Reading Materials For Exam 1
Reading Materials For Exam 1 COMM330010
Popular in Communication and Interpersonal Behavior
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley Nicole on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Bundle belongs to COMM330010 at University of Delaware taught by Caplan,Scott Eric in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
Relationships gt Role relationship Two people who share some behavioral interdependence but not psychologically or behaviorally unique and these relationship can easily replace one another 0 ex store clerk o Behavioral interdependence one person39s behavior somehow affects the others and vice versa gt Interpersonal relationship Two people who share repeated interactions over time can in uence one another and have unique interaction patterns 0 In addition to behavioral interdependence these relationships have activities that create connection on a socialemotional level have repeated interaction over time and have unique interaction patterns gt Close relationship Two people in an interpersonal relationship characterized by enduring bonds emotional attachment personal need ful llment and irreplaceability 0 Have all features of an interpersonal relationship plus emotional attachment need ful llment and irreplaceability Need Full llment in close relationships gt Human needs are satis ed in close personal relationships with the three most central interpersonal needs being affection inclusion and control gt Affection 0 Our need for affection is satis ed through our ability to love other people and through having other people love us 0 occurs in dyads o Neglected infants who are never touched suffer from quotFailure to thrive syndromequot and even risk death gt Social Inclusion 0 Feeling part of a group 0 Through primary group relationships basic needs such as safety and survival are satis ed 0 Lack of social interaction and inclusion can contribute to loneliness and low self esteem gt Behavior Control 0 Desire to feel in control of one s life 0 People in successful interpersonal relationships share control 0 Prohibition of a relationship by parents sometimes increases the attractiveness of the relationship According to Cialdini this is based on the idea that scarce objects or people are more attractive This is why advertisers offer quotlimited time offersquot and why people who are quothard to getquot are more attractive Characteristics used for categorizing relationships 1 How voluntary the relationship is 2 The degree to which people are genetically related 3 Whether the relationship is sexual or platonic 4 Whether the relationship is romantic 5 The sex or gender of the partners Voluntary Vs Involuntary gt Voluntary relationships develop differently than involuntary gt In involuntary we use communication to determine whether or not we want to be in the relationship Genetically related Vs Nonrelated gt People communicate differently depending on how genetically related they are 0 More likely to give affectionate communication to relatives gt Degree of genetic relatedness is associated with how voluntary or involuntary the relationship is Sexual Vs Platonic gt Platonic relationships can be just as close and satisfying as sexual relationships Romantic Vs Nonromantic gt Both romantic relationships and friendships can contain sexual activity and high levels of emotional involvement 0 Difference is how the partners mutually de ne the relationship gt Distinction between emotional closeness and sexual intimacy is related to how relationships develop 0 Traditionally it is acquaintanceromantic relationship Male Vs Female amp Masculine Vs Feminine gt Sex is biologically determined gt Gender is socially and culturally constructed Principles of Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication The exchange of nonverbal and verbal messages between people regardless of the relationship they share Relational Communication Subset of interpersonal communication focused on the expression and interpretation of messages within close relationships Can include vital relational messages to mundane everyday interactions Six Principles in Interpersonal Communication Verbal and Nonverbal Messages V V Interpersonal communication consists of a variety of nonverbal and verbal messages that can be exchanged through different channels including face face and computer mediated channels 6065 of the meaning of our interactions come from nonverbal behavior Types of Nonverbal behavior 0 Kinesics Facial expressions body and eye movements 0 Vocalics Silence the way words are pronounced and tone of voice 0 Proxemics The use of space 0 Haptics The use of touch 0 Appearance and adornment Physical attributes o Artifacts and environmental cues Use of objects excandes and soft music 0 Chronemic cues The use of time ex showing up to a date early or late Verbal Behavior 0 Verbal content and self disclosure Self disclosure used to reveal personal information to others One cannot not communicate in facetoface settings Watzlawick Beavin and Jackson quot Activity or inactivity words or silence all have message value they in uence others and these others in turn cannot not respond to these communications and thus are themselves communicatingquot People use interpersonal communication to ful ll goals Selfpresentational goals 0 relate to the image we convey 0 most common objective of persuasion is selling ourselves Relational goals 0 how we communicate feelings about others including the type of relationships we desire 0 Three primary sets of relational goals activity based involves doing things with someone relationship based involves wanting to initiate escalate maintain or deescalate a relationship advice based involves giving advice Instrumental Goals 0 task oriented o achieving these goals involve seeking advice and assistance to meet one s own task related goals Interpersonal communication varies in effectiveness with the most effective messages leading to shared meaning between a sender and a receiver When an intentional message is sent understanding occurs when the receiver attaches a close to same meaning to the message as the sender Attempted communication occurs when someone sends an intentional message that the receiver fails to receive misinterpretation occurs when someone unintentionally sends a message that is misconstrued by the receiver accidental communication occurs when someone does not mean to send a message but the receiver observes the behavior and interprets it correctly unattended behavior behavior not interpreted and sent without intention 5 Every message contains both content and relational information gt Messages verbal or nonverbal tell people something about their relationship gt Two Levels of communication 0 Content Level conveys information at a literal level should be the same for most people within a given situation 0 Relational Level provides a context for interpreting the message of a relationship Type of relationship people share and nonverbal behaviors people use in uence the relational level of a message 0 Ex quotHand me your bookquot content the request to hand over the book relational message depends on if the message was delivered harshlypoite sarcastic bored or a warm vocal tone It also depends on the communicators facial expressions posture gestures use of touch attire eye contact and other nonverbal The context or situation can affect how the relational information in a message is interpreted 6 Interpersonal communication can be symmetrical or asymmetrical gt Symmetrical communication 0 occurs when people exchange similar messages ex dominant message met with another dominant message 0 quotHelp me with my homeworkquot quotDo it yourselfquot ex quotI love youquot quotI love you tooquot ex nonverbal when someone smiles at you you smile back gt Asymmetrical 0 occurs when people exchange different kinds of information 0 type of asymmetry arises when people exchange messages that are opposite in meaning ex dominant message quot I need you to help me with my homework nowquot might be met with a submissive message quot Okay I39ll cancel my plans to help youquot ex someone touches you once and you touch them ve times Principles of Relational communication gt All principles of interpersonal communication apply to communication in relationships gt Relational communication re ects the nature of a relationship at a particular time Five Principles of Relational Communication 1 Relationships emerge across ongoing interactions 2 Relationships contextualize messages gt Ex a touch from your mom does not mean the same thing as a touch from your date 0 This is why the context and relationship are critical to understanding the message 0 Every message contains both a content and a relational meaning 3 Communication sends a variety of relational messages gt Seven types of relational messages that people communicate to one another refer to pg 20 VP VS Fundamental relational themes dominancesubmission and level of intimacy are two main themes that characterize relationships 0 Dominancesubmission level of intimacy degree of similarity tasksocial orientation Formalityinformality Degree of social composure o Emotional arousal and activation Relational Communication is dynamic relationships can be committed and they can include a lot of routine communication but they are still everchanging entities Relational Communication follows both linear and nonlinear patterns near 0 communication is characterized by increasing selfdisclosure and nonverbal affection as a relationship gets closer noanear 0 characterized by ups and down and contradictions every relationship has a unique trajectory that re ects the dynamic nature of the communication that occurs between two people OOOOO Nonverbal Affectionate Communication Direct and Indirect pg 164165 Floyd and Morman categorize affectionate communication into one of three categories gt Direct verbal behavior gt Direct nonverbal behavior gt Indirect nonverbal behavior The types of affectionate communication that fall under each category differin terms of how they are encoded and decoded Direct Verbal Affectionate Communication gt Verbal statements of affection are usually more precise than nonverbal expression Types of verbal behavior to communicate affection gt Selfdisclosure revealing the self to others 0 allows people to develop knowledge about one another that leads to emotional and relational closeness 0 most common response when asked how to differentiate quotclosequot or quotintimatequot friendships from casual friendships gt Direct emotional expressions expressing feelings o quotI love youquot 0 quotYou make