PSY 350 Exam 2 Lecture Notes (Rollock)
PSY 350 Exam 2 Lecture Notes (Rollock) Exam 2
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by John on Monday October 13, 2014. The Bundle belongs to Exam 2 at Purdue University taught by Rollock in Spring2014. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see PSY 350 in Psychlogy at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 10/13/14
CS conditioned response UCS unconditioned response Psychogenic Models of Abnormal Behavior 1 Three Major Behavioral Approaches a Classical Conditioning i Neutral stimuli come to elicit conditioned responses by informational pairing with unconditional stimuli ii eg Pavov s Dog itte Albert b Operant Conditioning i Reinforcement history influences the probabilities of later behavior ii eg Puzzle Box superstition c Modeling i Observing the behavior of others may produce learning by imitation 1 eg TV violence copycat crime 2 Basics of Classical Conditioning a Unconditioned Stimulus gt Unconditioned Response b Unconditioned Stimulus Food Conditioned Stimulus sound gt Unconditioned Response Salivation c Conditioned Stimulus Sound gt Conditioned Response Salivation 3 Some Factors that Limit and Control Classical Conditioning Processes a Acquisition early pairings of CS and UCS must be i temporally contiguous close enough in time to each other to be related ii informational CS should signal approach of UCS b Extinction loss of ability of CS to elicit CR due to disruption of pairing or information associated with CS if stopped shooting and just pressed easy button Stimulus Generalization capacity of stimuli similar to original CS to bring out the CR d Discrimination process by which organism learns to emit the CR i in presence of specific CS But ii not to other similar stimuli 218 1 Implications of Behavioral Approaches for Intervention a result of Abnormal behavior lt learning and reinforcement i Maladaptive behaviors 1 Radical behaviorism unconscious processes and architecture do not exist ii Maladaptive thinking 1 Thoughts true or distorted can mediate behavior a Beliefsexpectationsvalues re events consequences b Self relevant beliefs 2 Thought patterns can be conditioned b Tools Classical operant social learning i Change stimuli environment and or responses get effective alteration in problem behavior ii NB relationship with therapist is environmental 2 Beyond Behaviorism CognitiveBehavioral Approach a Behavior connected to i Cognitions ii Emotions b Implications for treatment i Mutual influence gt multiple intervention points 1 Possible to change one eg thoughts to change another eg behaviors 2 Emotion domain less amenable to direct intervention eg ineffectiveness ofjust telling someone to feel better 3 Against Strict Environmental Determinism Bandura s Reciprocal Determinism HAII F ii 5 f Rx x Q Q 4 439UIA 1 a Thoughts i A1 Worry Driving on the Interstate is very dangerous ii B3 everyone is looking at me I m having a panic attack b FeeHngs i A2 Scared nervous ii B1 Sweat heart pounds feel dizzy c Actions i A3 Drive timidly ii B2 Completely stop what you are doing gt focus on own body39s responses d NB Individuals will carry Where sequence begins How much of each element they experience How prior experience influences contexts they seek 5 CognitiveBehavioral Example FEAR a CBT Explanation i Fear an emotion is driven by our appraisal or thoughts of the situation 1 ie Physical and emotional responses to the situation are influenced by thoughts 6 CognitiveBehavioral Therapy CBT Objectives a Identify maladaptive patterns of responses i Often shortterm rewards gt longterm problems ii Frequent responses gt habits over time b Describe and understand maladaptive patterns i Response triggers frequency timing etc ii Conditions that maintain response over time c Change maladaptive patterns i Behavior adaptive or maadaptive can be learned and unlearned ii Limit severityscope of maladaptive behavior iii Replace maladaptive with adaptive responses 7 CBT Strategies a Change thoughts and behaviors direct gt change feelings indirect b Thoughtchanging techniques i Identify problem thinking patterns ii Cognitive Restructuring 1 Treat thoughts as hypotheses 2 Examine thoughts for distortions or errors iii Cognitive Therapy treatment process 1 16 sessions 2 Problemfocused iv Behavior changing techniques 1 Use classical operant and modeling 8 Cognitive Distortions and Thinking Errors a Blackandwhite thinking i lfi score lt98100 its as good as an F b Overgeneralization i Marie dumped me I must be unlovable c Should statements i To be a good son i must go home every weekend d Magnification i Michele mentioned another guy is funny she must be getting bored of me e Minimization i I get good grades mainly because I m lucky 9 HOMEWORK a Need to identify patterns in daily life b Clients describetrack relevant significant events using ABC s of irrational thinking i A Activating event ii B beliefs thoughts iii C Consequence c gt targets for intervention 10 Phase 2 HW a Once cognitive distortionsthinking errors identified i practice ways to 1 question and challenge maladaptive assumptions 2 generate more adaptive heathy responses 11 Activating Event a I asked a question in class today and stuttered when I spoke 12 Automatic Thoughts a People thought I was stupid I sounded awful 13 Disputations and Challenges a Does stuttering stupid Will people even remember next week what I said 14 Rational Alternative Response a Lots of people stutter doesn t mean stupidity Many people likely didn t notice or care 15 Some Major