Notes for Exam 1 in ESC_PS 2010
Notes for Exam 1 in ESC_PS 2010 Physics 2330
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Top 20 Principles from Psychology ▯ Principle 1 Students beliefs or perceptions about intelligence and ability affect their cognitive functioning and learning ▯ Principle 2 What students already know affects their learning ▯ Principle 3 Students cognitive development and learning are not limited by general stages of development Principle 4 Learning is based on context, so generalizing learning to new contexts is not spontaneous but instead needs to be facilitated ▯ Principle 5 Acquiring long term knowledge and skill is largely dependent on practice ▯ Principle 6 Clear, explanatory, and timely feedback to students is important for learning ▯ Principle 7 Students self regulation assists learning and self regulatory skills can be taught ▯ Principle 8 Student creativity can be fostered ▯ Principle 9 Students tend to enjoy learning and perform better when they are more intrinsically than extrinsically motivated to achieve ▯ Principle 10 Students persist in the face of challenging tasks and process information more deeply when they adopt mastery goals rather than performance goals Principle 11 Teachers expectations about their students affect students opportunities to learn, their motivation, and their learning outcomes ▯ Principle 12 Setting goals that are short term (proximal), specific, and moderately challenging enhances motivation more than establishing goals that are long term (distal), general and overly challenging ▯ Principle 13 Learning is situation within multiple social contexts ▯ Principle 14 Interpersonal relationships and communication are critical to both the teaching learning process and the social emotional development of students ▯ Principle 15 Emotional well being influences educational performance, learning, and development ▯ Principle 16 Expectations for classroom conduct and social interaction are learned and can be taught using proven principles of behavior and effective classroom instruction ▯ Principle 17 Effective classroom management is based on… o Setting and communicating high expectations o Consistently nurturing positive relationships o Providing a high level of student support ▯ Principle 18 Formative and summative assessments are both important and useful but require different approaches and interpretations ▯ Principle 19 Students skills, knowledge, and abilities are best measured with assessment processes grounded in psychological science with well defined standards for quality and fairness ▯ Principle 20 Making sense of assessment data depends on clear, appropriate, and fair interpretation ▯ MEGA Missouri Educator Gateway Assessment ▯ MoGEA General Education Assessment ▯ MoCA Content Assessment ▯ MEP An assessment of work style preferences used to support the development of effective educator work habits 192 questions ▯ ▯ LOOK ON BLACKBOARD FOR POWERPOINT ▯ ▯ PHASE 1 FIELD FAIR Thursday, September 3 rd Stotler Lounge Memorial Union 1-4pm ▯ Learning and Teaching Today ▯ ▯ Students Today Dramatic Diversity o Language 18% speak language other than English at home o Ethnicity 22% of children are Latino o SES 1 in 5 children lives in poverty Technology o High levels of technological literacy ▯ Teachers Today 91% are white Teacher’s sense of efficacy o A teacher’s belief that he or she can reach even difficult students to help them learn o Predicts student achievement o Grows from real success with students o Experience and training are essential ▯ No Child Left Behind Act (2002) Reauthorization of Elementary and Secondary School Act of 1965 All students in grades 3-8 must take standardized tests once per year Schools must make AYP (Adequate Yearly Progress) A Blueprint for Reform: The Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (March, 2010) o Aims to reward excellent teaching and student growth o Stay tuned ▯ Do Teachers Make a Difference? Teacher student relationships o Positive relationships are associated with school success The cost of poor teaching o Ineffective teaching has long lasting affects on academic gains ▯ ▯ What is Good Teaching? ▯ ▯ Is Teaching a Science or an Art Beware of either/or choices Teachers must be: o Able to use a range of strategies o Flexible and inventive o Knowledgeable about their students ▯ Differentiated Instruction Going beyond accommodating learner differences to seeing diversity as an array of strengths on which to build Creating curriculum that is o Focused o Engaging o Demanding o Important o Scaffold ▯ Beginning Teachers Concerns o Classroom management o Motivating students o Accommodating students with differences o Evaluating student work o Dealing with parents o Getting along with other teachers New Teacher: “How am I doing?” Experienced Teacher: “Hoe are the students doing?” Educational Psychology provides new teachers the foundation they need ▯ ▯ The Role of Educational Psychology ▯ ▯ Educational Psychology In the Beginning o Educators and psychologists observing children in classrooms Today o Research on teaching and learning o Child/adolescent development o Motivation What happens