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This 34 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley Medina on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Bundle belongs to ART 283 at Central Michigan University taught by Scott De Brestian in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Intro to Western Art I in Art at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/04/15
History of Western Art ART 283 Sept 18 Class 8 The Art of Ancient Egypt The pyramids of Giza Egyptian funerary art The pharaoh Hatshepsut Previous Lecture Continued Giza C 2500 BC Shape of pyramids rays of sun Honors sun god Ra Smaller pyramids are the wives of the pharaohs Khufu had the largest Khafra built his on a platform actually smaller Menkaure stayed modest They had valley temples for daily offerings for the king s Ka Funerary temple where they would have rituals to restore land Built of stone Limestone amp Granite Granite for outer layer Cut into blocks 3 ton Ashar Masonry using rectangular stone blocks 26 million ashlar blocks Largest piece of architecture built by man until the renaissance The outer casing of the pyramids have deteriorated over time Believed to be built by famers not slaves 10000 people for 20 years Pyramids had a grand gallery and burial chamber Pyramids were robbed quotThe Great Sphinxquot Giza C 2500 BC Guardian creature Animal body god head Khufu quotStatue of Menkaure and Queen Khamerernebty From the valley temple of Menkaure Giza C 2580 BC Spousal devotion was weird in Egyptian art Pharaoh is larger and further in front of his queen Headdress shows authority false beard Queen would have been wearing a wig They are not in composite pose Generic to a certain degree too perfectidealized Carved in the round free standing Used a system of measurement to make them perfect canon of proportions grid system Placed in Valley Temple The Egyptian New Kingdom Reached max power Center of power is in the south upper City of Thebes False beard Bear chest only a hint of visible breasts Depicted as a male only thinner It wasn t a normal thing to have female leaders Her husband was the ruler when he died her son was too young Once she died they decided to remove everything to do her rrJ a Zillim liyl39iglli Ilrlllfl39lhl39F39iIllliiitif Damnatio Memoriae Sign of how much power they thought images have Had to chisel out images to signify her power was really over History of Western Art ART 283 Sept 21 Class 9 Later Egyptian Art A temple for Hatshepsut Egyptian Tomb Paintings The Pharaoh Akhnaten Previous Lecture Continued Colossal statue of Pharaoh Hatshepsut Damnatio Memoriae The Egyptian New Kingdom Pyramids went out of style not safe robberies Started to bury pharaohs in Thebes Valley temple next to pyramids would be where they tended to Ka New temple created for each ruler Peir elbahri funerary temple of Hatshepsut Designed by C 1480 BC Seems to be part of the landscape Would have had trees and pools before Axial plan Building design provides variety and drama Colonnade series of columns serve as supports Post and lintel architecture Capital transition square piece that helps columns look more appealing quotTemple of AmunRaquot Karnak C 1500 1200 BC Ramheaded sphinx Karnak these are Ra Ra has been depicted with a rams head in the past Gates at temple controlled who could go where Hypostyle wall accumulation of columns 6080 ft high supporting roof Has windows clerestory window New Kingdom c 1340 13o Believed there was only one god amp he was the reincarnation Aten the sun disc He closed all the temples and made new ones for Aten Changed the grid to depict other body parts Combines both male and female characteristics 39l n Limestone C 1355 BC Depicts them being blessed by the sun god Sunken relief Amarna style British Archeologist Howard Carter was to look for Tutankhamen39s tomb Found a hole in the door but everything looked untouched The looter may have been chased off History of Western Art ART 283 Sept 23 Class 10 The Ancient Aegean The tomb of Tutankhamen The island of Crete Minoan culture Valley of the Kings No more secure than the pyramids Carter found tut s tomb intact Tutankhamen was a minor pharaoh son of Akhenaten Died young unexpected mystery Evidence that his tomb was broken into Looter never came back though Objects in his tomb furniture chariot fooddrink ritual objects amp games Looked like everything was