mostly in Iran and Iraq Caliph successordeputy Rapid expansion controlled a large area Signi cant internal dissension No agreed upon successor when Muhammed died Ruled the politicalreligious community but weren39t prophets the Quran is God39s perfect revelation Essentially chosen by consensus elders of the community this was the way the tribal societies chose The Umayyad Empire 661750 eventually centered in Damascus Hereditary starts with Muawiyah still called Caliph Muslim community is become more international culturally varied The Abbasid Empire 7501258 centered in Baghdad The Regional Empires there39s too much territory for one centralized government The Ottoman Empire late thirteenth century to 1918 capital Istanbul emperor still called himself Caliph end of the empire was the end of the title The Safavid Empire 15011722 capital Isfahan in Iran The Moghul Empire 15201857 capital Delhi Current radical groups are trying to recreate a Muslim nation and Caliphate Emphasis on what you do rather than what you believe Five Orthopraxis vs Orthodoxy Leaders tend to be more versed in law rather than theological thought Con ict between rational thought and the written word issue of putting reason over God39s word Quran emphasizes that Allah is almighty he created everything and we39ll be risen to life at the end of time and judged based on our actions There are passages that indicate we have a choice to follow Allah or not and end up in heaven or hell but other passages indicate we don39t have a choice he chooses people who he favors and guides to hell with the rest of us A balance is that God can choose to take a hand in life but doesn39t always do so Preexistence issue The Quran is supposed to be a copy of a book that has always existed in heaven 0 But the only eternally existing thing is supposed to be God so are there two eternal things 0 Do God39s attributes compassion etc threaten the singularity of God Pillars of Islam Confession of Faith 0 There is no God but Allah and Mohammad is His prophet o Recited in prayer almost always in Arabic 0 Shirk associated anything with god worshipping something else like quotworshippingquot money in addition to a traditional interpretations 0 Doesn t mention other prophets even though they existed 0 Five times a day every day 0 Face toward Mecca you can look the direction up onine 0 Any place that39s clean and quiet o Imam will lead the prayer at the mosque he39s not a pastor although in many American mosques they look for someone who can ful ll the role of a pastor gure as well o If women go to the mosque at all Friday at noon they ll be in a separate section so that the men can39t see them bc they39re a distraction Charity 0 Proportion of income and wealth usually around 25 this is to teach you the discipline of charity which can be applied at other times as well 0 Supports the poor sick and quotevangelistsquot 0 Some governments collect it as a tax other places it39s voluntary o All wealth comes from God so people who have wealth have to help those who don39t to do otherwise is a sin 0 No prohibition against wealth just about not doing charity Fasting 0 During the month of Ramadan the months move through the seasons because it39s based on a lunar calendar 0 Don39t eat drink smoke or have sex between sunup and sundown o If you can39t fast due to health reasons you can make it up later in the year 0 Discipline to avoid excessive pleasures o Solidarity between those who have a lot to eat vs those who don39t Pilgrimage 0 To the Kaba in Mecca 0 There39s a month of pilgrimage 0 Once in your life as long as you39re able 0 There39s a special out t for men a basic dress code for women suppress obvious status differences like jewelry 0 People from around the world trade information and stories there Islamic Law Quran holy text Hadith collection of stories about the things Muhammad said and did 0 Central message 0 Chain of transmission 0 Important to determine which ones are true and which ones are fakesunreliable 0 Early collectors studied the biographies of those in the chains to help verify that there are no temporal gaps location differences the transmitters are reliable the content doesn39t con ict with the Quran etc Consensus 0 There can39t be consensus without God so if it39s there it has to be holy 0 Debate on whose consensus is important modern democracy or the early jurists Analogy 0 Analytical reasoning 0 There are synthetic drugs like ecstasy that didn39t exist back in the day but they have some of the same sinful effects of alcohol so they39re forbidden 0 Based on principles rather than speci c examples Tuesday September 1 2015 Quran Chapter 2 The Quranic Universe Allah People who do good works and do what39s right will nd paradise on judgement day Capitalized quotWequot like the royal quotwequot Allah commands the angels to bow down to Adam but Satan refuses Angels keep a record of our actions are servants of god Adam sins asks for forgiveness and reaches reconciliation gt no original sin becomes the rst prophet You can learn about the Creator from His Creation theoretically you can learn enough about God to be a Muslim by observing the world natural theology Forgiving and merciful but stern in retribution Hears and knows all Selfsuf cient and gracious There is a point after which mercy is not possible after you die you either pass the test or fail Determinism vs Free Will Quran 246 278 Determinism 0 quotGod guides to His light whom He willquot 2435 0 quotGod guides whom he will to a straight pathquot 2446 0 except for those whom God will choose to