Collaboration of Notes
Collaboration of Notes Bio 271
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Securria on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bio 271 at University of North Carolina at Greensboro taught by Jeremy Ingraham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Anatomy in Biology at University of North Carolina at Greensboro.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
Exam 3: Study Guide Chapter 21: Blood What binds to oxygen that is in each heme molecule? Iron What feature of RBC make it possible to carry oxygen? Hemoglobin What carries most oxygen in the blood? RBC This solute is carried to sites of breakdown or excretion. Organic wastes What solute is used for ATP production, growth, & maintenance of cells Normal extracellular fluid ion composition essential for vital cellular activity is the main function of? Electrolytes What things make up the other solutes of blood? Electrolytes, organic nutrients, and organic wastes Where are most proteins produced? Liver What are some features of regulatory proteins? <1% of plasma proteins, enzymes What are some features of fibrinogens? 4% of plasma proteins, important for clotting What are some features of globulins? 35% of plasma proteins, transport ions What are some features of albumins? 60% of plasma proteins, contributes to osmotic pressure What is plasma w/o clotting proteins called? Serum To be anemic means? Low RBC count To have polycythemia means? High RBC Count What is the percentage of whole blood occupied by cells called? Hematocrit How much hematocrit do men and women have? Men 40-50%, Women 37- 47% What is the feature of agglutination? Clumping What is the feature of blood type A? Erythrocytes w/ type A surface antigen and plasma w/ anti-B antibodies What is the feature of blood type B? Erythrocytes w/ type B surface antigen and plasma w/ anti-A antibodies What is the feature of blood type AB? Erythrocytes w/ both types of surface antigen and plasma w/ neither anti- antibodies What is the feature of blood type O? Erythrocytes w/ neither type of surface antigen but plasma w/ both anti- antibodies What is What is What is function of What is the the the this the function of function of function of leukocyte function of this this this this leukocyte leukocyte leukocyte ? leukocyte Mount ? ? Kill ? immune Phagocyti parasitic Release response ? ze by direct Phagocyto worms histamine attack bacteria What is sis the What are some characteristics of Neutrophil? Nucleus is multi-lobed, inconspicuous cytoplasmic granules What are some characteristics of Eosinophil? Nucleus is bi-lobed, red cytoplasmic granules What are some characteristics of Basophil? Nucleus is lobed, large purplish- black cytoplasmic granules What are some characteristics of Lymphocyte? Nucleus is spherical or indented, pale blue cytoplasm What are some characteristics of Monocyte? Nucleus is U or kidney shaped, gray-blue cytoplasm Where are all blood cells produced? Red bone marrow Where do most WBC’s come from? Daughter cells called myeloid stem cells What causes leukopenia? Low wbc count What causes leukocytosis? High wbc count Chapter 22: Heart What are the functions of the right side of the heart? Receives blood from the heart and pumps put to lungs What are the functions of the left side of the heart? Receives blood from lungs and pumps out to body What is the direction of the pulmonary circulation? Right side of heart (deoxygenated blood), blood vessels, lungs (get oxygen blood/release carbon dioxide), blood vessels, left side of heart 2 What is the direction of the systemic circulation? Left side of heart, blood vessels, systemic cells (exchange nutrients, respiratory gases, and wastes), blood vessels, right side of heart What surrounds the heart? Pericardium What are the features of the pericardium? Parietal layer, pericardial cavity, and visceral layer What are the four chambers? Left/right ventricles and left/right atriums What separates the ventricles? Inter-ventricular septum What valves are on the right side? Pulmonary semilunar valve and right atrioventricular valve (tricuspid) What valves are on the left side? Left atrioventricular (bicuspid) and aortic semilunar valve What are the jellyfish legs? Chordae tendinae What are the cone shaped ridges of the heart? Papillary muscles What causes the sounds in the heart? When it closes What are the coronary vessels (arteries) on the front of the heart? Right coronary, left coronary, anterior inter-ventricular, and circumflex What are the coronary vessels (arteries) on the back of the heart? Posterior left ventricular, left coronary, right coronary, and posterior inter-ventricular What are the coronary vessels (veins) on the front of the heart? Anterior cardiac, small cardiac, and great cardiac What are the coronary vessels (veins) on the front of the heart? Coronary sinus, posterior vein, middle cardiac, small cardiac, and great cardiac What is the system of the electric activity in the heart? SA node, intermodal pathways, AV node, AV bundle, bundle branches, and purkinje fiber Chapter 23: Blood Vessels Which direction does arteries carry blood? away Which direction does veins carry blood? Toward What is the function of capillaries? Bridge arteries and veins What is the space in a blood vessel called? Lumen What is the difference between veins and arteries? Veins have valves What are the layers of the vessels outward to inward? Tunica externa, tunica media, connective tissue, and endothelium of tunica intima What are the layers of capillaries called (out to in)? basal lamina and endothelial cell 3 What do the sphincters control? The flow of the capillary bed What items cross capillary walls? Gases, water, nutrients, electrolytes, and wastes What is the starting point(s) of the venous system? Superior vena cava and inferior vena cava What is the deep vein in the upper arm called? Brachial Does the gastric vein have a left or right designation? no Chapter 24: Lymphatic System Where does lymph originate? The capillaries How are fluids between blood and tissue exchanged across walls? Capillaries What is the fluid called in the lymph vessels? Lymph fluid What are the components of the lymphatic system? Capillaries, vessels, trunks, and ducts, and nodes What is the feature of lymphatic capillaries? Capture tissue fluid What is the feature of lymphatic vessels, trunks, and ducts? Carry fluid back to venous systems What is the feature of lymph nodes? Act as filters What is the beginning of the thoracic duct? Cisterna chili Which lymph duct is the longest? Thoracic duct Which nodes go into the right lymphatic duct? Axillary and cervical Which nodes go into the thoracic duct? *Everywhere else* What is a feature of lymphedema? Build up of tissue fluid due to disruption of normal lymph drainage What are the names of the lymph nodes? Cervical, lumbar, axillary, pelvic, and inguinal lymph nodes 4
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