placed quickly probably because it was so unexpected C 1325 BC Spices meat apples money amp wine Gold Sarcophagus 3 cof ns one gold Body had jewels ne clothes funerary mask C 1325 BC Beaten gold Depicted as Osiris god of resurrection Osiris is the ruler of gods False beard made of silver Protective symbols on headdress gods will keep him safe Lapis Lazuli Obsidian volcanic glass eyes Stones for chest piece ldealized face youthful awless Different from his father s unproportioned image Good example of how a Pharaoh would be treated after death unlike Hatshepsut Other people of higher status like a governor would have a similar tomb layout One way of insuring your Ka would be alright You could paint the walls in a manner that could protect your Ka incase offerings stopped From the tomb of Nebamun Thebes C 1350 BC Paintings were a spell ensured what happened in painting would happen for Ka Clothes amp slaves shows wealth Scene of him enjoying himself Ensuring his status in the afterlife No one in the painting is eating food his for his Ka Important gures are in composite pose Musiciansdancers slaves Bottom less important gures show naturalism frontal view Overlap moving All wearing cones on their head Waxperfume melted and released scent Bronze Age Aegean c 3000 1100 BC Named after body of water Aegean Sea Number of different regions Island of Crete Minoan culture Mainland Greece Mycenaens Sir Arthur Evans at Knossas First place he searched Went there because of the myth told Mythical King Minos and the monster man body bull head Minotaur King put him in a maze Labyrinth King Minos the Minotaur the Labyrinth and Theseus Gold string Old palace of Knossos one of several large palaces from bronze age Throne Roomquot Central Court South Propyleeum North Pillar Hall Hlall oil the quotDouble xesquot iSourtherrace 39 W g i Ealst Entrance South Porch Constructed of stone C 1500 BC Built up to 5 stories high in some places Maybe LOO1500 people lived there Palace looks like a maze Large central courtyard Signi cant rooms off of courtyard Evans restored part of the palace Stone walls around wooden columns Wooden columns got smaller toward the bottom Multipurpose rooms Audience hall or bedroom Pier and door construction Storage rooms where large containers of good were stored oil grain wine in rows Taxes in form of food Thrown room stone seat and a basin No axial plan Courtyard space of transitgathering Maybe that was the place where the people in charge go No depicted king Maybe the throne room was actually a ritual room Knossos C 1650 Material from ancient Egypt Faience glassy Has to be heated to work with Very fragile Colored Precious material important She s holding snakes Who is she History of Western Art ART 283 Sept 12 Previous Lecture Continued Mesopotamia was resource poor no metals or stone But they had a lot of water and mud Earliest city is Uruk Land of Sumer Inanna Ur Leonard Woolley British archaeologist best known for his excavations at Ur p32 Discovered royal cemetery 6070 skeletons were found in the tombs PG 1237 quotreconstruction Bodies of servants Evidence that guards were killed by blow to the head Servants may have been okay with dying once the king died because the living conditions while serving were better than possibly starving or being murdered C 2600 BC Peace side and War side Found by Woolley May be a wooden ag but can be sure what it is Wood shells precious stone Lapis Lazuli blue red limestone Stone comes from a mountain in Afghanistan Imported stone gives the impression that this piece is important Shells and stones are stuck to a tarry like substance called bitumen Bitumen is made of hydrocarbons byproduct of oil Serves as a glue 3 rows War side Top row shows prisoners of war nude Important gure is larger hieratic scalehierarchy of proprtions 2nOI row soldiers are stripping down prisoners Bottom row shows men in chariots showing powernobility King leads them to victory Hierarchy top to bottom Peace side Top row shows all the men sitting King is larger They re all wearing skirts There is a man playing a harp The 2nOI amp 3rd row show men bringing tribute to the king Everyone has a role to play The kings here were not absolute rulers Akkad Sargon was a servant to the king Had the king done away with unsure of the details Takes the thrown for himself takes over neighboring cities Akkadian Empire IEII EliIII F3939l Franl F39iZ ll H C 2300 2200 BC Depicts Naramsin after defeating neighboring peoples Shows him in composite pose Wanted to make him look like he has no aws Everyone is looking to him Horned helmet object associated with gods only gods wear horned helmets more hornsmore important Mountains are thought to be the home of the gods A record of this event is etched on the mountain quot Writing is called Cuneiform Latin Earliest tablets had pictographs instead of writing Akkadian Empire only lasted a short period of time 50 years Made arti cial mountains for gods C 2100 BC Mud brick Nanna is the god of Ur God of the moon The top building was for the god only a select number of people were allowed in Wavy texture was used to make the building more intriguing History of Western Art ART 283 Sept 14 The Fertile Crescent One of the most important cities Babylon Series of strong rulers Hammurabi Susa lran Basa C 1780 BC Cuneiform one of the largest records Law code of Hammurabi More like a set ofjudicial pronouncements No criminal law quoteye for an eyequot Not as barbaric as they seem Figures in composite pose Horned helmet important god God Shamash shown sittinglarger Handing ring and rod to Hammurabi Ringrod means quotrulershipquot Depicting that the god has approved of his rulings amp decisions Babylon is right on the Euphrates river Rivals with northern city Assyria Assyria developed later that Babylon but becomes stronger to absorb it Babylon Believed to have ruthless warriors Assyrian Empire 825 612 BC King Sargon ll of Assyria original Sargon 1500 years earlier Sargon means quotlegitimate rulerquot Sarcasm Decided to start off in Virgin Soil Dur Sharrukin city of Sargon After Sargon ll died the city was left un nished Only occupied for about 15 years IiED Mesopotamia C 721 705 BC Wall for protection or rebellion Axial Plan organized around a central axis that forms a center of symmetry and leads you into the building Most important part of the building will be at the end of that axis from where you enter That part is elevated to show importance Axial plan tells you what the builder thought was most important Ziggurat is not on the axis King is the focus of the palace not the gods Guardian gure Palace of Sargon II C 720 BC Horns show importance Supernatural gure Protects against supernatural threats spells demons etc Has 5 legs needs to be seen as hole from every angle for full power Can be seen the Oriental Institute in Chicago Palace of Assurbanipal Nineveh C 645 640 BC Stone wall orthostats protect mud brick Orthostat very thin stone that lines a wall Shows muscular de nition in the thin stone From the palace of Assurbanipal Nineveh Lions served as a sacri ce to the fertility goddess Showing he was a good king by ensuring prosperity History of Western Art ART 283 Sept 16 Class 7 Mesopotamia and Egypt Babylon resurgent The rise of Persia Ancient Egypt 30 years after the lion hunt Assyria faces a series of rebellion Assyria collapses new city of power Babylon Babylon C 575 BC Ishtar was one of the main goddesses of Babylon They held an annual festival in her name Part of Ishtar gate was reconstructed in Berlin Arch is differing from post and lintel Arch could stand more weight Depicted bulls strengthpower Babylonian dragon Babylon C 575 BC Mushussu protector supernatural layer of defense So there were 2 kinds of defense gate and supernatural The Persian Empire Cyrus of Persia spreads his empire takes Babylon Was able to conquer huge portions of the ancient world Persian capital at Persepolis Hosted festivals so everyone could awe in the wealth brought gifts People were depicted on the outside wallsstaircase Relief from the Apadana audience hall Persepolis Limestone C 520 465 BC Attempted to awe people by the size of the gures The Fertile Crescent Egypt very dry Nile Red Sea Mediterranean Sea Delta Southern Egypt Upper Northern Egypt Lower Stones instead of brick Early sept water would rise silt brought nutrients Egyptian Pharaoh was a quotliving godquot Hierakonpolis Egypt Stone C 3000 BC One of the most important pieces from Egypt Purpose for this item would have been to mix makeup but this was never used May have been designated for a temple for the gods Composite pose shown about to smite another man Pharaoh Egyptian king Fish amp chisel quotnarquot quotmerquot Hieroglyphics Falcon Horus god The pharaoh was Horus manifested May depict the pharaoh subduing