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Lecture Notes: Weeks 1 and 3

by: Brooke Bryski

Lecture Notes: Weeks 1 and 3 123-01

Marketplace > Biology > 123-01 > Lecture Notes Weeks 1 and 3
Brooke Bryski
CSU Pomona
Biology of Sex
No professor available

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About this Document

Here are the lecture notes from these past 3 weeks of class! Just in time for the midterm.
Biology of Sex
No professor available
biology of sex
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Brooke Bryski on Sunday October 12, 2014. The Bundle belongs to 123-01 at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 273 views.


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Date Created: 10/12/14
September 22 2014 Lecture A What is Sex i Sexual Reproduction when two organisms combine their DNA to form an o spnng B The Scientific Method i Ask question propose hypothesis possible answer to the question design study experimental or observational make predictions perform study and analyze data ii Null hypothesis involves discrediting an idea The product does not work iii Experimental studies involve manipulating the independent variable while observational studies do not manipulate an independent variable iv Single blind study participants do not know whether they received the test drug or placebo v Placebo a fake drug Does not influence the subject who is taking it vi Double blind study neither the participants nor the scientists know whether they got the test drug or placebo vii Dependent variable is affected by the independent variable viii Independent variable the treatment and control groups viv The confounding variable could discredit data X Experimental studies are best for reducing the possible effects of the confounding variables Xi Predictions the expected results if hypothesis is true Xii Were predictions met Yes Hypothesis supported null hypothesis rejected No Hypothesis rejected null hypothesis supported Xiii In science a theory is something that is supported by a large amount of evidence C How do you know if a product works as advertised i FDA concerned with safety and whether or not the drug works ii Federal Trade Commission protects consumers against dishonesty from large corporations iii Nonscientists could ask a doctor look on wikipedia etc look up reputable sources science journals schoargooglecom D Penis Size idata is collected through self measurement not largely reliable scientists measure penis length ii The average penis size ofAmerican men is 56 inches length 48 inches girth September 24 2014 Lecture A Genetics i Family similar but not identical iiGenetics how traits are passed on by parents to offspring iii Chromosomes occur in pairs one from mom one from dad Genes are found within chromosomes iv Watson and Crick and Franklin discovered the double helix structure of DNA v Sequence of bases ATCG carries info for growth and reproduction of cells B The Central Dogma of Biology i DNA is used to make RNA ii RNA is used as a blueprint Makes proteins which contribute to how we look behave our physiology etc iii Genotype describes what kinds of sequence of bases they have at a specific place in their DNA iv Phenotype a description of the measurable characteristics of an individual C Mutation i Error that occurs if DNA strand is read incorrectly ii Can lead to different protein being produced iii Most are bad but some are good ie some humans have a mutation for resistance to HIV D How do traits get passed on to offspring i Chromosomes are usually paired one from mom one from dad ii Gene sequence of DNA bases that codes for a trait iii Allele version of a gene iv Chromosomes from mom and dad contain some or different alleles E How Genotype Translates to Phenotype i Dominant allele masks recessive allele ii Genotypes are called AA dominant homozygote aa recessive homozygote Aa or aA heterozygote phenotype iiiAn Individual Has Many Genes on Multiple Chromosomes iv The typical human has 46 in each body cell v Sperm and eggs contain fewer chromosomes than other cells F Meiosis i Makes sperm and eggs ii Halves number of chromosomes iii Each spermegg is unique iv Mutations create even more variation v occurs in some cells only G When Happens to Genes when Eggs and Sperm are Made i 46 92 46 chromosomes swap bits with each other23 H Large Scale Mutation i Error if chromosomes don39t move into sperm and eggs correctly I Epigenetics i Identical twins 1 egg 1 sperm two embryos ii fraternal twins 2 eggs 2 sperm two embryos iii Even identical twins can look different because genes can be turned on or off differently iv Diet exercise and lifestyle can influence how genes make proteins v Chimerism 2 sets of DNA in one person chimera October 6 2014 Genitalia A Challenge 1 Finding a Mate i Longest penis relative to body size A barnacle ii If the species live in choppy waters their penis is smaller Casts sperm in water iii When squid mate they form spermatophore millions of sperm encased in envelopeThe spermatophore can propel themselves Expel millions of sperm in bundles that dig in to the femaleor other soft tissue Fertilize iv Argonaut Rare octopus species lives far out in the water not near surface Detaches penis sends it out to female Penis has no sense of direction chance meeting with female He dies after mating B Challenge 2 Sexual Conflict i Males and females are favored to do different things by evolution ii Bean weavil penis latches onto female removes sperm of other males iii Mating plugs often found in rodents After mating plugs female so she cannot mate with another male right away iv With most species of birds both males and females have openings cloaca not necessarily genitalia Only 3 of birds have a penis v Traumatic Insemination Males compete fiercely for genital opening some have trait that allows them to bypass it altogether