when someone teaches something to someone else in some setting Is it Just Common Sense? Principles may seem obvious, but are the results of rigorous research Often, common sense responses may not be the best for students Educations psychology is a field dedicated to the study of teaching and learning ▯ Using Research to Understand and Improve Learning Descriptive Studies o Survey results o Interview responses o Video or audio of classroom interactions Correlation studies o Ask: what is the relation between two variables? ▯ Using Research Experimental Studies o Random assignment o Cause and effect relationships o Quasi-experimental studies Single-Subject Experimental Design o Examines the impact of an intervention Micro-genetic Studies o Study cognitive processes in the midst of change The role of time in research o Short term observations o Longitudinal studies Teachers as researchers o Action research (problem-solving investigation) ▯ Scientifically Based Research NCLB: educational programs and practices receiving federal funds must be based on “scientific research” o Systematic observation or experiments o Rigorous data analysis procedures o Clearly described and repeatable o Must be peer reviewed Theories for Teaching Principle: an established link between two or more factors o Principles will help you with specific problems Theory: an interrelated set of concepts that is used to explain a body of data and to make predictions about the results of future experiments o Theories will provide new ways of thinking about problems Hypothesis: a prediction of what will happen in a research study based on previous research ▯ The Research Cycle Clear hypothesis or questions Systematic gathering and analyzing data Improving theories based on results Asking new questions ▯ Supporting Student Learning 2 groups of variables directly linked to student achievement: o student personal factors o socio-contextual factors Educational Psychology provided a base for developing knowledge and skills to support both groups ▯ ▯ Human Development Displays accurate understanding of the intellectual, social- emotional, and physical characteristics of learners of all ages and the inter-relatedness of the three areas ▯ Development – Definition Pattern of biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional changes that begins at conception and continues through the life span ▯ Development: General Principles People develop at different rates o NEVER assume what a child can and cannot do based on age Development is relatively orderly (Milestones) Development takes place gradually (periods of rapid growth) Development is affected by both heredity and environment ▯ An Overview of Development ▯ ▯ Ecological System’s Theory ▯ ▯ Ecological System’s Theory Microsystem – immediate everyday environment where there is face to face relationships Mesosystem – interaction/connection between various microsystems Exosystem – social settings that do not contain the child but affect his/her experiences Macrosystem – cultural values, laws, customs Chronosystem – socio historical conditions of the time ▯ Periods of Development Infancy – 0 to 18-24 months Early Childhood – end of infancy to 5/6 Middle/Late Childhood – 6 to 11 Adolescence – 11 to 18-22 Early Adulthood – late teens/early 20s to 30s ▯ Physical Growth Humans have a prolonged period of physical growth Anthropologists and evolutionists suggest this is due to the cognitive development that takes place during childhood ▯ General Growth Patterns There is wide variation from the “norm” Brain growth is rapid from fetal period – 24 mos. Brain is 70% of adult weight by age of 2 Rapid growth in infancy Slower, constant rate of growth during childhood ▯ Early Childhood/Preschool Years Major accomplishment is the development of small muscle (fine motor) and large muscles (gross motor) skills ▯ Motor Skills Approx. Age Gross-Motor Skills Fine-Motor Skills Birth to 3 -sits and crawls; walks; -picks up, grasps, begins to run stacks, and releases objects 3 to 4.5 -walks up and down -holds crayon; uses stairs; jumps with both utensils; buttons; copies feet; throws ball shapes 4.5 to 6 -skips; rides 2 wheel -uses pencil; makes bike; catches ball; plays representational sports drawings; cuts with scissors; prints letters ▯ Enhancing Early Childhood Motor Development Mastered through everyday play o Formal lessons have little impact Daily routines support fine motor development Provide appropriate play space and equipment Promote fun and positive attitude ▯ Language Development Language acquisition o Birth to 2: infants understand world through senses (crying, cooing, babbling) o 2 and after: oral language begins and mental symbols used to understand world (first words uttered between 10 & 15 months) o vocabulary acquisition proceeds in bursts o by age 2, average child knows 900 words ▯ Development: Elementary School Fairly steady Become stronger Better able to master sports and games Tremendous variation o Your too little be in 5 grade ▯ Motor Development in Middle Childhood Gross motor skills improvements o Flexibility o Balance o Agility o Force Fine motor skills gains o Writing o