Organic Chemistry Introduction video
Organic Chemistry Introduction video BIO 180-01
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Sophie Stegelitz on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIO 180-01 at a university taught by Caleb Bailey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.
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Date Created: 10/01/15
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY INTRODUCTION Carbon versatility Carbon C12 is the base of life very versatile allows the making of covalent chemical bonds Valence electrons D available on the outer shell Carbon backbone D chain of carboncarbon bonds 4 bonds usually occupied by H O S or N Carbon can form double or triple bonds with other molecules Single ljonly bond around which the atom can rotate lsomers The same number of atoms of the same elements bonded together in different arrangements Structural isomers have the same molecular structure but different arrangement of atoms Stereoisomers have the same molecular formula and bonding Geometric isomers indicated by double bonds 2 types cis isomer has both major elements on the same side amp trans isomer has H on an opposite side of the double bond Enantiomers nonsuperimposable mirror images An asymmetric molecule is a C atom with 4 different atoms or group of atoms attached to it if one of the different atoms is doubled the structure becomes symmetric if a C is double bonded to another C the structure can39t be asymmetrical anymore because 3 groups instead of 4 Must consist of at least 1 asymmetric carbon You can have several asymmetrical C per molecule Fisher projections represent 3D molecules on a 2dimensional plane Diastereomers have asymmetric carbons and look like enantiomers but they don39t have nonsuperimposable mirror images at ever asymmetric carbon dub Functional Groups Alkyl groups hydrocarbons only C amp H atoms There39s only 1 C coming off the backbone with 3 H atoms bonded to it Methyl groups H3C5 Ethyl groups H5C5 These carbons are nonpolar hydrophobic and unreactive Hydroxyl groups known as alcohol polar increases solubility in water common in sugars and protein Carbonyl groups bonded to a terminal carbonyls aldehyde formaldehyde double bonded O is a ketone bonded anywhere besides the terminal carbon used in acetone Those are polar form H bonds water soluble and increase reactivity These groups are found in acidic compound double bonded O hydroxyl group and all aminoacids Sulfhydryl group aka thiol found in aminoacids polar 2 thiols disul de bond Phosphate group 1 phosphorus 4 0 increases potential E of a molecule component of ATP adenosine triphosphate Polymer macromolecules principles Carbohydrates proteins nucleic acids lipids Macro huge on the molecular scale Polymer long chainlike molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks Monomer repeating units that serve as building block units for polymers Dehydration reactions chemical reaction where a monomer is added to a growing polymer chain A water molecule is removed dehydrated when the new covalent bond is formed lFl39rin palmidiast r Band I 1 phosphate hirer a Fh 39 Ph Nucleotide Acids Peptide Band id 39 Proteins I Glycsi ii Linkage llwdmxyl hydraw mn samha d Flysannfharidas hy rxyl Hydrolysis reaction adds a molecule of water breaking a covalent bond in the process Are lipid polymers They aren39t because they don39t have repeating subunits arranged along a linear chain However some lips like fats are created by attaching similar fatty acids tails along a glycerol backbone using a dehydration reaction called Ester linkage Polymers allow incredible diversity to be made from just a few basic building blocks Palm mars alkllw incredib e iwersiiy m be made imam lelEFt a few basin buiilldfin hiln li If a pmtaEn were just 2 amin id Huang haw many unique a m na ng Enu d yarn ma a I 20 400 unque mmbinatims F l Elf El amin acids
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