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Personality Psychology Lecture Notes

by: Kaitlyn Kirkhart

Personality Psychology Lecture Notes 3316

Marketplace > Texas State University > Psychlogy > 3316 > Personality Psychology Lecture Notes
Kaitlyn Kirkhart
Texas State
GPA 3.3
Personality Psychology
Catherine Bitney

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About this Document

I took these notes in Dr. Bittney's class last semester. These notes really helped me study for the exams and I hope they can help you too!
Personality Psychology
Catherine Bitney
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This 114 page Bundle was uploaded by Kaitlyn Kirkhart on Sunday October 4, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 3316 at Texas State University taught by Catherine Bitney in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychlogy at Texas State University.


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Date Created: 10/04/15
Personality Psych Test 1 05162015 January 18 2014 Chapter 1 The Things Personality Psychologists Study Intro Psychological triad the combination how people think feel and behave o Overlap with clinical psychology 0 Normal vs extreme patterns of personality 0 Both attempt to understand the whole person 0 The whole person 0 How all other areas of psychology come together De nitions of personality 0 quotAn lndividuals characteristic patterns of thought emotion behavior together with the psychical mechanismshidden or not behind those pattersquot page 5 0 An individual s unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking feeling and behaving 0 Ex Think about people who show angry how they express it 0 Ex Telling your mom that you have a bad grade in a class How will she react You can probably guess The goals of personality psychology 0 Explain the whole person in his or her daily environment 0 Mission Impossible You re not always the same person a Ex If you didn t get a lot of sleep the night before and had a bad day you might not be the nicest person like you usually are n Ex You meet someone and you think you were going to be best friends but then you actually didn t like them at all a People are very complex so it s really hard to predict how someone is going to be 0 Ex Roommates ex boyfriends etc Basic Approaches to personality 0 5 basic approaches to personality 0 Also called paradigms o Paradigm a theoretical view of personality that focuses on some phenomena and ignores others 0 Ex Glasses and seeing clearly threw them 5 Basic approaches to personality 1 Trait approach how people differ psychologically 0 Ex Friendly aggressive violent shy 2 Biological approach understands the mind in the terms of the body 0 The way your genes are makes you are Ex You y off the handle because it s genetics 3 Psychoanalytic approach primary concern is with the unconscious mind internal mental con icts and early attachments 0 Behind the scenes stuff that drives you and you think why do I do that 0 There s another part of you that is warring with another part ofyou 0 Early relationships that have scared you 4 Phenomenological Approach focuses on conscious experience of the world 0 Human psychology how conscious awareness produces uniquely human attributes Ex How we change our behavior knowing that someone is recording this information for testing purposes 0 Crosscultural psychology how the experiences of reality varies across cultures There s not just one reality We all have our own reality Ex When you get into a ght with someone and they say something that they thought you said and it s not accurate at all 5 Learning approach how behavior changes as a result rewards punishments and life experiences 0 Think Rewards Classic behaviorism focus on overt behaviors n Ex Throwing a t for not being able to go out with your friends so your parents get tired of it and let you go This is teaching you that through a t works You got rewarded n Ex You re a friendly person maybe because your parents rewarded you for being friendly Cognitive approach n Ex doesn t want to do something because it might hurt your parents so you decide not to do it D Social learning learning through observation and selfevaluation Ex Watching a sibling do bad things so then you don t want to do it n Cognitive process focuses on perception memory and thought Basic Approaches Competitors or Complements Not mutually exclusive they address different questions 0 One Big Theory OBT it s dif cult to do everything well mfg i5 EMT new Hurdlequot If clones E f Th l39l g u rd ESy nit my r Ermtal39e ttin hail2 E i Elma5E3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Personality Psychology 0 Great strengths are usually great weaknesses and surprisingly often the opposite is true as wellquot Page 10 o This is why we have so many theories Because there s usually more than one theory 0 Also seen in individuals 0 What is something that you really like about your best friend Does this same characteristic ever cause problems Ex Your best friend has a huge heart but she gets walked all over by her boyfriends Ex Your best friend is extremely extraverted and they get super annoying Advantages and Disadvantages of Personality Psychology OBT Goal to account for the whole person and reallife concerns 0 Advantages inclusive interesting and important 0 Disadvantage over inclusiveness or unfocused research 0 Basic approaches or paradigms o Advantage good at addressing certain topics 0 Disadvantage poor at addressing other topics or ignore them Pigeonholing Versus Appreciation of Individual Differences Other areas of psychology treat all people as if they were the same 0 Personality psychologists emphasize individual differences 0 Negative pigeonholing 0 Positive leads to sensitivity and respect for individual differences and creatively Embracing otherness embracing myself 0 Thandie Newton Video January 26 2015 Chapter 2 Clue to Personality The Basic Sources of Data Intro 0 There are four ways to look atquot personally o BLIS behavior life information self We ll discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each type of data 0 We ll also discuss why it is important to collect as many types of data as possible Think About It 0 If you wanted to know all about the personality of the person sitting next to you what would you do 0 What s your namequot 0 Who are your friendsquot 0 Observe them Ex How they treat others Are you singlequot Manners What kinds of clothes they re wearing 0 Look up their criminal records 0 All of these has to do with what we re talking about 0 Behavior 0 Life 0 Information 0 Self Clues to Personality 0 Look at all parts of the psychological triad thoughts feelings behaviors 0 There are no perfect indicators of personality there are only clues and clues are always ambiguousquot o Funder s Second Law Page 21 o Psychologist s job 0 quotSomething beats nothingquot 0 Funder s Third Law page 23 You can t be 100 sure of someone s personality but something it better than nothing You don t want to just date someone without any information S Data SelfJudgments or SelfReports OOO SData a person s evaluation of his or her own personality 0 Usually questionnaires or surveys 0 Ex Do you drink a lot 0 Ex Do you smoke a lot of weed 0 Most frequent data source 0 High face validity o The degree to which an assessment instrument appears to measure what it is intended to measure Advantages of S Data 0 Based on large amount of information easy and cheap Access to thoughts feelings and intentions De nitional truth 0 What people think about themselves is considered true Casual force 0 Ef cacy expectations what you think you are capable of and the kind of person you think you are In uences your reality Ex If you believe you re a loser you re probably not to talk to an attractive person in class and try and pursue them This affects your future 0 Selfveri cation we work to convince others to treat us in a manner that con rms our selfconceptions Ex You think I m a loser then you won t be attractive to yourself This is why it s so hard to convince people that they are whatever kind of a person it s hard to convince them otherwise Ex If you think you re a socially graceful person then you feel like you need to go out and do things socially Disadvantages of S Data 0 Maybe people won t tell you 0 Ex If you cheat on a lot of your ex s you probably won t tell your new person you re dating 0 Maybe people can t tell you 0 Memory is limited and not perfect We can focus on one bad occasion of something that happened once and you label them as a mean person when they probably won t o Fishandwater effect Not noticing that you re doing anything abnormal n Ex Being friendly 0 Active distortion of memory Deleting something from your memory denial 0 Lack of selfinsight Ex Don t notice patterns of dating a bad person People don t really spend time thinking about it Ex Narcissus people who are puffed up aren t even aware that they coming off the way they are 0 Too simple and too easy 0 Asking someone a question and then he or she answer Straight forward I Data Informant Report 0 lData judgments by knowledgeable information s about general attributes of the individual s personality 0 Ex Our reputation o Acquaintance friends coworkers clinical psychologists bosses etc Ex Knowing people with their family Ex Writing a letter of recommendation is very informative what they think about you 0 Based on observing people in whatever context they know them from know them from 0 Used frequently in daily life Advantages of Data 0 Based on a large amount of information 0 Based on common sense about what behaviors mean and based on behaviors in the real world 0 Takes context into account Ex Asking your friend how you perform under pressure a A lot of family and friends know about this 0 More likely to be relevant to important outcomes De nitional truth 0 What other people think about you whatever