lower Egypt Pharaoh wears the crown of lower Egypt on the back Mastaba tombs Arabic bench shaped Ka spiritual component of personality Ka moved on but had to come back to its body every day to eat Stacking Mastabas created step pyramids History of Western Art ART 283 Sept 25 Class 11 The Ancient Aegean Minoan Ritual The Art of the Mycenaeans The Lion Gate Previous Lecture Continued Bronze Age Aegean c300011OO BC Knossos leader wasn t central focus of palace courtyard was quotSnake Goddess from Knossos c1650 BC faience Pose catches our attention Connection to supernatural realm because of snake Snake is connected with growth or healing Fancy cat hat Suggestive it is a goddess because godsgoddesses are usually connected with an animal Lions are connected to fertility goddesses Could be a priestess C 15001450 BC Stone Stealite Small bottom half is reconstructed Large crown No woman only men Coming back from a harvest Carrying rakes or grain Bare chestskirts common Might be singing open mouth One has a rattle Active but not naturalistic Leader robe larger Shows group organization Special vessel Used for the harvest ritual quot399 wl ii lrtquot quot quotv 4 V Ink A V 39quot a g r i I l I I g 39 r y 14 r I Knossos C 15501450 BC Egyptians used dry fresco plaster dryer climate True frescowet fresco paint while plaster is wet Bull is potent image for Minoans Bull depicts strength with his stance 3 figures darker skin male amp lighter skinned females Depiction of one person flipping over the bullContinuous narrative A man amp 2 woman team Based on clothing they could all be male Ritual Mycenean discovered by Heinrich Schliemann 187071 Mycenae Greece Collection of buildings within a wall Impressive walls Irregular stones but nicely fit Greeks thought cyclops had to of built the wall Cyclopean Masonry ml 1 p History of Western Art ART 283 Sept 27 Class 11 Decline and Renewal The Palace at Mycenae The collapse of Mycenaen civilization The rebirth of the figure Previous Lecture Continued Bronze Age Aegean c 30011OO BC Minoans from Crete Myceneans Greece Lion Gate Mycenae c 1250 BC Constructed of large stones Rectangular stones unlike wall cyclopean Like pyramids at Giza Ashlar Masonry Post and 30 ton Lintel Needed to be stable yet sturdy Corbel archrelieving triangle Puts extra weight on posts Thin triangular slab for hole A true arch is more effective than the corbel arch Lions are protectors Heads may have been in another material gold May have been looted Prominent throne room Megaron Waiting area large square room with fireplace Clerestory supported by columns Throne on one side so smoke didn t hide him i 5 quotTreasury of Atreus Mycenae C 13001250 BC Gate leading to tomb Hill was built at the same time made structure stronger Ashlar Masonry Triangular slab has been destroyed Corbel Vault 3D Corbel Arch 2D Tomb may have been used for a family One would die they would decay naturally then they d be swept aside once someone else died Item may have been placed in there too Centralized Society Anyone who was important lived in the palace architects masons Palace may have been attacked may have been burnt Famine Rebellion When palacesgovernment failed king disappeared Artisan scattered their knowledge disappeared Other crafts died sculptors painters metal 300350 years with no figures being created in Greece Writing disappears too reappears differently Dramatic widespread change Break between Aegean amp Greek culture Periods of Greek Culture Geometric c 1100 700 BC No cities just small communities Ruled by a set of aristocrats prominent individuals who have power over landresources More than one ruler No large scale painting or architecture Tradition in ceramic vessels Used as grave markers C 750 BC Geometric Amphora ceramic vase Dipylon is the city in Athens where is was found Would have been for an important woman Geometric designs Uniformabstract grazing deer Human figures earliest in Greece after the fall Abstract funeral scene female figure Gesture of rending tearing hair Men have legs together women apart Neatly organized Hierarchy Number of mourners and the vessel showed how important you were Orientalizing c 700 600 BC Development of artistic elements C 650 BC Orientalizing Not a grave marker that fashion disappears Elaborater decorated connect to story myth Story of Odysseus and the cyclops
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