Drawing Common Health Problems in Middle Childhood Vision – myopia Hearing – otitis media (middle ear infection) Malnutrition Obesity Bedwetting Illnesses Injuries ▯ Physical Development in Adolescence Sharp increase in early adolescence, growth can be uneven Puberty – biological changes Girls tend to hit puberty approximately 2 years ahead of boys Approximately age 11, females will become taller and heavier than their male peers ▯ Physical Changes at Puberty Girls o Breasts grow (8-13) o Pubic hair develops (8-14) o Body grows (9-14) o Menarche occurs (10-16) o Underarm hair (10-16) o Oil/sweat glands (10-16) Boys o Testes grow (10-13) o Public hair develops (10-15) o Body grows (10-16) o Penis growth (11-14) o Voice changes (11-14) o Underarm and facial hair (12-17) o Oil/sweat glands (12-17) ▯ Early vs. Late Maturation Longitudinal studies suggest opposite effects for males and females Adolescents feel most comfortable with peers who match their own level of biological maturity ▯ Males Early maturing males appear advantaged Viewed as relaxed, independent, self confident, attractive Late maturing males were not well liked Viewed as anxious, overly talkative, attention seeking o In adulthood tend to be more creative, tolerant, and perceptive ▯ Females Early maturing females experienced social difficulties, below average in popularity, lack self confidence Late maturing females were regarded as physically attractive, lively, sociable, and leaders at school Early Maturation for Both Seek out older companions Attractive to the opposite sex Higher tendency to become involved with activities that they may not be ready for emotionally Can affect academic performance (Stattin & Magnusson 1990) ▯ ▯ Physical Development ▯ ▯ Preschool Children Rapid development of gross motor (large muscle) and fine motor skills ▯ Elementary School Years Development is steady Girls are often ahead of boys in height and weight ▯ Adolescence Puberty (and related emotional struggles) Early maturation o Boys Tend to be more popular More likely it engage in delinquent behavior o Girls Early maturation not beneficial Tend to have more emotional difficulties ▯ Recess Play supports brain, language, and social development Provides opportunities for students to practice problem solving and cooperation, and to release tension The increase in childhood obesity is linked to inactivity ▯ ▯ The Social Context for Development ▯ ▯ Bronfenbrenner’s Bio-ecological Model of Development Development is heavily influenced by interacting systems o Microsystem: immediate relationships and activities Parents, teachers, peers o Mesosystem: relationships among microsystems Parents interacting with teachers, etc. o Exosystem: social settings Communities o Macrosystem: culture These systems not only influence each other, but also work together to influence and be influenced by the individual ▯ Parenting Styles Authoritarian o Controlling, often do not allow children agency, not abusive, but not openly affectionate Authoritative o Clear limitations/expectations and clearly enforced rules, but also affectionate Permissive o No clear limitations/expectations and not clearly enforced rules, but highly affectionate Rejecting/Neglecting o No clear limitations/expectations, no affection and little attention ▯ Parenting Styles Continued In European American, middle class families o Children of authoritative parents are more likely to be happy with themselves and relate well to others o Children of authoritarian parents are more likely to feel guilty or depressed and children of permissive parents may be trouble interacting with peers Cultures differ in parenting styles o Research indicates that higher control parenting is linked to better grades for Asian and African American students ▯ Peers Peer relationships play a big role in personal and social development Cliques: small friendship-based groups Crowds: larger, less organized groups Peer cultures o Groups develop own norms for appearance and social behavior ▯ Teacher Support Academic Caring o Setting high, but reasonable expectations o Helping students to reach those goals Personal Caring o Being patient, respectful, humorous, willing to listen o Interested in students issues and personal problems ▯ Reporting Child Abuse Teachers must report potential child abuse Signs of abuse or neglect o Unexplained bruises, burns, bites, or other injuries and fatigue, depression, frequent absences, poor hygiene, inappropriate clothing, problems with peers, and many others ▯ ▯ Identity and Self-Concept ▯ ▯ Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Development Connects personal development to social development 8 life stages, each with a developmental crisis o adequate resolution of crisis leads to greater persona and social competence ▯ Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development Trust vs. Mistrust (infant) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (toddler) Initiative vs. Guilt (preschooler) Industry vs. Inferiority (school aged child) Identity vs. Role Confusion (adolescent) Intimacy vs. Isolation (young adult) Generaltivity vs. Stagnation (middle age adult) Integrity vs. Despair (older adult) ▯ Ethnic and Racial Identities Ethnic and racial minority students are confronted with the challenge of forming an identify while living in two worlds – the values, beliefs, and behaviors of their group and of the larger culture Most explanations for identity development describes stages moving from being unaware of differences between minority group and majority cultures, to different ways of negotiating the differences, finally to an integration of cultures ▯ Identity and Self Concept Self Concept o Individuals knowledge and beliefs about themselves o Their ideas, feelings, attitudes, and expectations o A cognitive structure o Becomes increasingly complex as we mature o Evolves through self reflection, social interaction, and experiences Self esteem o Evaluation of self worth o An affective structure Achievement is influenced by both Understanding Others and Moral Development ▯ ▯ Theory of Mind An understanding that other people are people too, with their own minds, thoughts, feelings, beliefs, desires, and perceptions As children develop a theory of mind, they are able to understand that other people have intentions of their own ▯ Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development 3 Levels o Pre-conventional Judgments are based on self interest o Conventional Judgments are based on traditional family values and social expectations o Post-conventional Judgments are based on more abstract and personal ethical principles Critics suggest that Kohlberg’s view does not account for possible cultural differences in moral reasoning or differences between moral reasoning and moral behavior ▯ Gilligan’s “Ethic of Care” 4 Stages o Focus on self interest o Moral reasoning based on commitment o Specific individuals and relationships o Principles of responsibility and care for all people Women are somewhat more likely to use a care orientation, but studies also show that both men and women can use both orientations ▯ Influences on Moral Behavior Initially, adult control through: o Direct instruction o Supervision o Rewards and punishments o Correction o Modeling Media Peers ▯ Definition of Development ▯ ▯ 3 Questions Across Theories What is the source of development? o Nature vs. Nurture o Impossible to separate, both are critical What is the shape of development? o Continuity vs. Discontinuity o Is progress gradual, or in stages? Timing: Is it too late? o Are there critical periods where certain abilities need to develop? o ‘Sensitive periods’ may be a better descriptor of when children are especially responsive to certain experiences ▯ Three Principles of Development People develop at different rates Development is an orderly process Development takes place gradually ▯ Development Orderly, adaptive changes that occur in human beings between conception and death ▯ Types of Development Physical Development o Changes in the body o Maturation Personal Development o Changes in an individuals personality Social Development o Changes in the way an individual relates to others Cognitive Development o Changes in thinking ▯ ▯ The Brain and Cognitive Development ▯ ▯ Neurons Communication mechanisms in the brain ▯ Cerebral Cortex Responsible for complex problem solving and language Last part of brain to develop ▯ Lateralization The specialization of the two sides, or hemispheres, of the brain ▯ Implications for Teacher Recent advances provide exciting information Many of the strategies offered by “brain-based” advocated are simply good teaching ▯ ▯ Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development ▯ ▯ Theory of Cognitive Development Cognitive skills change because people are constantly trying to make sense of the world Changes are influenced by: o Maturation Biological changes o Activity Act on environment o Social experiences Learning from others o Equilibration ▯ Basic Tendencies in Thinking: Organization o Ongoing process of combining, arranging, recombining, and rearranging of behaviors and thoughts into coherent systems or categories o Schemes – organized systems of actions or thought that allow us to mentally represent or “think about” the objects and events in our world Adaptation o Adjusting to the environment o Assimilation – incorporating information into existing schemes o Accommodation – changing existing schemes Equilibration o Organizing, assimilating, and accommodating can be viewed as a kind of complex balancing act o Equilibration is the act of searching for a balance ▯ 4 Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor (0-2 years) o Imitation, memory, and thought develop o Recognize object permanence o Beginning of goal-directed actions Preoperational (2-7 years) o Language acquisition and use o Symbolic thinking o Logical reasoning o Egocentric Concrete Operations (7-11 years) o Solve logical problems through manipulation o Laws of conservation o Understand reversibility Formal Operations (11-adult) o Abstract thinking o Scientific reasoning (logico-mathematical) o Social, multi-layered, complex thinking) ▯ Limitations Children don’t always think in ways that are consistent with stages Appears to have underestimated children’s cognitive