someone says about you is true 0 What others think of you does matter Ex That s the person that comes into class and talks a lot I won t bump up their grade Causal force 0 Reputation affects opportunities and expectancies o Expectancy effectsbehavioral con rmation If everyone thinks you re a failure then you might actually believe that Ex New therapists vs Old therapists n Sometimes the newness is good because they know that they have an opportunity to change instead of the old therapist who know it s usually pretty hard to change people Disadvantages of Data LIKE GOSSIP Sometimes it s incorrect 0 Limited behavioral information 0 Lack of access to private experience 0 Error more likely to remember behaviors that are extreme unusual or emotionally arousing 0 Ex When your friend gets cut off in the car and they turn into a jerk o Bias due to personal issues or prejudices 0 Ex When one of your friends starts going for the same person and then you start acting different toward them 0 Ex If a person likes you and a boss asks them what are they like that person will have a bias with you because they re so infatuated with you LData Life Outcomes o LData veri able concrete reallife outcomes that may hold psychological signi cance 0 Obtained from archival records or selfreport o Advantest most objective and veri able of all data Psychological relevance Ex Speeding tickets all the time tells you about someone o Disadvantages May be dif cult to access May violate privacy Multidetermination many causes Ex Low credit report but it might because they are nical struggling Where you buy things is what is says about you n Ex Liquor stores porn stores Ex You re hospitalized once a year Ex GPA who s going to do well in college and who s not Multidetermination a lot of reasons for a lot of things you have done in the past a Ex You go to the hospital a lot because you get sinus infections all the time o The results or residue of personality BData Behavioral Data 0 BData information that is carefully and systematically recorded from direct observation 0 Ex Someone taking notes in class means that they are super studious and take classes seriously 0 The most visible indications of an individual s personality are what she doesquot Page 44 o What do your words say about your personality 0 Video we watched Ex A depressed person uses the word they re more selfcentered Ex A arrogant person uses the word you more because they re more belittling 0 Natural vs Laboratory BData o Lab s not very real world BData in Personality Testing 0 Personality Testing SData amp BData o BData uses to see howa person responds Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI Thematic Apperception Test TAT Rorschach lnkblot test Admitting to things that are you going on in your life 0 Physiological measure show biological behavior 0 Ex Have you ever stolen before 0 Ex Have you ever been mad at someone before Advantages and Disadvantages of BData 0 Advantages 0 Range of context in the lab Ex The lab temperature 0 Appearance of objectivity Less distortion and exaggeration High reliability and precise But subjective judgments must still be made 0 Disadvantage 0 We make uncertain interpretationbehaviors may not mean what we think they do Mixed types of Data 0 Data do not always t into only one category 0 There is a wide range of possible types of data 0 Each type has advantages and disadvantages No Foolproof Indicators of Personality 0 There are only clues and clues are always ambiguousquot Page 55 o Is important to collect more than one type 0 Consistent ndings increase con dence Discrepancies can be interesting and informative 0 There are only two kinds of data terrible data and no data 0 Funder s Fourth Law 0 We don t always have the best data we got to work with what we got Think About the Sources of In uence on Data llll more because o What are some aspects of personality that people are likely and unlikely to accurately and honestly report about themselves 0 False things on a resume o What in uences your best friends coworkers and mother s impressions of you 0 Having manors 0 Appearance 0 What in uences whether you will apply to graduate school Get a traf c tickets 0 Money 0 Grades 0 Drive o If you andor your family thinks you can 0 What in uences how long a child will wait to receive more MampMs o The reward 0 Their cognition January 28 2015 Chapter 3 Research Methods Scienti c education and technical training 0 Technical training 0 Conveys what is already known 0 Applies this knowledge 0 Ex Doctors 0 Scienti c education 0 Teaching and questioning what is already known Adding to the concepts and theory 0 Learning to explore the unknown 0 Research the exploration of the unknown 0 Ex Scientists Quality of Data Reliability 0 Reliability the tendency of a measurement instrument to get the same results from multiple testing 0 Measurement error Also called error variance The cumulative effect of extraneous in uences a We can never get a perfect measure 0 States versus traits State temporary Trait typical usual or average a Ex Someone who is very anxious all the time n Ex Someone who is only anxious only during your Personality Psych class Quality of Data Reliability Undermining Reliability 0 Low precision of measurement Ex Trying to observing someone you like but you re also on your phone 0 The state of the participant Ex Being sick 0 The state of the experimenter Ex The experimenter falling asleep 0 The environment Ex Temperature of the classroom 0 Enhancing reliability 0 Be careful Ex Don t text 0 Use a standardized procedure or protocol 0 Measuring something important Not a good Ex Asking someone if they love paper clips on a scale from 1 to 10 It might change a week later because of your mood Vs Better Ex Asking someone about a famous movie star who they think is hot Overtime it will probably be more of the same 0 Use aggregation Meaning the average Ex Checking to see how often you make your bed If it happens a lot then they are probably a very clean person If you think of depression you might want to ask someone different questions to see what kind of depression to you have n Ex Do you cry a lot a Ex Have you gained or lost weight n Ex How are you sleeping Quality of Data Validity o Validity degree to which a measurement actually re ects what one thinks or hopes it does 0 Just because something is reliable doesn t mean it s valid 0 A slippery concept Reliability is necessary but not suf cient for validity lnvokes the idea of ultimate truthquot Assessing personality is similar to testing a theory 0 Construct a complex psychological concept 0 Ex What makes you more intelligence than others Alethic is not measured in IQ tests Neither is music Quality of Data Generalizability Generalizability the degree to which a measurement or result of an experiment applies to other tests situations or people less quot less similar imillr less Slll39lll l39 Western educated industrialized rich and democratic 0 Much of this research is done on these tiny little places and then it counts for the rest of the world What about all of the other races Time Setting 0 Ex Some people might do well in a lab setting compared to in the classroom o It needs to be very diverse O OO Research Design Case Study Method 0 Case Study closely studying a particular event or person of interest in order to nd out as much as possible 0 Often uses introspection an examination one s own conscious thoughtsfeelings Can yield explanations of particular events general lessons and scienti c principles 0 Case studies of ourselves might even help us understand others better 0 Ex We want to nd out more about tattoos and how it depends on if people hire you based on if you have them or not Research Design Case Study Method 0 Advantages o Describes the whole phenomenon 0 Source for ideas and generating theories 0 Sometimes necessary for understanding an individual Disadvantages o No control group to compare 0 Findings must be con rmed by other cases which is not usually possible Ex You can t damage people s brain in order to nd out information you need to wait hahah Research Design Experimental Method 0 Experimental a research technique that establishes the causal relationship between an independent variable x and a dependent variable y by randomly assigning participants to experimental groups characterized by differing levels of x and measuring the average behavior y that results in each group 0 Test differences between groups with statistical tests to determine if the difference is larger than would be expect by chance 0 Something is being manipulated something is being changed Research Design Correlational Method Correlational a research technique that establishes the relationship between two variables by measuring both variables in a sample of participants Scatter plot 0 Correlation coef cient 0 Measures strength amp direction of the relationship Positive vs Negative 10 to 10 0 Ex How do you perform on tests with high anxiety They don t make them anxious they just test if they are anxious If someone has trait anxiety then they will also have state anxiety 0 Basically Measuring two things and plotting it Comparing the experimental and correlational methods 0 Both assess relationship between two variables 0 Ex We can t make people fall off their bikes in order to prove a point 0 Experimental method manipulates causal variable correlational method just measures it Complications with experimental method 0 Uncertainty about what was really manipulated Thirdvariable problem 0 Often requires deception 0 Not always possible 0 Only experiments can assess causality however they are not always better Research Design Representative Design Frequent concern representativeness of participants 0 Will this nding apply to other people 0 Less frequent but important concerns 0 Representativeness across stimuli What if we induce anxiety in another way 0 Representativeness across responses