Techniques Changing Behavior a Exposure to feared objectcontext i Imaginal ii In Vivo iii Virtual b Token Economies c Pleasant Activity Scheduling 16 CBT Specific Phobia Example a Behavioral elements i Coping Mechanisms deep breaths eyes closed ii Why does therapist Encourage a fullblown panic attack iii Why does therapist Prevent her from escaping the elevator b Cognitive i Maladaptive negative reinforcement stopped ii What are the client s fears c OTHER Elements i The client has to have motivation trust the therapist 17 Does CBT Work a For what disorders might CBT be most useful b What are characteristics of clients most likely to benefit from CBT c For whom might CBNT NOT be recommended 18 Cognitive Approaches a Focus on irrational and maladaptive thought patterns as causes for behavior problems b Although often combined with behavioral techniques CBT can be used alone to monitor and change thought via learning c Criticisms i Behaviorists mentalistic concepts ii Humanists mechanistic and confrontative elements iii Applicability requires capacity to reflect upon and manipulate internal processes 220 1 Some Key Commonalities among Psychogenic Approaches a Psychological Determinism i Early experiences affect later behavior patterns ii employ varying degrees of learning b Emotions are important contributors to abnormal behavior and its remediation c Abnormal behavior treated by i engaging conscious effort ii identifying thought patterns iii to rehearse or experience new behavior patterns iv in a supportive relationship 2 Some Key Differences among Psychogenic Approaches a Heritability of abnormal behavior patterns in individuals b Focus on symptoms vs meanings Behavioral focus on behavioral Psychodynamic underlying issues c Salience of Biology in development of abnormal behavior patterns d Testability of propositions e Significance of unconscious and covert mental contributions f Types of complaintsabnormal behavior patterns to which theory best appHes 3 Sociogenic Approaches A Special Subtype of Psychogenic Approach a Family Systems Approaches i Family dynamics central since individual behavior is shaped by family experiences especially 1 Structure 2 Roles and Processes ii Criticisms 1 Possible overemphasis on parental blame 2 EuroAmerican definitions of normal family structures and functions what do white families do 3 Difficult to perform family treatment well iii Diathesis Stress Approaches 1 Underpinning biopsychosocia model 2 Psychopathology lt interaction between a individual risks or vulnerabilities diathesis i AND b environmental conditions and demands stress 3 Necessary community and preventative focus minimize differences in vulnerability 4 Criticisms a individual vulnerabilities still must be assessed b prevention is complex and difficult can t prevent a tornado combat situations iv Sociocultural Approaches 1 Consider disorder in context of cultural norms ethnic experiences and social risks a Clear ethnic and cultural differences in rates of some forms of abnormal behavior group differences exist b Differential exposure to common risks gg poverty c Some consider psychological disorder entirely a cultural creation 2 Criticisms a Very broad and general gt hard to test unique constructs b universality of many disorders some form of every disorder in culture 4 Which Approaches for What problem a Approaches covered b Approaches Rationale Adjusting to anew culture Substance abuse Rebellious child Disturbs sleep and nervousness following a violent attack Shyness around new people Auditory hallucinations and paranoia Coulrophobia 5 Philosophical Underpinnings of Scientific Approach to Abnormal Behavior a Perspectivesparadigms necessary because of breadth fuzziness of definition of what is abnormal b Scientific inquiry allows systematic evaluation and choice among paradigms c Scientific approach based on philosophical stances of i Empiricism valid knowledge stems from objective sense of knowledge ii Determinism behavior and other observable phenomena are the result of antecedent causes 6 Limits and Benefits of Scientific Approach to Abnormal Behavior a Empiricism and determinism are not the only routes to valid knowledge b Using empiricism and determinism does promoteprovide i Precision ii Reduced likelihood of error iii Greater likelihood of agreement 7 Steps in Scientific Method a Hypothesis concrete but tentative statement about relationship among variables b Variable a condition event behaviorthat i can have different values varies between people 1 vs a constant 2 can be measures a Depressed students will show low selfesteem c Devise and execute test of hypothesized relationship between operationalized variables i operationalize variables how to concretely measure 1 eg depressed score on a valid depression inventory 2 sefesteem score on selfconcept questionnaire ii Design and carry out study Epidemiological surveys Case Studies Correlational studies Experiments d Analyze Data apply a decision rule i Statistics correlation coefficients determine whether a significant relationship probably exists between variables ii Results almost never prove hypotheses 1 Absence of significant results does not disprove hypotheses 2 Only exception exhaust universe of cases e Report results and revise hypotheses 8 Epidemiological Surveys a Examine frequency of distribution of phenomena in a population b Investigations of i prevalence total number of cases as a proportion of entire population ii incidence number of new cases iii risk factors a condition that increases the likelihood of