abilities Overlooked role of cultural factors in development ▯ ▯ Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective ▯ ▯ Sociocultural Theory Human activities take place in social settings and cannot be understood apart from these settings Social interaction create our cognitive structures and thinking processes ▯ 3 Main Influences on Cognitive Development Social Sources of Individual Thought o Knowledge is co-constructed through shared activities o The co-constructed ideas are then internalized Cultural Tools o Material (physical) o Psychological (language and symbols) Zone of Proximal Development o Area where the child cannot solve a problem alone, but can be successful under adult guidance or in collaboration with a more advanced peer ▯ Role of Language Language is central to sociocultural theory because it is the primary means of information transmission between expert and learner Private speech guides development o A form of self regulation ▯ Limitations May have overemphasized role of social interaction Because he died young, Vygotsky was not able to develop and elaborate on this theories ▯ ▯ Implications of Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories for Teachers ▯ ▯ The “Problem of the Match” Students must be neither bored by work that is too simple nor left behind by teaching they cannot understand Disequilibrium must be carefully balanced to encourage growth Active Learning Students should act, manipulate, observe, and then talk and/or write about what they have experienced ▯ Assisted Learning Guided participation in the classroom Scaffolding o Understanding the students needs, giving information, prompts, reminders, and encouragement at the right time and in the right amounts, and then gradually allowing the students to do more and more on their own o Understanding Learning Learning occurs when experience causes a change in a persons knowledge or behavior Does not include maturation or temporary conditions like hunger or illness Behavior theorists emphasize the role of environmental stimuli and focus on observable responses (behaviors) ▯ ▯ Contiguity and Classical Conditioning ▯ ▯ Contiguity Whenever two or more sensations occur together often enough they will become associated ▯ Classical Conditioning Focuses on the learning of involuntary emotional or physiological responses such as fear, increased muscle tension, salivation, or sweating Neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes an emotional physiological response Eventually, neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus leading to a conditioned response Operant Conditioning Operant Behavior We learn to behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment Behaviors are preceded by antecedents and followed by consequences Operant behavior can be altered (learned) by changes in the antecedents, consequences, or both ▯ Consequences: Reinforcements*** Reinforcement always increases a desired behavior Positive adds a reinforcement, negative removes a reinforcement Positive Reinforcement o Increases a behavior by adding a desired consequence Negative Reinforcement o Increase a behavior by adding an undesired consequence ▯ Consequences: Punishments Punishment always decreases an undesired behavior Presentation Punishment o Suppresses a behavior by adding an undesired consequence Removal Punishment o Suppresses a behavior by removing a desired consequence ▯ Changing Behavior: Reinforcement Schedules Ratio schedules o Based on number of responses Variable schedules o Based on varying numbers of responses or varying time intervals ▯ Changing Behavior: Antecedents Cue o An antecedent stimulus just before a particular behavior occurs Prompt o An additional cue following the first one must occur immediately o Fade use of prompt quickly, so students don’t become dependent on it instead of the cue ▯ ▯ Applied Behavior Analysis ▯ ▯ 3 Steps Clearly specify the behavior to be changed and note the current level Plan a specific intervention using antecedents, consequences, or both Keep track of the results, and modify the plan if necessary ▯ Methods for Encouraging Behaviors Premack Principle o High frequency behavior (a preferred activity) can be an effective reinforce for a low frequency behavior (a less preferred activity) Shaping o Involves reinforcing progress instead of waiting for perfection o Using for building complex skills, working toward difficult goals, and increasing persistence, endurance, accuracy, or speed Positive Practice o Practice correct behavior as soon and as much as possible Cautions about Punishment o Punishment in and of itself does not lead to any positive behavior or compassion for others and it may interfere with developing caring relationships with student o First, carry out the punishment and suppress the undesirable behavior o Second, make clear what the student should be doing instead and provide reinforcement of those desirable actions ▯ ▯ Behavioral Approaches to Teaching and Management ▯ ▯ Managerial Strategies Group Consequences o Basing reinforcement for the whole class on the behavior of the whole class Contingency Contracts o The teacher draws up an