What if different types of performance are assessed Research Design Representative design 0 Solution use a representative design 0 Sampling across the domains to which you wish to generalize o Seldom done because it is expensive and timeconsuming Signi cance Testing 0 Statistical Signi cance a result that would only occur by chance less than 5 of the time Elevel probability level of obtaining a result from a statistical test if there really is no defense between groups or no relationship between variables ex p lt 005 o Elevel if lt005 then ndings are signi cant we ve measured something Correlations and Effect sizes 0 Effect size an index of the strength of the relationship between the variables 0 More meaningful than the signi cance 0 level 0 Correlation coef cient 0 Can be used for correlational and experimental studies Pearson s r 0 Between 1 and 1 o 0 no relationship 0 Positive and negative correlation 0 Ex The more you drunk the more you irt 0 Ex As you get drunk you inabilities goes down 0 Steeper the slope stronger the correlations 0 Draw a graph on the test if you need to Research Ethics 0 The uses of psychological research 0 Make sure it is not harmful or at least that the potential harm does not outweigh the potential good Ex Making kids fall off their bikes without a hamlet o Truthfulness 0 Avoid plagiarism and fabrication of data 0 These undermine the foundation of science 0 Review by the Institutional Review Board IRB or Human Subjects Committee HSC o APA guidelines February 2 2015 Chapter 4 Personality Traits Situations and Behavior Think About It 0 Ex Jordan is prepared for class and keeps up with the readings She enjoys studding wit others students before exams She wants to pursue graduate school 0 What behaviors of this person could be predicted from this description Maybe she has a lot of friends Makes good grades Will graduate college Organized Has a clean room Extraverted Two Points to Keep In Mind 0 1 Trait approach is based on empirical research 0 Trait examples friendly angry shy annoying etc 0 Mostly correlational o Emphasis on accurate measurement of traits Ex Someone who is more likely to make their bed is more likely to graduate college 0 Traits should be able to predict behavior 0 2 Trait approach focus on individual differences 0 Strength assesses and attempts to understand how people differ Ex We were all born with different upbringings different brains o Weakness neglects aspects of personality common to all people and how each person is unique The Measurement of individual Differences 0 Every man is certain respects a like all other men b like some other men c like no other manquot Kuckhohn amp Murray 1961 0 Some properties and processes are universal 0 Some properties differ but allow for grouping 0 Each individual is unique 0 Trait approach focuses on the second level Traits are the building blocks of personality The PersonSituation Debate 0 Which is more important for determining what people do the person or the situation 0 They depend 0 Michel 1968 believes behavior is too inconsistent across situations for individual differences to be characterized by traits 0 Think back to the example ofJordan 0 Ex If she got into a brain injury and then she can t learn as much as she could 0 Ex What if she goes to class and she can t nd anyone to study with Will this change her grade in the class 1 Does the personality of an individual transcend the immediate situation and provide a consistent guide to hisher actions or is what a person does utterly depend on the situation at that time 2 Are common ordinary intuitions about people fundamentally awed or basically correct o It really is all about the situation 3 If the situations are correct and personality is not consistent then there is no reason to study traits amp personality because they do not exist 0 People are inconsistent but situations are more stable 0 Therefore personality psychs are kind of going on the wrong path The First Situations Argument Predictability Situations believe there is an upper limit to how well one can predict what a person will do based on any measurement of that person s personality and this upper limit is low Mischel looked at relationships of self informant and behavioral data 0 Correlations rarely exceeded 30 0 Another researcher found it to be 40 Only 16 of why you did what you did was your personality which is not very much when you think about it Response Predictability Unfair selective literature review by Mischel 0 Studies with poor methodology 0 We can do better 0 The 40 limit may be due to poor methodology 0 Get out of the laboratory 0 Focus on behavioral trends average data 0 A correlation of 40 is not small 0 Preseason s F 40 70 accuracy 0 Comparison to a relative standard how well situations predict behavior The Second Situations Argument Situations They believe stations are more important than personality traits in determining behavior 0 Determining how personality vs situation in uences behavior o If personality explained only 16 of variance people assumed that the other 84 was by default form the situation F 04 16 variance 100 behavior 16 personality trait 84 situation Response Situationalism Not legitimate could be due to other personality traits How the effects of situations on behavior should be determined 0 Based on social psychology experiments 0 Convert statistical signi cance tests to effect sizes 0 Funder amp Ozer 1983 situational effects sizes 36 to 42 0 Ex If you re in a hurry to class you re less likely to help someone who drops all of their papers on the ground Conclusions 0 Both personality and situations are important determinants of behavior 0 Personality situation behavior The Third Situations Argument People s Perceptions are Erroneous Mischel believes the professional practice of personality assessment is a waste of time that everyday intuitions about people are fundamentally awed 0 Responses 0 The effects of personality on behavior are large enough to be perceived accurately o The importance of traits is re ected in our language Personality and life 0 Personality is important on more than just theoretical groundsquot page 127 0 Personality effects and predicts important life outcomes 0 Overtime how a person acts will add up Persons and situations 0 Personality traits are better for describing how people act in generalquot page 129 0 We can use Personality to understand relationships jobs and business 0 Useful information number of friends level of agreement with them and the extent to which people have successful and nonabusive relationships Ex Nazis were very agreeable because their boss told them to lockJews in a gas chamber and kill them 0 How many people will promote the goals of the organization for which they work citizenship A person who has good citizenship might really get involved in the company a Ex Wearing a Dell sweatshirt Dell mug etc We want this We want people to invest in a company 0 CEOs borrowing money for companies and personal homes Research shows that people s personalities don t really change that much People do bring their personalities into their work Persons and Situations 0 Personality ll situation behavior 0 lnteractionism view that persons and situations are constantly interacting with each other to produce behavior 0 The effect of a personality variable may depend on the situation or vice versa 0 Certain types of people go to or nd themselves in different types of situation 0 People change the situation that they are in 0 Example Stanford Prison Experiment Persons and Situations 0 Resolution of the personsituation debate 0 People maintain their personalities even as they adapt their behavior to particular situationquot page 133 0 People can exibly adapt to situations and have a generally consistent personal style 0 Conclusions People are psychologically different and these differences matters February 4 2015 Chapter 5 Personality Testing and its Consequences The Nature of Personality Assessment 0 Now restricted to just psychologists o HoW did you decide Whom to have as a roommate o HoW did you decide Which freetime activities to do o How do you decide Whom to marry or What career to pursue Oftentimes these are more important than those made by psychologists because the consequences of them are more important 0 No one really teaches us how to accurately understand people The Nature of personality Assessment 0 Most important to know degree to which the judgment or test is right or wrong 0 How valid are he professional judgments or tests 0 How accurate are amateur judgments 0 Two basic criteria 0 Agreement Ex You might get Personality Psyches and have them analyze someone and have them say someone is friendly 0 Behavioral Prediction Ex Someone checking to see if you re friendly and conducting tests to see if this is true or not If we can predict their behavior you can maybe see what kind a person they are Personality Tests 0 Used by psychologists corporations and the military 0 Ex You don t want someone who is in sales to be very introverted and shy 0 Ex The military tests to see your stress level This helps because it is very stressful during war 0 Omnibus inventories vs one trait measures 0 Omnibus inventories measuring lots of traits Ex MMPI o Trait Measures measures one trait 0 Most test provide 5 data 0 Some tests provide B data also known as performance based instruments 0 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI 0 Personality Assessment Inventory PAI o Implicit Association Test IAT 0 Intelligence Tests IQ Tests It measures your behavior and your intelligence n Ex Some people get frustrated when taking a test and asking for reassurance This is B data and the psychologist testing you will probably record this Implicit Association Test IAT 0 Theory people who implicitly or unconsciously know they have a certain trait will respond faster when the trait is paired with quotmequot o How we sort