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BIO 104 - Chapter 5 and 6 Notes

by: Olivia Orlando

BIO 104 - Chapter 5 and 6 Notes BIO 104

Marketplace > Grand Valley State University > Biology > BIO 104 > BIO 104 Chapter 5 and 6 Notes
Olivia Orlando
Biology for the 21st Century

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About this Document

These are my notes for BIO 104 Chapters 5 and 6. They contain information on several definitions, easy to understand examples, and some input from my professors lectures. Hope they help!
Biology for the 21st Century
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Olivia Orlando on Thursday October 1, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIO 104 at Grand Valley State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Biology for the 21st Century in Biology at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 10/01/15
Biology 104 Chapters 5 Chapter 5 Energy and Photosynthesis are renewable fuels made from living organisms such as plants and algae Example The Toyota Algaeus to much surprise by its name is powered by algae gasoline and batteries are carbonrich sources coal petroleum and natural gas formed by the compression of fossilized organisms nonrenewable The six types of energy used in the United States 1 Hydroelectric 35 2 Biomass waste and Wood 27 3 Biofuels 21 4 Wind 13 5 Geothermal 2 6 Solar 1 is defined as the capacity to do work Cellular work includes processes such as creating complex molecules and moving substances into and out of the cell Without a source of energy any life on Earth would not be possible cell phone with a dying battery is potential energy stored in the bonds of biological molecules is the principal that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be transformed from one form to another So conservation of energy is like playing catch You throw the ball to another person transferring your energy from your hand to the ball to the next person they receive the ball and thus the energy and return the ball However you cannot just throw the ball into the ground expecting it to disappear because the ball or energy cannot spontaneously be destroyed is stored energy because it only has the potential to do something but actually doesn t is the energy of motion or movement a ball rolling down a hill has kinetic energy is the kinetic energy generated by random movements of molecules or atoms when you rub your hands together like friction you are creating heat because the molecules are moving vividly against eachother o is the process by which plants and other autotrophs use the energy of the sun to make energyrich molecules using carbon dioxide and water is manned Ginmall is rmed Photosynthesis sunlight water carbon dioxide 9 oxygen glucose An is an organism such as plants algae and certain bacteria that capture the energy of sunlight by photosynthesis A is an organism such as humans and other animals that obtain energy by eating organic molecules that were produced by other organisms is the organelle in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs is the energy of the electromagnetic spectrum of radiation that is Visible to the human eye are packets of light energy each with a specific wavelength and quantity of energy is the pigment present in the green parts of plants that absorbs photons of light energy during the photo reactions of photosynthesis Adenosine Triphosphate ATP is the molecule that cells use to power energyrequiring functions also a result of cellular respiration used in the synthesis part of the photosynthesis is the conversion of inorganic carbon C02 into organic forms sugars is a linked series of feeding relationships in a community in which organiss further up the chain feed on ones below References Works Cited Shuster Michele Janet Vigna Matthew Tontonoz and Gunj an SinhaBiology for a Changing World with Physiology New York City WH Freeman 2014 Print Biology 104 Chapter 6 Notes Dietary Energy and Cellular Respiration Overweight and obese are not just casual terms they are based on your BMI is an estimate of body fat based on height and weight measures body fat from height and weight into an easily understood number Overweight is having a BMI between 25 and 299 Obese is having 20 more body fat than is recommended for one s height as measured by body mass index equal to or greater than 30 BMI can be misleading muscle weighs more than fat so athletes with a lot of muscle and muscle mass can physically be healthy but their BMI can say they are not Food is not just a source of nutrition but also a source of energy The energy in food originally comes from the sun through photosynthesis is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree Celsius a measure of energy A is 1000 calories or 1 kilocalorie kcal the capital C in Calorie indicates kilocalorie The Calorie is the common unit of energy used in food nutrition labels Because muscle cells require more Calories than do fat cells the ratio of muscle mass compared to fat content in our bodies is another factor When the body is hungry thirsty or tired it sends a signal to the brain to signify that the person should do something to fix that distress is a complex animal carbohydrate made up of linked chains of glucose molecules that stores energy for short term use When the body needs a quick burst of energy the body breaks down glycogen to obtain energy However it acts as empty Calories because a gram of glycogen stores only half as many Calories as a gram of fat are a type of lipid found in fat cells that stores excess energy for longterm use The body burns this fat only after it has already used up food molecules in the bloodstream and in stored glycogen If more food energy is taken into our bodies than is used to power cellular reactions and physical movement the excess minus what is released as heat with every energy conversion is stored as fat Process of releasing energy stored in food and putting it to use in cells 1 Food must be broken down into its component subunits fats and sugars 2The broken down products must go through a series of biochemical reactions that convert the chemical energy stored in these food molecules into a form of fuel we can use is the molecule that cells use to power energy requiring functions the cell s energy currency To make ATP our bodies first break down food molecules into their smaller subunits through the process of digestion then the subunits enter the bloodstream which transports them to the body s cells is a series of reactions that occurs in the presence of oxygen and converts energy stored in food into ATP The primary process that all eukaryotic organisms use to convert food energy into ATP is a series of reactions that breaks down sugar into smaller units glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm and is the first stage of both aerobic respiration and fermentation is a set of reactions that takes place in the mitochondria and helps extract energy in the form of highenergy electrons from food the second stage of aerobic respiration is a series of chemical reactions that takes place in the absence of oxygen and converts some of the energy stored in food into ATP produces far less ATP than does aerobic respiration takes place in the cytoplasm


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