individual contract with each student, describing exactly what the student must do to earn a particular privilege or reward Token Programs o Students earn tokens (points, checks, holes punched in a card, chips, etc.) for both academic work and positive classroom behavior Be sure to emphasize learning, and not just good behavior Functional Behavior Assessments o A teacher studies the antecedents and consequences of problem behaviors to determine the reason or function of the behavior o Problem behaviors fall into 3 categories Need for attention Escape from unpleasant situation Gain item or activity Positive Behavior Supports o The actual intervention s designed to replace problem behaviors with new actions that serve the same purpose for the student ▯ Self Management Students can apply behavior analysis on their own to manage their own behavior Teachers can encourage self management by including students in o Goal setting o Keep track of progress o Evaluating accomplishments o Giving their won reinforcers Challenges Social Learning Theory (Bandura) We may know more than we show Vicarious learning, or learning by observation You can learn something, but not perform it until the situation and incentives are right ▯ Elements of the Cognitive Perspective ▯ ▯ Comparison of Behaviorism and Cognitive View Behaviorism Cognitive View -New behaviors are learned -Knowledge is learned -Changes in knowledge makes changes in behavior possible -Learning dependent on external -Individual brings internal knowledge events to learning situation -Reinforcement strengthens -Reinforcement as a source of responses feedback ▯ The Brain and Cognitive Learning The human brain both impacts and is impacted by learning Learning changes communication among neurons ▯ Knowledge in Cognition General Knowledge o Applies to many different situation Domain Specific Knowledge o Pertains to a particular task or subject Learning in school requires BOTH To have knowledge of something is to remember it over time, and be able to find it when you need it ▯ ▯ Cognitive Views of Memory ▯ ▯ Cognitive Views of Memory Information Processing Theory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long Term Memory ▯ Information Processing Model: Sensory Memory Sensory Memory o The initial processing from the 5 senses o Very large capacity o Duration between 1-3 seconds Perception o Detecting a stimulus and assigning meaning to it Gestalt Theory o Organizing sensory information into patterns or relationships Attention o Takes effort o Guided by what we already know and what we need to know o Can only pay attention to one cognitively demanding task at a time o Processes that initially require much attention eventually become automatic (automaticity) Information Processing Model: Working Memory Working Memory o Workbench of the memory system o Capacity of 5-9 items Central Executive o Supervises attention, makes plans, and decides what information to retrieve and how to allocate resources Phonological Loops o A speech and sound related system for holding and rehearsing (refreshing) words and sounds in short term memory Visuospatial Sketchpad o Where you visualize images Cognitive Load o The amount of mental resources required to complete a task Intrinsic Cognitive Load o The load required to complete the task itself Extrinsic Cognitive Load o The amount of mental resources need to complete tasks irrelevant to original task Germane Cognitive Load o Deep knowledge, including connecting information to old information and activation Maintenance Rehearsal o Repeating the information in your phonological loop or refreshing information in your visuospatial sketchpad Elaborative Rehearsal o Connecting the information you are trying to remember with something you already know (with knowledge from long term memory) Chunking o Grouping individual bits of information ▯ Forgetting Interference o New information interferes or gets confused with old information o As new thoughts accumulate, old information is lost from working memory Decay o Information is lost by lack of use o Cannot be reactivated – it disappears altogether ▯ ▯ Long-Term Memory ▯ ▯ Information Processing Model: Long Term Memory Unlimited capacity Permanent ▯ Contents of Long Term Memory Declarative knowledge o Knowledge that can be declared, usually in words or other symbols Procedural Knowledge o “Knowing how” do to something Self-Regulatory Knowledge o “Knowing when and why” to apply your declarative and procedural knowledge ▯ Representing Information in Long Term Memory Explicit Memories o Knowledge from memory that is recalled and consciously considered Implicit Memories o Knowledge that we are not aware of recalling Semantic Memory o Memory for meaning Concepts o Used to group similar events, ideas, objects, or people Schemas o Data structures that allow us to represent large amounts of complex information, make inferences, and understand new information ▯ Storing Information Organization o Ordered and logical networks of relations Elaboration o Adding and extended meaning by connecting new information to old Context o The physical or emotional backdrop associated with an event Levels