categories 0 Unconscious basis 0 Measuring one thing at a time Ex Measuring if you think males or females are better with just one question 0 Ex You think you re a friendly person and the word friendly comes up you might associate yourself with that 0 Ex quotWhite good black badquot MMPl2 o The MMPl2 is the most widely used and widely researched test to assess individuals with psychological disorders 0 Used by clinicians to assist with the diagnosis of mental disorders and the selection of appropriate treatment methods 0 338 Questions TrueFalse Scores greater than 65 are considered to be high scores MMPl2 L amp F Scale 0 L Scale provides opportunity to deny various minorcommon faults and character aws 0 Ex Once in a while think about things to bad to talk aboutquot True 0 Ex quotAt times feel like swearingquot True 0 Ex quotI do not always tell the truthquot True 0 F scale items answered infrequently by the normative samples 0 Ex quotEvil spirits possess me at timesquot False 0 Ex quotMy soul sometimes leaves my bodyquot False 0 Ex I am not afraid to handle moneyquot False Personality Tests Projective Tests 0 Projective Test a test that presents a person with an ambiguous stimulus and asks him or her to describe what is seen 0 The person may or many not be aware of the inner processes 0 Answers are thought to reveal inner psychosocial states motivations needs feelings experiences or thought processes 0 B data amp used by clinical psychologists 0 Ex Ink blot DrawAPerson test Thematic Apperception Test TAT Thematic Apperception Test TAT The TAT is a projective personality measure designed to evaluate an individual s dominate drives emotions sentiments complexes and con icts The individual is asked to create a story for each of set of pictures that portray human gures in a variety of settings and situations 0 This will help you show how you see peopleportray them Picture test 0 All my opinion 0 Beginning Married couple husband thinks she s having an affair 0 Middle Wife gets caught and husband is upset 0 End They split up Example summary of TAT K s responses to the TAT reveal she has a low selfesteem and appears to perceives herself as vulnerable victimized and longing for friendship 0 Ex One story featured a young girl who was being chased by a male gure and a man in another story loses ve girlfriends because a strange man with a gun murders them 0 She generally described violent and con ictual relationships with others though these con icts typically get resolved due to regret and forgiveness 0 Ex Several stories result in the characters being happy by the end reunited with friends and being together in heaven after dying Although K s responses were typical structured they were unrealistic irrational unconventional and incomplete Rorschach Psychological test in which subjects perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation complex algorithms or both 0 Some psychologists use this test to examine a person s personality characteristics and emotional functioning It has been used to detect underlying thought disorders especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly 0 Use this test for all kinds of disorders Ex Personality disorder lnkblot example 0 What I see 0 A spider o It is more common to see a star 0 The more you don t see what other people see they might consider you unconventional Perceptions of Reality 0 Unusual form low frequency response in which basic contours involved are appropriate 0 Uncommon answers that re seen quickly amp easily by observer 0 When the proportion of unusual responses exceeds 25 questions must be raised about tendencies to be overly individualistic andor orientations to deliberately disregard conventional or socially expected behaviors Distorted Perceptions o Distorted Form answers represented a disregard for distortion of reality 0 Answer is imposed on the blot with total or near total disregard for the contours of the area used 0 Lines or contours will be created where none exist 0 When many occur they indicate a signi cant cognitive dysfunction that can be caused by a variety of serious psychological or neurologically related problems Personality Test Projective Test 0 Disadvantages Validity evidence is scares o Expensive and timeconsuming o A psychologist cannot be sure about what the results mean 0 Can be interpreted differently by another psychologists Can be very subjective You need a lot of skill to actually do this 0 Other less expensive tests work as well or better especially for individuals with less severe psychopathology It is very unique and does a lot of things that other tests won t do Ex Just asking a person if they are depressed or if they have anxiety might just be better than taking the time and money to formulate this test Personality Tests Projective Tests 0 Advantages 0 Good for breaking the ice Ex You would want to start out with a more fun test rst and not math It might throw someone off Some evidence of validity 0 Some skilled clinicians may be able to sue them to get information not captured in other types of tests 0 Good for getting at unconscious or hidden processes 0 O How does a person see the world How conventional are their interpretations What scripts have they internalized about interpersonal relationships February 9 2015 Personality Tests Objective Tests 0 Objective Tests a personality test that consists of a list of questions to be answered by the subject as true or false or on a numeric scale o It seems more objective and less open to interpretation yet are still not absolutely objective 0 Why so many items The principle of aggregation 0 Ex What do you think about the word sophisticated People have very different meanings of sophisticated 0 Ex What do you think about the reserved I m really shy You think before you speak Methods of Objective Test Construction Rational o Rational Test write items that seem directly obviously and rationally related to what is to be measured 0 Based on a theory or sometimes less systematic Provides S data Most common method of test construction People are likely to understand what you re getting at Ex A test to measure relationship quality Types of questions a Are you faithful a Are you sel ess a Can you compromise a Are you emotionally unstable The nal result will show you if you will be considered good in a relationship Methods of Objective Test Construction Rational Four conditions for validity 1 Items mean the same thing to the test taker and creator 2 Person is capable of accurate selfassessment 3 Person has a willingness to make an accurate and undistorted report 4 Items must be valid indicators of the construct Methods of Objective Test Construction Factor Analytic 0 Factor Analytic Test identify which items group together by using the statically technique of factor analysis 0 Steps for using this method 0000 Generate a long list of objective itemsquestions Administer these items to a large number of people Analyze with a factor analysis Consider what the items that group together have in common and name the factor 0 Ex The Big 5 Test 0 What do these items have in common 1 In most ways my life is close to my ideal 2 The conditions of my life are excellent 3 I am satis ed with m life 4 So far I have gotten the important things I want in my life 5 lfl could live my life over I would change almost nothing Methods of Objective Test Construction Factor Analytic Limitations 0 The quality of information from the factor analysis is limited by the quality of items 0 Dif culty and subjectivity of deciding how items are conceptually related 0 Factors don t always make sense 0 Utility 0 Reduce list of traits to an essential few 0 Re ne personality test Methods of Objective Test Construction Empirical Empirical Test identify times based on how people in pre identi ed groups respond 0 Steps for using this method 1 Gather lots of items 2 Administer items to people already divided into groups 3 Compare the answers of the different groups 4 Crossvalidation 0 Not based on theory ignore item content 0 Implications of ignoring item contentlow face validity Items can seem contrary or absurd Responses are dif cult to fake Tests are only as good as the criteria by which they are developed andor crossvalidated thi i Can cause problems with public relations or the law a Content validity low 0 Ex quotI like craw sh on Fridaysquot This can be crazy or not but you don t really know what you re measuring So it needs to be measured Methods of Objective Test Construction 0 A combination of methods of best 0 Generate items with rational method analyze responses with factor analysis correlate factors with independent criteria Jackson s Personality Research Form PRF 0 Assessment of normal adult personality 0 Useful for personnel selection and in counseling settings Purposes of Personality Testing 0 It s important to know how test will be used 0 Learning about people 0 Ex Researcher Helping people 0 Ex Schools career counselors clinicians Assessment for selection or retention 0 Ex Employers Central Intelligence Agency Hiring Decisions 0 Would you prefer that the decision about whether you should be hired for a job be based on a personality test score or the employer s subjective judgment of you Q o 50 questions multiple choice 0 No cell phones 0 When it comes to questions during the test Dr Bitney can only 5 of questions 0 But she will answer questions about how the question is being asked 0 You should know the abbreviations of the tests February 16 2015 Chapter 6 Personality judgment in Daily Life Think About It 0 What is your reputation How does it affect you 0 Determines what kind ofjob you get 0 The kind of people who want to date you 0 When people hear about your reputation it does effect what they think about you 0 Do you wish your reputation could be different How might you change your reputation 0 Think of a time when you made a personality judgment about someone that turned