me happyquot 0 quotYou39re fun to be aroundquot 0 Most direct and least ambiguous way to communicate affection o Rislq because they open a person up to rejection gt Compliments and praise communicate positive regard and liking o strengthen feelings of affection and emotional closeness they make people feel good about themselves and their relationship gt Assurances quotrelationship talk 0 direct messages people39s about commitment level in a relationship 0 conceptualized as a relational maintenance behavior but also expressions of affection quotI want to see you againquot quotI can39t imagine my life without youquot quotI hope our friendship never endsquot These are symbols of emotional closeness that re ect how much people care about and value each other Direct and Nonverbal Affectionate Communication gt Many nonverbal behaviors exhugging are direct and nonverbal expressions of affection because others commonly interpret them as communicating affection gt Some nonverbal expressions have strong consensual meanings across different contexts o Smiling signals friendliness regardless of a situation Exception is if the smile is fake sarcastic or condescending Social meaning model of nonverbal communication gt suggests people recognize exceptions to this rule 0 People don39t only look at one nonverbal cue at a time but a constellation of nonverbal cues that work together to communicate a message Therefore condescending smile will look different than a friendly one Three classes of nonverbal behaviors to communicate affection gt Physical Closeness involves touch and close distancing 0 Floyd amp Morman39s measure of affectionate communicate include several types of touch holding hands hugging kissing massaging someone putting one s arm around another39s shoulders o Pendell lists physical closeness and a wide variety of tactile behaviors as nonverbal indicators of affection friendly roughhousing hand squeezes shaking hands cuddling snuggling lap sitting picking someone up gently cleaning someone fondling gt Eye Contact 0 communicates affection in direct and unambiguous matter especially when prolonged and mutual or used alongside other behaviors that re ect positive emotions exsmiing o In a study where opposite sex strangers had to look in eachothers eyes for 2 minutes look at partners hand for 2 minutesor count the times their partner blinked People reported greater liking when told to look at eachother o mutual gaze is related to liking gt Vocal Behavior 0 Related to affection and liking speaking tenderly in a warm voice laughing with someone talking faster when excited using a moderate amount of talk time 0 Women rated more affectionate if they speak in a somewhat high pitched voice Floyd amp Ray Indirect and Nonverbal Affectionate Communication Floyd amp Morman Two types of affectionate communication that are indirect and nonverbal gt Support Behaviors o involve giving someone emotional or instrumental support EX show support to a new mother by offering to babysit giving baby adviceetc although these dont communicate affection directly they let the mom know they care gt Idiomatic Behaviors 0 have a speci c meaning only to people in a particular relationship 0 primary reason romantic couples use idioms is to communicate affection o Hopper Knapp and Scott ex of idioms in romantic relationships twitching noses quotyou re specia twisting wedding rings 0 quotdon t you dare do thatquot o Idioms can be used in other relationships as well ex doing something to someone because of something that happened in the past as an inside joke 0 other people will not understand this gesture unless you explain it since they were not there gt Although these behaviors are usually seen as communicating affection sometimes they are not 0 The situation and the relationship people share help determine whether or not these behaviors are constructed as expressions of affection Iquot Nonverbal Positions of Power Nonverbal communication is a richer source of power than verbal gt Perceptions of power are more in uential than the actual power people possess gt Context and Relationship between people help determine if these behaviors are perceived as powerful Physical Appearance gt More physically attractive people are more in uential gt Women are most likely to use physical attraction to increase power or persuasion gt Showing power or dominance 0 Formal Fashionable or Expensive clothes wearing highstatus brand clothing induces submissive behavior in interactions 0 Clothing color makes a difference Black athletic uniforms may be assoc with power and aggression o Uniforms convey power assoc with an occupation surgeon police also convey powerlessness because they strip away individuality and other status symbols exjewelry o Muscular bodies are associated with power 0 Height is related to power and con dence gt Physical dominance o conveyed by height and broad shoulders related to perceptions of power attractiveness mate value gt Principle of elevation 0 height or vertical position is associated with power powerful people sit in elevated positions people bow to show submission gt When women violate norms by dressing in inappropriate too trendy sexy nerdy masculine they produce more negative reactions than men who violate clothing norms o norm women can dress formally or informally in