sparequot 2780 0 Prophets are blessed by God with success Free Will 0 quotObey God and obey the Apostle An apostle39s duty is but to give plain warning Wicked indeed are they who after this deny mequot 2454 0 quotGod does not guide the evildoersquot 2846 o quotIt is their recompense and their retreatquot 259 0 quotThese shall be rewarded for their fortitudequot 2572 0 Unless he repent and believe and do good works for then God will change his sins to good actionsquot 2567 Both o quotIt is God who guides whom he will He best knows those who yield to guidancequot 2851 Tension between revelation and reason 0 0 How free can we be to resolve apparent con icts based on our reason God knows what our destiny will be because he s omniscient but that doesn39t mean he s the one who make it happen What the effect of each belief O 0 If you believe in predestination why bother working against it But the people living among the select have a particular lifestyle so we can guess what our destiny will be and try to live that way ourselves September 29 2015 Regional Politics Theme Iran Islamic resurgence Increasing return to Islam in politics Post WWII emphasis on economic development 0 Many colonial territories become independent 0 Expectations were that they d get rich after they got rid of the colonials because no one would be taking their resources 0 That didn39t really happen though especially in the immediate decades following 0 Democracy and socialism didn39t help the average person didn39t deHver o The alternative that emerged is Islam 1925 1979 ruled by a Shah 0 Western oriented emphasized modernization close ally of the US 0 Autocratic ruler that became increasingly so 0 Various movements critical of his rule Marxists Muslims Revolution in 1979 0 Various groups found afterwards that they didn39t have anything else in common 0 The radical right were the ones who nally won the struggle Unique system clerical rule religious officials rule the government 0 The cleric would be from the ulama traditional training in Islamic law and called the Supreme Leader above the president 0 Ayatollah is a Shii position Leaders 0 AyattoIah RuhoIIah Khomeini 1902 1989 became Supreme Leader in 1979 o Mohammad Khatami 1943 present President from 1997 2005 o Mahmud Ahmadinejad 1956 present President from 2005 2013 o Hassan Rouhani 1948 present President from 2013 present Basis of government is the Sharia o Clerics have the power to review and reject laws that are inconsistent with Islam President isn39t commander in chief the supreme leader is 0 Runs the administration 0 Passes the budget including the military budget 0 Democratically elected Several reasons Iran took this path 0 Islam was important during the revolution that got rid of the Shah Mosques and mullas functioned independently of the government Thus they weren39t silenced like the other groups Served as the medium for protest o Ayatollahs were critical of the Shah after eeing from Iran September 29 2015 o Revolutionary leaders The moderatemodernized Islamic ideologues were pushed out in favor of a more aggressiverevolutionaryconservative approach Shii movement 0 Current events 0 Current president signed a treaty allowing outside governments to send inspectors to check on their nuclear facilities 0 This will remove sanctions which will open trade and boost Iran39s economy 0 His predecessor was very antiWestern Relation with the West 0 Around the revolution several US administrators were held hostage for over a year 0 The US had supported the Shah Religious split 0 Shii majority o Khomeini emphasized that Shii and Sunni weren39t that different 0 There are still Shii radical groups Egypt 0 Had a westernoriented king 0 Military revolt in 1952 overthrew the monarchy o lnitailly supported by the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamic groups 0 This support fell off after they realized Nasser wasn39t Islamoriented Leaders 0 Camad Abd alNasser 1918 1970 President from 1952 1970 Supported panArab socialism AlAzar University was taken under government control 0 Supreme Council of Islam Affairs 0 Presented as opposed to economic oppression Wasn39t conservative so the Muslim Brotherhood criticized him 0 They were eventually outlawed Their leader Sayyid Qutb was arrested and executed 0 Political confusion followed after his death He had been uniquely important eliminating others who were gaining power No apparent successor o Anwar Sadat President from 1970 1981 Increasingly drew on Islam to increase his popularity Loosened restrictions on Islamist groups in the mid 70s Took the Sinai peninsula back from Israel Radical groups still criticized Camp David Accords Peace treaty with Israel in 1979 Assassinated him in 1981 o Hosni Mubarak 1928 present President from 1981 2011 Had been Sadat39s VP September 29 2015 Widespread public protests against him for being increasingly autocratic lead to his forced resignation Election held for his successor o Mohamed Morsi President from 2011 2013 Member of the Muslim Brotherhood Tried to pull together a popular alternative from what had existed before Growing protests against him from leftists and secularists Military coup removed him from power 0 Abdel Fattah elSisi President from 2014 present General who lead the coup against Morsi It remains to be seen if he39s more secular or lslamic Islam vs Secular O O O Seems to go back and forth Politics based on Islam has become much more important than it had been Also becoming increasingly less tolerant of other religions
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