becoming a new case c Value and limitations i useful for seeing who develops disorder and tracking spread of disorder ii retrospective iii depends on comprehensiveness of sampling if you don t look at everybody it s not comprehensive eg ignoring homeless 9 Case Studies a Intensive study of one individual in order to i describe a newunusual phenomenon ii disconfirm allegedly universal propositions iii generate hypotheses b Limitations i Multiple sources of uniqueness in any single case experiment gone bad limits ability to generalize to other cases ii Limited generalizability to other cases 10 Correlational 11 Studies a Investigate naturallyoccurring events especially under conditions that would be unethical to manipulate i eg FAS epigenetics b Includes outcomes by nonrandom groups i naturalisticobservation ii quasiexperiments iii Advantage external validity generalizability c Limitations i correlation does not imply causation ii third variable relationships time lapsing at a red light but being 3rd or 4th person and light changes you being the 3rd or 4th does NOT change the light Feb 25 1 Correlation Coefficients a Coefficient from 100 to 100 indicating strength of relationship between 2 variables b Two elements i Magnitude 1 closer r or100 the stronger the relationship 2 closer r 00 the weaker the relationship ii Sign 1 a positive coefficient r a as variable x increases in value variable y increases in value b Class example Tip goes up score goes up 2 a negative coefficient r a as variable x increases in value variable y decreases in value b Class example Watch more tv lower gpa Watch less TV higher gpa 2 Experiments a Control or manipulate one or more variables to observe changes in other variabes i Independent Variable IV variable controlledmanipulatedvaried by Experimenter ii Dependent Variable DV variable affected by depends on IV b Protection of internal validity ability to infer cause i Experimentals get special treatment regarding IV ii Controls similar subjectssame conditions as experimentals except manipulation of IV 1 provide a baseline or comparison iii random assignment to conditions protects internal validity iv experimental naivet blindness experimenter doesn t know who will fall into what group blind or double blind study c Basic decision is Meanexperimenta group Meancontro group Are the two average scores the same or different d Common decision i is Meanexp Meancontro ii is effect greater than expected by chance alone pltO5 e Normal distribution of scores around a mean i Scores for this group tend to pile up around the mean f Different possible distributions around two means i In which case are the means really different 3 Psychotherapy Research a Which version of a psychotherapy is being evaluated i even with a manual must address differences among 1 Therapists eg training and skill personality 2 Client populations eg Symptom levels comorbidities demographics 3 Settings ii Efficacy experimentally controlled conditions vs Effectiveness in the messy confounded real world b What are the active ingredients of treatment i whoe therapies vs isolating components 1 Placebo effects eg hope idea that people expect to get better 2 Nonspecific factors of humanistic treatment ii Doseresponse how much treatment is enough c Are some approaches just easier to research than others CognitiveBehavioral easier to research 4 Internal validity does not guarantee external validity or even unbiased knowledge a Read Critically Look for features that might compromise internal validity experimental control or external vaidity generalizability especially i Recruitment of nonrandom participants 1 eg are college students really random adults ii Methods that unduly advantage some participants iii Climate or context in which research is conducted iv Failure to account for interactions among variables 1 eg gender ANd ethnicity gt expression of depression b Even published research contains biases andor other flaws i NO study is perfect 5 Key Points in Research Ethics for Psychologists a Ethical Principles of Psychologists professional conduct for psychologists b Key element in research ethics include i Informed consent for participants deception ii Humane treatment of animals esp pain iii Ethnic and gender representation equity issues iv Training and competence of research assistants v Protection of confidential materials vi Value of Results gt Risks c Institutional Review Boards RBs also check i Embarrassment discomfort notjust pain ii Withholdingdelaying treatment for control Ss iii Approval lt more than scientific soundness 6 Major benefits of Diagnostic Classification a Facilitates study of abnormal behavior syndromes by i recognizing reliable common patterns ii identifying relevant differences among phenomena b Valid reliable classification gt better assignment to appropriate treatments likely to have better outcomes need system we agree upon to classify c PreDSM diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental Disorders Thursday Feb 27 1 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders a PreDSM lack of consistent statistics on disorders i what should be covered by insurance ii coherent hospital census data iii 1840 US Census idiocyinsanity gt 1880 Census 7 categories 2 DSM 1952 BIG APA voting to try to unify definitions using medical model a psychoanalytic influence egg i neurotic psychotic distinction ii disorders classified together based on theoretical origins b distinctions between affective and cognitive symptoms influence of Kraepelin Schizo biological psychiatry