modest or sexy feminine or masculine attire o norm Men dress more rigidly modest masculine and appropriate for the occasion gt Physical appearance is most important during initial interactions once relationship is established its effects diminish Spatial Behavior Proxemics gt study of interpersonal space and distance 0 reveals how the use of space re ects and creates power In US most people interact arm39s length 0 powerful people communicate with subordinates can invade another39s space Prerogative principle 0 suggests powerful people can violate personal space norms by invading another39s space Direct open body positions convey intimacy but also show con dence and power Eye Behavior gt VVVV V study of eye behavior oculesics reveals power behaviors o staring gazing while speaking failing to look when listening People perceived as more powerful are looked at more by others 0 a principle called visual centrality Eye contact while listening is submissive Direct eye contact while speaking is dominant Excessive blinking is seen as weak and submissive Visual dominance ratio 0 function of time spent looking while speaking divided by the time spent looking while listening high score indicates interpersonal dominance Body Movements Kinesics gt gt VVVV V the study of body movements reveals that several body positions facial expressions and gestures can communicate power and status Expansive body positions and hands on hips convey power and dominance Superiors can lean forward to make a point or lean back to relax Submissive people remain still and attentive Smiling conveys submissiveness and is appeasing gesture in humans 0 smiling women are more likely to be interrupted by their partner Smiling can convey dominance in some situations 0 smiling used with power cue o dominant smile conveys con dence power and social skill Touch Haptics gt initiation of touch is seen as dominant o the person who initiates touch is controlling the interaction 0 men are more likely to initiate touch amoung daters 0 women are more likely to initiate touch amoung marriages Guiding a person through a door physically restraining someone or touching someone in an intimate place are all indicative of high power When touch is used to communicate power women touch more while discussing fem topics 0 this rejects Henley39s gender politics hypothesis gt receiving intrusive or negative forms of touch early in life 0 associated with poor romantic relationship quality con ict and aggression later in life Voice Vocalics gt gt VVVVV V voice tones and intonations called vocalics or paralinguistics social status can be detected from one s voice 0 high class clearer articulation sharper enunciation fewer lled pauses quotumquot are associated with greater status and power Louder deeper more varied voices are seen as more dominant loudersower speech rates viewed as more dominant expressive speech is considered more dominant moderately fast voices are perceived as con dent and powerful 0 suggests speaker knows topic well research shows that both faster and slower voices are seen as dominant under certain circumstances In close relationships departure from normal mode may signal dominance 0 Ex when people who are normally soft spoken raise their voice even slightly dominance is communicated Time Chronemics gt gt gt gt speaking time is related to dominance 0 Powerful people are allowed to speak longer waiting time re ects power 0 ex doctors have waiting rooms executives make people wait as a power ploy before negotiating a business deal being late to something shows that you don39t value it spending time with people shows how much you value them Artifacts gt gt gt Ultimate status symbol 0 big house expensive car Indirect 0 largest office reserved parking spot giving expensive gifts to loved ones is a status of their importance to you Relational Control Moves One ups and One downs In any conversations messages can be coded as gt dominant and controlling oneup messages gt deferent or accepting onedown messages gt neutral oneacross messages The focus is on the form of the conversation not the content gt Coding a person39s verbal behavior can reveal if the individual is domineering or submissive Rogers and Miller 1988 gt when wives were domineering both husbands and wives tended to experience less relational satisfaction gt By looking at patterns of oneup and onedown messages 0 we can determine the nature of the relationship between two people Transact a pair of utterances examples on pg 312 gt can be coded as o symmetrical both people use the same moves 0 competitive symmetry 0 two people repeatedly use oneup moves occurs between spouses who report dyadic inequality in their marriage 0 submissive symmetry 0 two people repeatedly use onedown moves 0 neutral symmetry 0 both partners exchange oneacross messages 0 complementary when one person uses mostly oneups and the other person uses mostly onedowns one person is dominant and other is submissive gt A transition has occurred when a oneup OR onedown message is paired with a oneacross messaoe Oneup and Onedown messages can be altered by using nonverbal communication gt ex quotYou are in such a good mood todayquot is considered a onedown message 0 can be altered to a oneup message if said in a sarcastic tone
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