out to be wrong What was the cause of your mistake 0 You didn t know the situation ahead of time Consequences of Everyday Judgments of Personality Opportunities 0 Employment friendships dating Ex Shyness selfassuredness o Expectancies 0 Intellectual expectancy effects Child bloomers Rosenthal ampJacobson 1968 climate feedback input output El El El El One group of teachers had kids and told them they were going to be awful Another group of teachers had kids that were told they were going to be super smart This caused the kids who were going to be super smart turned out to be smarter than the other kids even thought they were randomly selected so they didn t know their IQ The bias this caused what the warmness in communication raising the bar encouraging them and giving them another opportunity to answer more questions 0 Social expectancy effects Snyder Tanke amp Berscheid 1977 selfful lling prophecy El Had people split up into two groups 0 One group was told that they were going to be talking to attractive people on the phone 0 The other group was not told this 0 They had a bias toward the people that were thought as attractive They treated them better Consequences of Everyday Judgments of Personality o Expectancy effects in real life 0 Where do expectancies generally come from o Expectancies are likely to be correct So they magnify or maintain behavioral tendencies 0 Especially strong when held by more than one important person for a long period of time Ex If you view someone who is mentally crazy trying to act sane you re still going to view them as crazy Ex What if everyone you know doesn t think you re lazy but your mom and dad thinks you re lazy then it effects you because no matter how hard you try they might still think you re lazy The Accuracy of Personality Judgment o What criteria can be used to assess accuracy 0 Answer from constructivists None Philosophical view that reality as a concrete entity does not exist and only ideas or constructions of reality exist Personality is social construction 0 Answer from critical realists use all information that might be helpful Philosophical view that the absence of perfect infallible criteria for truth does not imply that all interpretation of reality are equally valid Criteria for Accurately Judging Personality Same as that for assessing the validity of test 0 Convergent validation the process of assembling diverse pieces of information that converge on a common conclusion 0 The duck test If it walks like a duck looks like a duck and quacks like a duck then it s a duck Ex This goes along with if you re out late never home and known to be irty you might say that person is cheaUng Ex Jobs ask for three recommendations for a reason They are judges for you 0 lnterjudge agreement Ex You think someone is cheating and you nd out they are this shows you re on to something 0 Behavioral prediction Shanking a person s hand assignment a The higher the score you got on a scale from 15 shows if you were an introvert being 1 and an extravert being 5 o I got 0 2 o 2 o 4 0 Therefore only one of my scores shows that I m an extravert First Impressions 0 Makeup 0 Video we watched that women who wear more or a lot of makeup come off as more attractive but also down in trustworthiness o Extraversion fashionable stylish hair loud voice Openness variety of reading material 0 Ex If you go to someone who are very open and they have a lot of different books Conscientiousness neatness of bedroom 0 Musical preferences 0 Complex music inventive imaginative tolerant and liberal o Aggressive amp Intense Music curious risktaking and physically attractive We see these qualities come out when you go threw people s stuff 0 Firmness of Handshakes positively relate to extraversion and emotionally expressiveness negatively related to shyness and anxiety First Impressions 0 Mostly automatic 0 Some validity based on looking at the face 0 Extraversion conscientiousness and openness to experiences 0 Dominant vs submissive and sexual orientation 0 Male vs Female faces Low vs high agreeableness and extraversion and conscientiousness Moderators of Accuracy 0 Moderators variables that change the correlation between a judgment and its criterion 0 Someone with high social support and a lot of stress might not be as depressed because they have that support 0 4 moderators that in uences accuracy 1Judge 2 Target 3 Trait 4 Information Moderators of Accuracy Judge 0 The good judge high in sharing thoughts amp feelings judges other favorably is agreeable and adjusted attributionally complex open positive expressive and socially skilled 0 Most accurate male judges tend to be extraverted well adjusted and unconcerned with what others think of them 0 Most accurate female judges tend to be open to new experiences have a wide range of interests and value independence Moderators of Accuracy Target 0 The good target a stable and wellorganized psychologically we adjusted extraverted and agreeable 0 Being high in judgeability is related to psychological health and happiness Moderators of Accuracy Trait o The good trait is easy to observe amp highly visible 0 Ex Talkative vs pensive apprehensive deep thought It s easier to put on trait on someone who is talkative because you can see them talking 0 Possible evolutionary basis forjudging some traits easily in order to procreate and pass and genes Sociosexuality the willingness to engage in sexual relations with minimal acquaintance with or commitment to and from one s partner a Called promiscuity these days Moderators of Accuracy Info 0 Good information quantity or amount 0 The acquaintanceship effect 0 Good information quality 0 Weak vs strong situations 0 Stressful or emotionally arousing situations 0 Best situation one that brings out the trait you want to judge 0 Thoughts and feelings vs daily activates o Unstructured vs structured situations The Realistic Accuracy Mode RAM 0 One explanation for how accurate judgment is possible 0 Relevance 0 Availability Ex You re measuring in if someone is trustworthy and they re only trustworthy when you re not around 0 Detection Ex Wondering if someone likes you but they re texting you all the time and leaving you chocolate 0 Utilization Implications of RAM Accurate personality judgment is dif cult o All four stages of RAM must be successful 0 Moderators of accuracy must be the result of something that happens at one or more of these four stages 0 Accuracy can be improved in four ways 0 By improving each stage of RAM February 18 2015 Chapter 7 Using Personality Traits to Understand Behavior The SingleTrait Approach 0 What do people with a certain personality trait do 0 Examine correlations between one trait and many behaviors Ex Friendly shy The SingleTrait Approach Conscientiousness careful amp vigilant about tasks and interested in doing things well 0 Integrity tests used to select employees 0 Can measure responsibility longterm job commitment consistency moral reasoning etc Predicts job performance and absenteeism o Predicts success in college 0 Better than SAT and high school GPA Ex Might come to class Ex Might study 0 Might explain motivation in general 0 They want to see that extra step that you work hard 0 Predicts longer life expectancy 0 Less likely to do risky behaviors 0 They think about things instead ofjust jumping into things 0 Positively correlated with years of schooling 0 The more school you have the higher your conscientious The SingleTrait Approach 0 Selfmonitoring the degree to which our inner and outer selves and behaviors are the same or different across situations 0 It s not necessarily better to be high or low 0 Actors scored high in psychiatric patients scored low 0 Correlates with several behaviors High selfmonitors correlated with better performance in job interview and willingness to lie to get a date The ManyTrait Approach 0 Who does an important behavior 0 Examines correlations between one behaviors and many traits backwards California QSet o 100 personality descriptions 0 Sort into a forced choice symmetrical and normal distribution 0 Compare to characteristics within an individual The ManyTrait Approach 0 Delay of gratification denying oneself immediate pleasure for long term gain 0 Ex Watching the video of the children told that they can t have a marshmallow for 15 minutes and if they do they get a second marshmallow o Necessary for achieving many important important goals High delay of gratification planners 0 Sex similarities and differences ln girls and boys in order to meet delay of grati cation n Guys have to be shy anxious n Girls have to be intelligent o Ego control selfcontrol or inhibition Ex Children inhibiting their control to eat the marshmallow o Ego resiliency psychological adjustment The ManyTrait Approach 0 Drug abuse 0 Use at age 14 can be predicted by restless being digit and emotionally instability 10 years earlier at age 4 0 Depression 0 Risk factors for women include over control and being shy and reserved 0 Risk factors for men include under control and being socialized and aggressive Political orientation 0 Kids who were raised conservative are going to be more stressed out and don t handle stress well 0 Kids who were raised liberal were opposite Authoritarianism 0 Turning one s power over to something and not asking ques ons Ex Army 0 People who like this style of living tend to be more anxious as a kid The EssentialTrait Approach 0 Which traits are most important Which traits really matter 0 The Big Five are the most important usually 0 Factor analytic approaches to reducing the many to a few 0 Eysenck Tellegen amp Cattell 0 Discovery the Big Five 0 Lexical hypothesis If someone is truly important and universal there will be many words for it in all languages Ex Escamos have a lot of words for the word snow because there s so many different types of snow The EssentialTrait Approach The Big Five and Beyond 0 Implications of the Big Five 0 