d coordinated with WHO s ICD6 and US military manuals world health organization 3 DSMll 1968 Revisions to reflect a research treatment advances conceptual changes b ICD updates 4 DSMIll 1980 Multiaxial classification system a diagnoses based on prototypical symptom pictures rather than usually psychoanalytic causal theories i eg no more neuroses b field testing and explicit criteria for many disorders are criteria clear enough that two different people testing can use them c more comprehensive description 0 Axis I Clinical Syndromes 16 Also Vcodes egSexua Abuse of Child Axis II Mental Retardation and Personality Disorders 11 Axis III Physical disorders ailments Axis IV Psychosocial Stressors 1 none 6catastrophic just lost entire life savings Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning 1 danger to self to 100 superior 6 DSMIllR1987 Revised criteria for many disorders based on experience and research a designed to improve diagnostic reliability b extensive use of research and content expert panels c many categories renamed reorganized or cut 7 DSMIV 1994 Expanded research base literature reviews data reanalyses field trials a criterion of clinically significant distressmpairment b cultural demographic epidemiological information included to aid differential diagnosis i glossary of culturebound syndromes ee amok ii outline for including culture in case formulations 8 DSMIVTR researchbased updates a Text references to people with disorders i eg a schizophrenic a person with schizophrenia b no change in formal status of controversial diagnoses being considered eg PMS 9 DSM5 May 2013 a Shortcomings of DSmIV to address i High rates of comorbidity and NOS disorders ii Disorder markers not clear enough for treatment or research b Continuing features i Changes reflect new theory research field testing c New Processes i Coordination with World Health Org NIMH others ii Online open comments 1 NB process driven by culture broader than science d New Features i Recognition of symptom patterns that cut across disorders ii underutilized understudies multiaxial system removed iii Combining some disorders based on common biology 10 DSM Definition of Mental Disorder a A mental disorder is a syndrome no specific origin set of symptoms that coroccur b characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual s cognition emotion regulation or behavior c associated with significant distress or disability in social occupational or other important activitiesthey are impairing 11 DSm5 Diagnoses a Diagnostic Criteria and Codes Including i Principal diagnosis and others in order of attention ii Subtypes and specifiers iii Coding consistent with World Health Organization s International classification of Diseases ICD9 12 Additional DSM 5 Features a Diagnostic Criteria and Codes i Sample principal disorder 1 Posttraumatic Stress disorder with delayed expression 2 Cocaine Use disorder moderate in early remission b Summaries of findings re i Associated feature supporting disorder ii Prevalence and risk factors iii Development and course iv Cultural elements v Differential disorder vi Comorbid conditions c List medical conditions i Not on a separate Axis as in DSMIV ii Cause mimic complicate symptom patterns kidney failure could mimic schizo 13 Additional features cont d a Optional assessment of threshold for symptom warranting attention regardless of diagnosis i Depression ii Anger iii Amania iv Anxiety v Somatic symptom vi suicidal ideation vii psychosis viii sleep problems ix memory problems 14 Making a DSM5 Diagnosis a Assess CrossCutting Symptoms i eg assessment protocols online for anger suicidality etc b Assess impairmentdisability i eg WHODAS Disability schedule available online c General clinical interview d Determine if criteria met for Principal and other diagnosis i consult criteria in DSM5 manual ii consider subtypes specifiers e evaluate and Create Cultural Formulation i semistructured cultural formulation interview or similar f Assign diagnosis Develop treatment plan Monitor progress i eg WHODAs Disability Schedule 15 Criticism of Current American Diagnostic System a Deviance vs mental illness vs psychological disorder i More diagnosis categories gt more labeling More medicalization gt ii consequences of labeling when is it helpful vs when is it not b Reliability of diagnosis i Some categories more reliable than others ii Reliability versus validity iii Problems of comorbidity continue in some areas some people with some diagnoses get other diagnoses iv Validity and reliability of overall DSM5 is not well established c Boundaries between normal and abnormal i especially in a prototypical approach designed to categorize symptom diagnostician mustjudge how close individual is to diagnosis profile 399 ii need dimensional approaches d Universality vs Socio Historical and Cultural Relativism e Although the DSM i is designed to improve reliability of diagnosis by focusing on descriptions of clear symptom patterns ii is designed to be used by a variety of mental health and other professionals iii is widely available in various forms 16 Assessment read in book responsible for on exam a Goal gather information relevant to i make diagnosis and or treatment decisions ii objectively evaluate progress 1 especially from a baseline b Specific assessment tools and techniques used depend on i nature of symptom andor clinical question ii theoretical orientation of assessor lt what questions need to be asked about problem 17 Assessment
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