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Date Created: 10/04/15
Chapter 5 Thursday October 1 2015 1109 AM Power the ability to bring about an intended outcome even when opposed by others 1 Actor A causing Actor B to work in the interests of Actor A 2 Actor A controlling conversation with Actor B 3control of the perception of interests Actor B acts in Actor A s interests and perceives them as their own controlling reality so only actor A s interests are up for grabs Discussion examples of ways in the world ways of which people act against their best interests and in the interests of those who are more powerful Empowerment increases peoples capacity to bring about an intended outcome focus of much feminists scholarship on power 6 Bases of Power in small groups or organizations French and Raven Reward control one party has over valued resources that can be used to provide positive incentivesthink parents giving kids an allowance Coercive the ability to punishthink police officers being able to use physical force or issue tickets Legitimate those who invoke a feeling of obligationlistening to your boss Referent feelings of identification respect affection for a person even if said person doesn t try to have powerpopular person at work may be viewed as role model without asking for it 0 Expert perception that a person has a superior knowledge in a particular arealawyer is expert in legal matters to their client Informational person s use of facts data or evidence to argue or persuade Power Tactics specific strategies people use to influence others in everyday life hard forceful direct or harsh 0 using rewards orthreat soft focus on relationships 0 make use of collaboration and friendship to gain aim 0 think friendly reminder to do a task Hegemony those in power have successfully spread their ideas so that their perspectives and interests are accepted widely as being universal and true Legitimate Power voluntarily accepted by those who are affected Illegitimate Power force or coercion to generate obedience traditional authority legitimacy because of compliance with wellestablished cultural practices rational legal authority legitimacy because it is based on established laws rules and procedures inequaliy unequal distribution of resources among groups of people 0 class group of people who share a roughly similar economic situation and lifestyle 0 life chances opportunities offered by a person s economic position stratification systems made up of social structures and cultural norms that create and maintain inequality by ranking people into a hierarchy of groups that receive unequal resources 1 unequal distribution of valued resources 2 distinct groups that make up society s strata 3 an ideology that explains and justifies inequalities ideology system of beliefs that helps define and explain the world and justifies the existence of inequalities caste system stratification based on various ascribed characters determined at birth 0 class system stratification determined by economic position which results from a combination of individual achievement and family of birth Questions Education is probably the best known approach to empowerment The power over approach to understanding power focuses on domination Cultural power enables some people to define social reality and encourage others to comply with their agendas Chapter 6 Thursday October 1 2015 1110 AM Socialization the process through which people learn their culture s basic norms values beliefs and appropriate behaviors agents of socialization people and groups who teach us about our culture hidden curriculum schools convey implicit lessons about how children should behave media plays significant role peer group group of people usually of comparable age who share similar interests and social status can act as surrogate family to young adults occupational socialization the process of learning the informal norms associated with a type of employment pick up cues and skills about how to be successful during training for a job religion is a huge socializing agent focuses on teaching of values and beliefs total institutions confining social settings in which an authority regulates all aspects of a person s life resocialization process by which individuals replace old norms and behaviors with new ones as they move from one role or life stage to another lifecourse perspective looks at how age time and place shape social identities and experiences over a lifetime rites of passage activities that mark and celebrate a change in a persons social status looking glass self Charles Cooley idea that our sense of self develops as a reflection of the way we think others see us 1 imagine our images in the eye of others 2 imagine the others making some judgment about us 3 experience a feeling as a result of the imagined judgement Mead s part of the self that is spontaneous impulsive creative and unpredictable Mead s me sense of self that has been learned from interaction with others Mead s Child Develonment 4 DWIquot nlnlnnnrl n r nllr r vr nnnnAI nnn lllll AI A39F lrrmnrl1rn I39 I ribpray ldyc U39L WI IUIU Ul IIIUIUII Udl ll IUL lcp lUlly UUL IUU Ul Ll IUI I l cch LU judge themselves or take perspective of other people can only imitate behavior not understand what they re doing 2 Play stage 36 where kids begin to step out of themselves and play the role of a mom or dad during role playing games 3 Game stage 67 when children learn how to play a role but also how to link said role to others roles team sports for example learn rules and anticipate actions of others can fully imagine how the social world appears to others 4 Generalized other values and orientations of their overall community rather than those of specific individuals internalize values and beliefs of their culture Foucault on power terms and concepts we use to think about ourselves don t originate with us but are produced and promoted by various regimes of powers such as teachers and doctors etc social determinism position that culture and environment almost completely shape human behavior Chapter 7 Thursday October 1 2015 1111 AM intersubjectivity a common understanding between people about knowledge reality or an experience quotrealityquot is socially