ie spiders penis is in mouthparts Normally sperm of second male flush out sperm of first male With traumatic insemination it s a freeforall Allows for injecting sperm into resistant females Cost females mate more shorter lifespan fewer eggs C Meeting the Challenges Posed by Female Genitalia i females can form counter strategies ie duck vagina D Challenging Female Genitalia i Females heavily masculinized ii 10 larger than males way more aggressive iii Pseudopenis clitoris urination copulation birth iv All females in a clan are dominant to all males v Dominance hierarchies within each sex vi Just a by product of high testosterone Females have high levels of testosterone during pregnancy Blocking testosterone does not eliminate pseudopenis vii Penisinspection Greeting Ceremony sniffing and licking penises andor pseudopenises Penis may signal m male not a threat Pseudopenis may signal I m a subordinate female not a threat viii Mucus and hormones aid sperm survival E Challenge 3 Get Rid of Other Guy s Sperm D Challenge 4 Performance i Hemipenis allows for extra sperm to transfer 1 used at a time ii Fourheaded echidna penis useful when multiple males compete for a female iii Penis spines scrub out sperm stimulate ovulation stimulate fast ejaculation iv More spines in species with multiple males than singlemale groups More in species with shorter period of females receptivity Reduction in receptive period may be due to damage that mated females endure V Humans used to have spiked penises Not anymore Same DNA would restrict brain size so we evolved larger brains smoother penises October 8 2014 A Bacterial Diversity i Bacteria vary in size shape and motility ii Bacteria is NOT always bad B How do Bacteria Obtain New Genes i From dead bacteria ii From viruses iii From other living bacteria iv Conjugation Transfer of DNA from a donor bacterium to a recipient bacterium via a direct connection v Alexander Fleming left a plate of bacteria out while on vacation bacteria formed mold noticed that wherever the mold grew the bacteria was dead Discovered penicillin C Evolution of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria i A chance mutation occurs ii Antibiotics kill most bacteria without the mutation iii Mutant bacteria reproduce iv Antibiotics are ineffective against mutant cells v Natural Selection individuals with certain characteristics produce more offspring than do individuals without those characteristics vi Genes for antibiotic resistance may be transmitted via conjugation vii Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus aka MRSA D Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV i There is a difference between being HIV positive and having AIDS AIDS happens when HIV replicates over and over again ii Less than 1 of the adult population in the US have HIV More than 10 have it in Africa iii HIV Replication HIV does not have DNA Has RNA instead RNA is converted back to DNA Has to use host s base pair steals it takes that DNA and puts it into host s genome DNA rapidly replicates DNA and virus Virus leaves cell cell bursts Small number of immune cells eventually left iv Ebola also an RNA virus Effects tons of cells especially in vital organs and mucus linings Causes humans to bleed out Transmitted only through bodily fluids bloodurinesweat E Flowering Plants i Asexual reproduction in plants runners corms plantlets And some plants can selfpollinate ii Carl Linnaeus Discovered the roles of various parts of the flower during reproduction F Basic Parts of a Perfect Flower i Petals attract pollinators smell looks ii Anther makes pollen iii Ovary makes eggs iv Carpel female parts v Stamen male parts vi A perfect flower has both female and male parts vii Corn is an imperfect flower Corn is monoecious Monoecious male flowers and female flowers all within the same plant Cannibis is dioecious Dioecious an individual plant is either female or male viii A pollinated ovary becomes a fruit G Seeds i Dispersed by animals wind and water October 13 2014 A Sex Determination i Genetic Sex chromosomes ii Environmental temperature dependent or dependent on size and social system B XY Sex Determination i Gene on Y chromosome codes for proteins that cause testes to develop ii Fetal testes produce lots of testosterone and a hormone called MIH MIH causes the female parts to go away iii For the testes to descend down there has to be testosterone iv If there is no hormones female parts would develop If MIH and testosterone are present male hormone prevails C What happens if something goes wrong i XX or XY is normal ii XO Turner syndrome There is only one sex chromosome from only one parent probably the mom Genetic but not hereditary as it is a random occurrence Typically female phenotypeGirs with Turner syndrome are often short learning impaired heart defects causing heart disease Always infertile iii XXY Klinefelter syndrome Extra sex chromosome Typically male phenotype Typically male body slightly feminized More body fat larger breasts narrower shoulders Always somewhat or completely infertile iv XYY XYY syndrome Male phenotype Typically tall In some cases lower intelligence more acne very aggressive v XY but no testosterone receptor Androgen lnsensitivity Syndrome AIS D Sex Determination cont i Atrazine given to male frogs they turn into females Atrazine reduces testosterone ii Testosterone is converted to estrogenl by aromatase ETemeprature Dependent Sex Determination i Testosterone gt aromatase gt Estrogen ii Aromatase is effected by temperatures differently in different species iii For sea turtles aromatase causes more girls develop in hot weather For lizards aromatase causes the opposite For crocodiles it varies F Sequential Hermaphroditism i with clown fish the largest egg is the female If female dies largest male becomes female


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