Traits are unrelated to each other 0 Can bring order to many research ndings 0 More complex than they seem at rst Some traits are related to each other Highorder factors a Even though there are ve things it s mostly grouped into two things a Five things to bracket and then go into three things Lowerorder factors a From the Big Five there are six facets that break it down even more 0 Ex Extraversion warmth gregariousness assertiveness active excitement seeking and positive emotion Labels are oversimpli ed and potentially misleading The Big Five 0 Extraversion social outgoing active outspoken dominate adventurous 0 Higher status rated as more popular and psychically attractive more positive emotions 0 Drink more alcohol higher risk of being overweight mate poaching Mate poaching an extravert is likely to steal someone away from someone who is already in an relationship lol 0 Sensitive to reward and positive emotions 0 Life outcomeshappy grateful long life healthy successful relationships etc The Big Five Agreeableness conformity friendly compliance likeability warmth o Cooperative and easy to get along with 0 Smoke less 0 Women tend to be higher than men 0 Among children related to less vulnerability of being bullied 0 Life outcomes psychologically well adjusted healthy heart dating satisfaction People like dating them because they agree to everything They don t have heart problems because they don t have anything to be stressed about because they agree with everything The Big Five Neuroticism emotional instability negative emotionality o Ineffective problem solving strong negative reactions to stress 0 Sensitive to social threats anxious and stressed Social threats you don t trust people people are out to getyou o Negatively correlated with happiness wellbeing and physical heath General tendency toward psychopathology 0 Life outcomes problems in family relationships dissatis ed with jobs criminal behavior Usually have a hard time being grateful More likely to be depressed O The Big Five Openness to experience 0 Open approach to intellectual matters 0 Prefers symbolsabstract over concretelogical o Prefers complex ambiguous subtle over simple 0 Value of cultural matters 0 Creativity and perceptiveness Most controversial trait o More likely to believe in UFOs astrology and ghosts Life outcomes drug use artistic interest 0 Someone who is high in this might have a little bit of schizophrenia The EssentialTrait Approach The Big Five and Beyond Universality of the Big Five 0 When translated to other languages four or ve of the factors appear 0 When starting with other languages some overlap but no onetoone correspondence 0 Scores vary by geographic region 0 Criticisms 0 Some factors correlate 0 Too simplistic selfreport bias 0 Not based on theory Typological Approach to Personality M the study or systematic classi cation of types that have characteristics or traits in common 0 Ex Soccer mom blonde t drives a minivan stickers on the back of their car 0 Ex Someone in the army male t short hair serious 0 Three replicable types 0 Well adjusted maladjusted over controlling maladjusted under controlling 0 But types do not predict behavior beyond what can be predicted with individual trait scores Girls are over controlling most of the time where as boys are less controlling Personality Development Over a Life Span Personality development personality changes over time including from infancy and childhood and adulthood Combination of genetic factors and early experience Nature AND Nurture 0 Strong tendency to maintain individual differences throughout life in comparisons to others 0 Rainorder consistency Ex The most extraverted person in the class and 20 years later you re still extremely extraverted There s a consistency Personality Development Over the Life Span 0 Stability increases with age 0 31 in childhood 54 during college and 74 between ages 50 and 70 0 Cumulative continuity principle personality traits become more consistent with age 0 Psychological maturation might also in uence stability 0 Also evidence of mean level change over time 0 Most change occurs in young adulthood When we get older we ll get more agreeable and predictable 0 May be based on changing social roles February 23 2015 Chapter 8 The Anatomy and Physiology of Personality Two Aspects of the Brain that Can be Examined with Technology 0 Anatomy functions of parts of brain 0 Biochemistry effects of neurotransmitters and hormones on brain processes 0 Both are related to personality and behavior Research Methods for Studying the Brain 0 Brain Damage 0 Phineas Gage o Lesions Parts of the brain that might get cut or damaged 0 Brain stimulating 0 Mostly animals but also people while conscious Leucotomy and Lobotomy 0 Old ways of effecting the brain by surgery 0 Help someone with mental health problems 0 Ex If you cut something out of someone s brain it might have bad effects Research Methods for Studying the Brain 0 Brain activity and imaging 0 Used to observe functioning directly 0 Detect when the brain is working Electroencephalography EEG MagnetoencephalographyMEG Research Methods for Study the Brain 0 Brain activity and imaging Localization o Detect what parts of the brain are working CT scans Positron emission tomography PET n Radioactive concentration in the blood stream and see where it goes to your brain This shows where the brain is working really hard Fictional Magnetic Resistance Imaging fMRl Ascending Reticular Activating System ARAS Connected to cerebral cortex and rest of brain 0 Regulation of balance between arousal and calming by allowing information into the brain 0 Believed to be the basis for the distinction between extraversion and introversion Extraverts need the stimulation of others around not enough Introverts already have the stimulation has enough 0 Supporting evidence lemon juice test Introverts showed a strong reaction to the lemon test enough stimulation a More likely to wear sunglasses a Not like loud noises Extraverts showed that they can take more 0 More recent research is contradictory Different parts of the brain can show different levels of arousal so the ARAS does not control everything The Amygdala 0 Basically how you react 0 Links perceptions and thoughts with emotional meaning 0 Role is assessing whether a stimulus is threatening or rewarding 0 Relevant traits anxiety fearfulness aggression sociability sexuality optimism Relevant for motivation o Whitman murders at University of Texas in 1966 Man who shot a bunch of people near the tower He had a tumor in his brain When they looked back at his journal he didn t know why he wanted to shoot all these people but the tumor is probably why he did what he did Frontal Lobe and Neocortex o Frontal Lobe higher cognitive functions social understanding abstraction consciousness problem solving selfcontrol cooperation negative emotions 0 Can lead to substance abuse o Hemispheres 0 Pleasant emotional left and unpleasant emotions right 0 Approach left and withdrawal right 0 Inhibition of reactions to unpleasant stimuli left More depression indifference not caring about things 0 Brain asymmetry the degree to which the two sides of the brain respond differently may be an individual differences associated with emotional sensitivity Front Lobes and Neocortex o Somatic marker hypothesis idea that the bodily or somatic emotional component of thought is necessary part of problem solving and decision making 0 Ex Not knowing why you don t like this person and why you don t want to date them but you just have this feeling like you shouldn t Cognition and emotion 0 Both are needed for each to function fully head and the heart The Anterior Cingulate 1 Important for experiencing emotion o Anterior Cingulate inhibits excitement of amygdala Implications for extraversion and neuroticism o Stronger response to positive and neutral words among extravert than introverts Ex Drink and doing drugs So why does one person get addicted one doesn t I The one person s brain might respond differently o More activity among neurotics when a stimuli did not match an expectation Mismatches may trigger native emotions associate with neuroticism Brain Systems 0 Nearly everything in the brain is connected to everything elsequot Page 269 Neural context effect it s important to look at more than one area of the brain to understand complex process Persistence requires two areas of frontal cortex and part of the striatum 0 There are brain reasons why someone might be considered persistent or not Communications Among Neurons quot l1 a r 7 a L L Neure A f trenemiittere l 1 en eleetheel limeulee eeueee heurehe 39 1 a t releeee neuretrenemitter ehernieelle ilnte the eyneee the gap between ene l heureri end the next The naeuretreinernittere flit inte reeeptere eeeeielit r eheieedl meleeelee en the neighher ilngi neul en The preeehee let the rheertrenemittere in the 39reeepter premetee er iinhihte the trenentieeien et39 en eleethieel iih39IeMIee dewn the lEl gth the neuren tewere the next eynepee in the eheiit o 2 There are lots of neurotransmitter medications now to tweak how much your body wants to pull those in around you Neurotransmitters Dopamine o Involved in responding to rewards and approaching attractive objects and people 0 Related to sociability general activity level and novelty seeking o Rewardde ciency syndrome related to problems with processing dopamine Results in Alcoholism drug abuse smoking compulsive overeating attention de cit disorder ADD pathological gambling 0 Ex Someone with high mania will most likely have high dopamine Serotonin 0 Role in inhibition of behavioral impulses particularly emotional impulses Serotonin depletion syndrome low Serotonin 0 Dangerous criminals arsonists and violent suicidal individuals 0 Irrational anger hypersensitivity to rejection chronic pessimism obsessive worry and fear of risk taking Prozac a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI 0 Physical effect increases serotonin levels 0 Psychological effects controversial Involves so many things that we do 0 Ex Sleep behavior 0 When you use the medicine to help you with this it might effect different parts of the body differently Hormones Hormone a biological chemical that affect the body in a location differently from where the chemical is produced Epinephrine AKA adrenaline and norepinephrine 0 Released in spend to stress create the ghtor ight response Can cause problems if too easily triggered 0 Can lead to anxiety amp neuroticism Oxytocin Females might respond differently to stress but men have it too 0 Tendandbefriend 0 Importance of hormone oxytocin o Fightor ight to tendandbefriend are only the initial response to stress 0 Used in mother and child bonding usually released when the mother rst gives birth 0 Has multiple jobs 0 Relaxation 0 Not enough can in uence a person s personality Testosterone About 10 times higher concentration in men than in women Link with aggression is complex Role in control and inhibition of aggression and sexuality Related to many other behaviors 0 Men sociability selfacceptance dominance frustration when things don t get done sexual experience 0 Women unprovoked violent crime sexual interest and desire sociability impulsivity lower inhibition and conformity 0 Unknown causal direction Cortisol Relapsed in response to stress to prepare body for action Chronically high levels in people with severe stress anxiety and depression 0 Pregnant women who are stressed a lot may have their baby s be stressed too because they are swimming around in the cortisol while developing 0 It s good to keep a schedule because it helps you prioritize things 0 Low levels related to posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD and sensation seeking 0 Not a horrible thing at all Too little stress is likely to seek out new things which can be bad Biology Cause and Effect 0 Understanding the brain can help us understand behavior but understanding behavior can also help us understand the brain 0 Brain Disorders towards a new understanding of mental illness February 25 2015 Chapter 9 The inheritance of Personality Behavioral Genetics and Evolutionary Theory Behavioral Genetics 0 Explains how personality traits are passed form parent to child and shared by biological relatives 0 Examines how genes in uence broad patterns of behavior or personality Behavioral Genetics Calculating Heritability s Examine how phenotypes may be attributed to variation in genotypes 0 Compare similarity in personality between people who are and are not related and people who are related to different degrees 0 Monozygotic MZ vs Dizygotic DZ twins 0 Assumption traits and behaviors in uenced by genes should be more similar among more closely related people Behavioral Genetics Calculating Heritability s o Heritability Coefficient degree percentage to which genes account for something Heritability coef cients form nontwin relative studies 20 o 20 20 of variation explained by genes 0 Genes interact with each other and also with the environment Ex Fraternal twins have 20 of the same genes identical twins have 50 of the same genes Behavioral Genetics What Heritabilites Tell You 0 Genes matter not all of personality comes form experience 0 Etiology or origin of disorders o Disorders with low heritability s are likely to be due to environmental factors 0 Insight into the effects of the environment on personality development 0 Shared family environment does not seem to matter very much Behavior Genetics What Heritabilites Tell You 0 Does the family matter 0 No or very little Shared family environment of adoptive twins 5 Research with selfreports Extreme conclusion Developmentalpsychology Effects of parent training Based on behavioral observation I Ex You might not see yourself as being a certain way but others do n Parenting is very important because it can cause psychological development and your personality Behavior Genetics How Genes Affect Personality Create propensities to have in certain ways Geneenvironment interactions 0 Genes are not causal they only provide the design Ex Families where the girls always get pregnant at a young age 0 Net step further examine how genes and the environment interact Understand how development of speci c aspects of the nervous system interacts with environmental experience to affect behavior a Ex You could be super tall but because you didn t get enough healthy food as a child your growth was stunted You want to try and grow up with your full potential I Ex growing up in a family that is very poor and you re super smart you might not get the best education because you can t afford it You won t be able to hit your full potential 0 Environments can affect heritability Ex Nutrition and height Behavior Genetics How Genes Affect Personality Geneenvironment interactions 0 Choice of environment tends to be consistent with genetic tendencies Your genetics can drive you to do really stupid and dangerous things 0 The same environment can affect different individuals in different ways Being in the same reality but getting something completely different 0 Environment can determine how or whether a gene is expressed Ex A stressful environment starts your schizophrenia o Epigenetics nongenetic in uences on a gene s expression stress nutrition Evolutionary Personality psychology 0 Evolution and behavior 0 Current behaviors are present because these behaviors were helpful or necessary for survival Ex Fear of heights could help you not fall off a cliff somewhere and die 0 People with these behaviors survived and were able to pass on their genes to future generations 0 Identify common behavior patterns and then determine how the behavior was adaptive Evolutionary Personality Psychology Evolution and Behavior 0 Aggression and altruism 0 To increase protection Aggression n Ex This might be useful if you re attacked a Ex If you ght for a girl that a girl becomes attracted to you and then you have lots of babies together Altruism a People helping you and this makes you want to help them too Selfesteem o Sociometer theory re ection of degree of acceptance by others We have internal compass So when people love us we have a higher selfesteem and then they don t like us we have a lower selfesteem This might make you change yourself so that people like you 0 Depression 0 Pain signals something is wrong and must be xed o Crying may be a way to get social support Might actually be valuable Evolutionary Personality Psychology Evolution and Behavior Heterosexual mate selection 0 Men place higher value on physical attractiveness and prefer younger mates If the women are younger they are able to produce more offspring and healthy offspring 0 Women place higher value on economic security and prefer older mates This is because of resources to provide for them and their family 0 Both want the highest likelihood of healthy offspring who will survive and reproduce Complications 0 Beauty standards today liking someone women also want hot men homosexuality Evolutionary Personality Psychology Evolution and Behavior 0 Difference in mating strategies between men and women 0 Desired number of sexual patterns faithfulness to partner selectivity of patterns Explained by differences in factors that in uence reproductive success 0 Sociosexuality willingness to engage in sexual relations in the absence of serious relationship 0 Jealousy sexual in delity vs emotional in delity Emotional in delity they re attached more to someone else 0 Sexy son hypothesis If women are more interested in having men who are stable why do so many women go after bad boys It doesn t make sense a It s because your son is going to be so hot that he is going to have lots of other mates too 0 Lying Why do we lie all the time We re super social animals we want success and a good social structure The more social structure the more great things that will fall into place Evolutionary Personality Psychology Individual Difference Focus has been on general human nature 0 Evolutionary reasons for individual differences 0 Diversity is necessary for viability o Behavioral patterns evolved as reactions to particular environmental experiences 0 Several possible behavioral strategies evolved 0 Some behaviors may be frequency dependent Ex Being a con artist If everyone was con artist then no one would able to trust anyone The way con artists work is that it s so rare to run into one 0 Human nature is exible Evolutionary Personality Psychology 5 Objections and Responses 0 1 Methodology Backward speculation is dif cult to test empirically o It doesn t really make sense to think of aninstinctual basis for rare behaviors rape stepchid abuse 0 Not every trait or behavior pattern has an adaptive advantage some may be side effects of other adaptive behaviors 0 Responses alternative expiations are always possible speci c predictions can be tested 0 2 Reproductive Instinct 0 Not everyone wants as many children as possible 0 Response People do not have to consciously try to do what is evolutionarily adaptive 3 Conservatism o lmpies that the current behavioral order was inevitable and is unchangeable including mae promiscuity and aggressive tendencies 0 Responses this is scienti cally irrelevant just because something is natural does not mean it is good no moral judgment is needed 0 4 Human exibility 0 People are more exible than evolution and genetically determined behavior account for 0 Response acknowledges that we are evolved to behave exibly and we can overcome innate urges 5 Gender differences are the result of social structure not just genes 0 Aspects of social structure 0 Practical importance Changes in educational and income between husbands and wives Share of husbands who wives income tops theirs 0 1970 s 4 of wives made more money than their husbands o 200727 of wives now make more money than their husbands Among