constructed we learn from society Thomas theorem if men define situations as real they are real in their consequences subjective interpretations of reality have objective effects 0 to understand howwhy humans act the way they do we must see how they define reality and how that definition influences their behavior stereotypes exaggerated distorted or untrue generalizations about categories of people that do not acknowledge individual variation 0 defines individuals as typical example ofwhole groups of people 3 Steps to Constructing Social Reality 1 externalization 0 process of physical and mental activity to ensure stable environment 2 objectivation 0 social arrangements come to seem objectively real society seems quotnaturaP39 o for example new friendship becomes quotrea 3 internalization 0 learn our society s culture and establish ourview ofthe world 0 relationships start to influence your actions such as moving a friend into their apartment status category status that people can hold in commonthin k nurse new englander master status a social position that is overwhelmingly significant powerfully influences a person s social experience and typically overshadows all the other social positions that a person may occupy roles sets of expected behaviors that are associated with particular statuses Dramaturgy approach to the study of social interaction that uses the metaphor of social life as a theater Erving Goffman Presentation of Self in Everyday Life social networks collections of social ties that connect people to each other 0 formed through common culture our statuses shared interpretations of reality social groups collections of people who interact regularly with one anotherand who are aware oftheir status as a grouo I and somewhatinevitable V primary groups made up of people who have regular contact enduring relationships and a significant emotional attachment to another secondary groups made up of people who interact in a relatively impersonal way usually to carry out some specific task reference groups groups against which we choose to measure ourselves in group social group with which a person identifies and toward which he or she has positive feelings out group social grouptoward which a person has negative feelings considering its members to be inferiors or quotthemquot dyad group consisting ofjust two people very unstable groupthink form of uncritical thinking in which people reinforce a consensus rather than ask serious questions or thoroughly analyze the issue at hand ron Law ofOligarchy Robert Michels eventual and inevitable consolidation of power at the top of bureaucratic organizations Scientific Management Frederik Taylor process of deskilling ordinary workers and increasing workplace efficiency through calculated study Solomon Asch majority effect people conform to group opinion even when they disagree Chapter 8 Thursday October 1 2015 1111 AM collective conscience shared norms beliefs and values in a community Durkheim deviance behavior that does not conform to basic cultural norms and expectations labeling theorv argues that deviance is the result of how others interpreta behavior and that individuals who are labeled deviant often internalize this judgement as part of their self identity stigma the shame attached to a behavior or status that is considered socially unacceptable or discrediting secondary deviance deviant behavior that is a response to the negative consequences of labeling The Rules of Sociological Method Emile Durkheim deviance can be functional and positive in reinforcing social structures 1 deviance helps define group boundaries 2 deviance helps create social solidarity 3 deviance is a source of innovation deviance can be thought of as the consequence of individual immorality boundary between normal and deviant is similar to good and evil medicalization of deviance designation of a deviant behavior as an illness that can be treated by medical professionals differential association theorv deviance is learned through interaction with other people involved in deviant behavior loner deviance activities of individuals who commit deviant acts without the social support of other participants strain theorv emphasizes that strain or pressure on those who lackthe means to achieve culturally defined goals leads them to pursue deviant routes to success Overconformity following cultural expectations to an excessive degree if has positive response called positive deviance normalization previously deviant behaviors become accepted as conventional social control incentives and punishments that promote conformity in social life surveillance monitoring by authorities who police the boundaries of what s normal agents of social control authorities and social institutions that enforce norms and n IIQR affemnf fn nmvenf rI lie violations and identifv and m migh rI lie Iinlafnrg IVIIVV uh vlll Ev VIVVVII IVIIV Vlvluhlvl IV VII I IUVII IIJ VII I Vulllvll IVIIV Vlvlu vlv r control theory suggests that our behavior is regulated by the strength of our connection to major social institutions including family school and religion crime deviant behavior that violates a law 0 Types 1 street crime violent or property 2 violent crime murder rape robbery aggravated assault 3 property crime burglary larceny motor vehicle theft arson 4 public order crimes most common prostitution liquor law violations drug offenses etc 5 hate crimes motivated by bias against someones race ethnicity disability religion or sexual orientation 6 white collar crime fraud labor violations insider trading bribery embezzlement decriminalization process of making an illegal action legal 0 crime rates measure the incidence of crime in relation to population size Punishment 0000 O retribution more severe the crime the harsher the penalty rehabilitation to resocialize criminals think educational prisons deterrence consequences make people less likely to commit crime protection removing those who are threats to society from public life think life sentence restoration repair individual and social damage done by crime offer mediation between criminal and victim recidivism return to criminal behavior 0 capital punishment death penalty
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