of Processing Theory o The amount of time information will remain in memory is directly related to the level or analysis and connection to other information ▯ Retrieving Information Spreading activation o Retrieval of information based on relatedness to one another Reconstruction o Recreating information by using memories, expectations, knowledge, logic, and existing knowledge ▯ ▯ Becoming Knowledgeable ▯ ▯ Developing Declarative Knowledge MAKE IT MEANINGFUL Visual images and illustrations Mneumonics Rote memorization ▯ Metacognition ▯ ▯ Metacognition Literally means cognition about cognition – or thinking about thinking Involves declarative, procedural, and self regulatory knowledge 3 Skills used to regulated thinking and learning o Planning o Monitoring o Evaluating Individual differences in metacognition may result from different paces of development (maturation) or biological differences among learners ▯ ▯ Learning Strategies ▯ ▯ Learning Strategies Are kind of procedural knowledge Use of strategies reflects metacognitive knowledge Learning strategies help students o Become cognitively engaged o Invest effort o Think and process deeply o Monitor their own learning ▯ Principles for Helping Students Develop Learning Strategies Expose them to several different strategies Teach them when, where, and why to use various strategies Develop motivation to use the strategies by showing them how learning can be improved Provide direct instruction in content knowledge needed to use the strategies ▯ Applying Learning Strategies Students will apply strategies if o The task requires good strategies o They value doing well on the task o Think the effort will be worthwhile o Believe that they can succeed using the strategies ▯ ▯ Problem Solving ▯ ▯ Problem Solving Formulating new answers, going beyond the simple application of previously learned rules to achieve a goal Can be general and domain-specific Can be well-structured or ill-structured depending on learning goals ▯ General Problem Solving Strategy Identify the Problem Define the Goals Explore Possible Strategies Anticipate Outcomes and Acts Look Back and Learn ▯ Other Problem Solving Strategies Algorithm o A step-by-step prescription for achieving a goal Heuristic o A general strategy that might lead to the right answer Means-Ends Analysis o The problem is divided into a number of intermediate goals or sub goals, and then a means of solving each intermediate sub goal is figured out Working-Backward Strategy o Being at the goal and move back to the unsolved initial problem Analogical Thinking o Limits your search for solutions to situations that have something in common with the one you currently face Verbalization o Putting your problem-solving plan into words and giving reasons for selecting it ▯ Factors that Interfere with Problem Solving Fixation o Lack flexibility needed to represent problems accurately and to have insight into solutions Operating in a common response set o Tendency to think in the most familiar manner Relying too heavily on prototypes Judging potential solutions based on memories and beliefs ▯ Expert Knowledge Expert problem solvers: o Have a rich store of declarative, procedural, and conditional knowledge o Organize knowledge around general principles and patterns o Work faster, remember relevant information, and monitor progress better than novices ▯ ▯ Creativity and Creative Problem Solving ▯ ▯ Creativity Involves independently restructuring problems to see things in new, imaginative ways ▯ Difficult to Measure Divergent thinking o The ability to propose many different idea or answers o Leads to originality, fluency, and flexibility ▯ Indicators of Creativity in Students Concentration Adaptability High energy Humor Independence Playfulness Nonconformity And many more ▯ Sources of Creativity Domain-relevant skills o Talent and competencies that are valuable for working in a specific domain Creativity relevant processes o Include work habits and personality traits Intrinsic task motivation o Deep curiosity and fascination with the task ▯ Fostering Creativity in the Classroom Accept unusual, imaginative answers Model divergent thinking Use brainstorming Tolerate dissent Provide multicultural experiences ▯ ▯ Critical Thinking and Argumentation ▯ ▯ Critical thinking includes Defining and clarifying a problem Making judgments about information related to a problem Drawing conclusions ▯ Argumentation Is supporting your position with evidence and understanding, then refuting your opponent’s claims and evidence Takes both time and instruction to learn ▯ ▯ Teaching for Transfer ▯ ▯ Transfer Occurs when a rule, fact, or skill learning in one situation is applied in another situation Applying to new problems the principles learned in other, often dissimilar situations Information can be transferred across a variety of contexts o One subject to another o One physical location to another o One function to another ▯ Automatic Transfer Spontaneous application of well learned knowledge and skill Mindful, Intentional Transfer Involves reflection and conscious application of abstract knowledge to new situations ▯ Teachers can help