PSY 303, Week 6/7 Notes
PSY 303, Week 6/7 Notes PSY 303
Popular in Adolescent Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Razan Alkhazaleh on Saturday March 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSY 303 at Pace University taught by Robert Rahni in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Pace University.
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Date Created: 03/19/16
Sexuality is a normal aspect of development • • Media: portrayed in movies, videos and lyrics of popular music • adolescents have access to sexually explicit website • adolescents and emerging adults use the internet as a resource to attain more information on sexuality • Developing Sexual Identity: • mastering emerging sexual feelings and forming a sense of sexual identity (multifaceted)— it’s ever- changing and solidiﬁes over time • Sexual identity: emerges in context of physical, social, and cultural factors • • strongly inﬂuenced by social norms related to sex • involves indication of sexual orientation, activities, interests and styles of behavior • Research: • it’s limited, and not straightforward • surveys may be answered with socially desirable answers rather than the truth • (2009) 62% of high school seniors have reported that they had sexual intercourse, vs. (2010) 32% of high school freshmen • sexual script: stereotyped pattern for how individuals should behave sexually by the time males/females reach adolescence they already have been socialized to follow different • sexual scripts • differences in sexual scripts between male and female may cause problems and confusions • adolescents are not emotionally prepared to handle sexual experiences (especially in early adolescence • sexual minority are more likely to develop substance abuse problems, engage in sexual risk-taking behavior, and be targeted for violence • Contraception: • many sexually active adolescents still do not use contraception or use inconsistently • US adolescents use condoms less than adolescents in europe • in 2004, adolescent births fell to a record low due to an increase in contraception, fear of STI’s, school/ community health classes, and greater hope for future • infants born to adolescent mothers are more likely to be born premature/with low birth weights (infant mortality along with neurological problems and childhood illness) • adolescent mothers often drop out of school • pregnancy alone is not the only factor that leads to negative consequences for the mother and her offspring • Adolescents as Parents: • children of adolescent parents face problems before they’re born mothers are less competent at child rearing and have less realistic expectations than older mothers • • children born to adolescent mothers have lower IQ’s and more behavior problems • Cognitive factors: • informing adolescents about contraceptives is not enough prevention is based on the belief that adolescence have the cognitive ability to approach problem • solving in a planned, organized, and analytical matter _____________________________________________________________________________________ • Domains of moral development: • Moral development: thoughts, behaviors and feelings regarding the standard of what’s right and wrong • Moral Thought • Kohlberg crafted major theory of how adolescents think about right and wrong— proposed that moral development is based primarily on moral reasoning in a series of stages Kohlberg’s stages: • • Level1— Preconventional Reasoning: • Stage1— punishment and obedience orientation • Stage2— Individualism, instrumental purpose and exchange • Level2— Conventional Reasoning (abiding by their own internal standards, and external standards (others, ex. parents or laws of society) • Stage3— Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships and interpersonal conformity • Stage4— Social systems morality • Level3— Postconventional Reasoning (highest level of moral development where morality is more internal— individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options and then decided on a personal moral code) Stage5— social contract/utility and individual rights • • Stage6— Universal ethical principles • Most adolescents can reason at stage 3 • Small number of early adults reason in post-conventional ways • Similarly to PIAGET, Kohlberg emphasized that peer interaction is a critical part of the social stimulation that challenges individuals to change their moral orientation • Reinforcement, punishment and imitation have been used to explain how and why adolescents learn certain moral behaviors and why their behaviors differ from one another Adolescents are aware to adult hypocrisy, and evidence indicates that they are right to believe that many • adults display a double standard. • Social Cognitive Theory:Albert Van Dura • distinction between adolescents moral competence and moral performance • Moral Competence: ability to produce moral behavior • Moral Performance: performing moral behaviors in speciﬁc situations Van Dura’s view, self regulation rather than abstract reasoning is the key to positive moral development • Prosocial Behavior: acts involves altruism, an unselﬁsh interest in helping others • • females are more prosocial, and empathetic • 6 types of prosocial behavior: • forgiveness gratitude • • Moral Feeling: • Psychoanalytic • Freud’s theory (superego)— as the moral branch of the personality, develops in early childhood when the child resolves the Oedipus conﬂict • Ego Idea • Conscience • Empathy: positive feelings, contributes positively to moral development • Parenting disciplining techniques: • Love Withdrawal: parents withholds attention or love from the adolescent. ex. when the parent refuses to talk to the adolescent or states a dislike for the adolescent (extremely damaging) • PowerAssertion: attempts to gain control over the adolescent or their resources • Induction: a parent uses reason and explanation of consequences for others of the adolescents actions (more positively contributing to moral development0 Based on culture, socioeconomic status, and child’s age— certain disciplining techniques may work better than the other. Not necessarily that love withdrawal is the worst, or induction being the best.
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