students…. Transfer learning strategies by o Teaching strategies directly o Providing practice with feedback o And then expanding the application of the strategies to new and unfamiliar situations ▯ ▯ ▯ Social Cognitive Theory – Albert Bandura ▯ ▯ Social Cognitive Theory The behavioral view of learning provides an inadequate explanation of learning language and culture Social Cognitive Theory includes learning from modeling (the social) as well as thoughts, beliefs, expectations, and judgments (the cognitive) ▯ ▯ Social Cognitive Theory ▯ ▯ Triarchic Reciprocal Causality Dynamic interplay between personal, environmental, and behavioral influences Personal Factors o Beliefs, expectations, attitudes, and knowledge Physical and Social Environment o Resources, consequences of actions, other people, models and teachers, and physical settings Behavior o Individual actions, choices, and verbal statements ▯ ▯ Modeling: Learning from Others ▯ ▯ Modeling Learning by observing others Influenced by o Development status of observer o Model prestige and competence o Vicarious consequences o Outcome expectancy o Goal setting o Self-efficacy ▯ Four Elements of Observational Learning Attention Retention Production Motivation and Reinforcement o Direct reinforcement o Vicarious reinforcement o Self-reinforcement ▯ Observational Learning in Teaching Observational learning (modeling) can help with: o Directing attention o Encouraging existing behaviors o Changing inhibitions o Teaching new behaviors and attitudes o Arousing emotions Self-Efficacy and Agency Human Agency The ability to make intentional choices, design and execute plans and actions ▯ Self-Efficacy Beliefs about personal competence in a given area ▯ Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem Self-Efficacy o Context specific o Strong predictor of behavior Self-Concept o Global construct o Contains many perceptions about the self, including self- efficacy Self-Esteem o Judgments of self-worth ▯ Four Sources of Self-Efficacy Mastery Experiences o Direct success increases efficacy; failure lowers it o Strongest source in adults Physiological and Emotional Arousal o Anxious and worried or excited and “psyched”? Vicarious Experiences o Accomplishments are modeled by someone else Social Persuasion o A “pep talk” or specific performance feedback Self-Efficacy and Motivation Greater efficacy leads to o Greater effort o Persistence in the face of setbacks o Higher goals o Finding new strategies Low efficacy leads to o Task avoidance o Giving up easily ▯ Teachers Sense of Efficacy A teachers belief that he or she can reach even difficult students to help them learn One of the few personal characteristics of teachers related to student achievement Teachers with high sense of efficacy o Work harder o Persist longer o Are less likely to experience burn-out Teachers sense of efficacy is higher when o Other teachers and administrators have high expectations o Teachers receive help from their principals in solving instructional and management problems Teacher efficacy grows from real success with students ▯ ▯ Self Regulated Learning ▯ ▯ Factors that Influence Self-Regulation Knowledge o Understand self, subject, task, and learning strategy Motivation o See the purpose in the task Volition o Follow through and persistence ▯ ▯ Self Regulation ▯ ▯ Self Regulated Learning Cycle Self regulated learning requires effort Four main parts: o Analyzing the task o Setting goals o Engaging in learning o Adjusting/reflecting ▯ Teaching Students to be Self Regulated Provide opportunities to identify and analyze the task at hand Teach learning strategies Encourage students to reflect on whether they were successful and devise strategies for overcoming shortcomings in their self regulation process ▯ Cognitive Behavior Modification Focus on self talk to regulate behavior Self talk strategies include o Listening o Planning o Working o Checking ▯ Emotional Self-Regulation Awareness of own emotions and the feelings of others Skills include: o Self awareness o Self management o Social awareness o Relationship skills o Responsible decision making ▯ ▯ Teaching Toward Self Efficacy and Self Regulated Learning ▯ ▯ Assign Complex Tasks Achievable, yet challenging Have multiple goals Engage students and extended over time Provide students with feedback ▯ Share Control with Students Choice results in increased motivation Choice allows students to adjust level of challenge Model good decision making for students Assign Tasks that are Self Evaluative Evaluation embedded within activities Should emphasize process as well as products Focus on personal progress Often less anxiety than traditional assessment ▯ Encourage Collaboration Effective collaboration reflects climate of community Collaboration encourages co-regulation ▯ ▯ Bringing it all Together: Theories of Learning ▯ ▯ Four ‘Pillars of Teaching’ Constructivist o Students must make sense of the material Cognitive o Students must remember what they have understood Behavioral o Students must practice and apply learning Social Cognitive o Students must take charge of their own learning
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