married women which spouse has more education o 1970 28husband 20 wife 52 same 0 2007 19husband 28 wife 53 same 0 Finish this slide Will Biology replace psychology 0 Biological reductionism everything about the mind can be reduced to biology 0 We do not know enough about biology 0 Biology leaves out most psychological and does not ask money important psychological questions What are people thinking How does the environment in uence people including other people March 2 2015 Chapter 10 Basics of Psychoanalysis Freud Himself 0 Used Free association patient says whatever came to mind to get people to talk abut dif cult topics 0 Talking cure makes thoughts and fears explicit so the conscious rational mind can deal with them Ex Sitting in the chair and just talk This helps people a lot Freud started this 0 Therapist provides emotional support as patient gures out what is going on in the unconscious The thought there was a lot going on underneath the surface Four Key Ideas of Psychoanalysis Psychic Determinism o Psych Determinism everything that happens in a person s mind including everything a person thinks and does has a speci c cause 0 Free will and random accidents do not exist Ex If you keep on being late to a meeting it shows that you don t care 0 The unconscious areas and processes of the mind of which a person is not aware o Psychoanalysis emphasizes the unconscious 0 Supported by modern research 0 Contradictions of thought and behavior can be resolved usually by looking at the unconscious part of the mind If it s unconscious you don t know that you re doing these things a Ex Not writing a check for therapy means that you actually hate the therapist you just don t know it n Ex You say you hate your ex and you ll never talk to them again and then you get drunk and you call your ex They Key Ideas of Psychoanalysis lnternal Structure o The mind is made of separate parts that function independently and can be con ict with each other 0 Id Irrational emotional Kid 0 Ego rational o Superego moral You should be doing this should be doing that What will people think Ex Everyone will hate me if I gain weightquot Ex quotI should study tonight I have a test tomorrowquot 0 Modern research Different structures of the mind work independently and can process different thoughts and motivations at the same time just as Freud theorized The Key Ideas of psychoanalysis Psychic Con ict and Compromise Psychic Con ict one part of the mind being at crosspurpose with another part of the mind 0 The mind can con ict with itself Compromise formation nding a compromise among the different structures of the mind and the different things of the individual wants 0 The ego s main job 0 The middle ground what is realistic The Key Ideas of Psychoanalysis Mental Energy Assumption that the psychological part of the main needs energy 0 The amount of energy is xed and nite Some implications not supported by research expression of anger o Freud thinks it s best to let your anger out 0 Modern thought informationprocessing capacity is limited 0 We slow down when doing too much mental activity at once The Key ideas of Psychoanalysis Controversy Moral Man do not like emphasis on sex and sexual energy 0 Scienti c beliefs that theory is unscienti c o It deals with things that cannot be seen or proven Personal level people do not want 0 be told what they really did something especially when you are correct Psychoanalysis Life and Death 0 The Doctrine of Opposites 0 Based on belief in duality of nature or that everything contains its own opposite Life amp death happiness amp sadness light amp dark 0 Extremes are seen as problematic Ex Some emotion is good None makes people unable to feel Too much makes people hard to deal with Psychosexual Development 0 Five stage theory of development 0 Aspects of each stage 0 Physical focus where energy is concentrated and grati cation is obtained 0 Psychological theme related to the physical focus and the demands from the outside world 0 Adult character type associated with being xated or not resolving the psychological issues in a stage 0 Fixation and regression Psychosexual Development Oral Stage 0 Timing birth to 18 months 0 Physical focus mouth lips and tongue Psychological theme dependency amp trust 0 Only the ld exists 0 Two ways things can go wrong needs are not ful lled or needs are ful lled instantly and automatically 0 It s a hard place to be because you have to be dependent on EVERYONE o If your caretakers are bad at taking care of you this could go very wrong and make you not trust anyone 0 Your caretakers are too much at taking care of you this could lead to people spoiling you 0 Adult character type 0 Too independent refuse help from anyone 0 Passive spends more time thinking about what they want and not how to get it Psychosexual Development Anal Stage 0 Timing about 18 months to 3 years 0 Physical focus anus and organs of elimination o Psychological theme selfcontrol amp obedience 0 It s hard to hold everything in when you didn t have to before 0 Development of the Ego 0 Two ways things can go wrong too demanding and not demanding enough Authoritative style is best 0 Ex Not going to spank you because you wet your pants but they are going to tell you to try and not wet your pants 0 Adult character types 0 Overcontorlled obsessive compulsive stingy orderly rigid subservient to authority unable to tolerate disorganization or ambiguity o Undercontrolled unable to do anything onetime chaotic disorganized compulsive need to defy authority Psychosexual Development Phallic Stage Timing about 3 to 7 years Physical focus sexual organs Basic task coming to terms with sex differences and their implications Psychological themes 0 Gender identity and sexuality gure out what it means to be a boy or girl develop a selfimage as masculine or feminine Ex Little girl having a toy vacuum like her mom 0 Identi cation taking on many of the samesex parent s attitudes values and ways of relating to the opposite sex 0 Love fear and jealousy Development of morality conscience and the Superego o Byproduct of identi cation with parents 0 Superego passes moral judgments on the id and ego Adult character type 0 Rigid moral code asexual 0 Lack of moral code promiscuous 0 Sexual deviation homosexuality Psychosexual Development Latency Timing about 7 years to puberty A break from development Libido interest are suppressed Concentrate on learning the tasks of childhood Ego and superego contribute to this calm period Psychosexual Development Genital Stage Timing puberty on Physical focus genitals sexuality in the context of a mature relationship Focus on creation and enhancement of life 0 Not limited to children also intellectual artistic or scienti c contributions Psychosocial theme maturity Achievement welladjusted and balanced 0 Mental health the ability to love and to workquot Thinking and Consciousness Secondary Process Thinking Conscious thought Rational and practical Able to delay or redirect grati cation How the conscious part of the ego thinks Develops second less important role Thinking and Consciousness Primary Process Thinking The way the unconscious mind operates 0 Does not contain the idea of no 0 Goal is immediate grati cation o Rarely conscious o Seen in very young children during delirium and dreams and sometimes when psychotic Can lead out o Slips of the tongue 0 Accidents 0 Memory lapses Ex You don t want to memorize someone s name because you like them but you re in a relationship Thinking and Consciousness Three Levels of Consciousness Topographical model Conscious mind 0 Least important 0 Some of the ego o Preconscious o Unconscious 0 Most important Psychoanalytic Therapy Unconscious con icts theorized as the reasons people are anxious and unhappy 0 Uses clues to reveal the contents of the unconscious 0 Based on free association slips of the tongue and dreams Psychoanalytic Therapy 0 Resolve problems by bringing unconscious con icts to the surface so ego can deal with them 0 Takes time and can be painful 0 May increase anxiety in the beginning 0 Patents must be comforted and guided through this process via therapeutic alliance Transference the tendency to bring ways of thinking feeling and behaving that developed in response to one important relationship into a relationship with a different person 0 Often the therapist 0 Ex If you had a chronically nagging mom and noticed the bad things you start to expect that behavior from others March 9 2015 Chapter 11 The Workings of the Unconscious Mind Defenses and Slips Anxiety Inside vs Outside Psychic Determinism the idea that everything that happens has a cause that can be identi ed 0 Ex If you forget someone s name there s a reason for it 0 Anxiety from psychic con ict within our mind 0 Things we want vs those that are possible vs those that are morally right Id vs Ego vs Superego lrrationally emotional like a kid Superego wants us to be perfect and unrealistic Lgo compromise between Id and Superego realistic o Compromise formation 0 We usually do not know what is causing the anxiety It is out of our conscious awareness Anxiety inside vs Outside o Realistic anxiety from outside world 0 Morality relationships performance career aspirations threats to selfesteem 0 Terror management theory Many of our thoughts processes and motivations are based on an effort to deal with the fact that we will die Video we watched the human awareness of death has everything to do with what we do We are the only creatures to realize that we are here right now and that one day we will not be Human beings construct cultural worldviews This can give us value a Ex Being Catholic and you dying but realizing that your faith will live on even after you die o Is realistic anxiety good or bad for us It can be good and bad 0 Lat keep anxiety within bounds Think About it 0 Can you get anxious about something without knowing what it is Or does that strike you as nonsensical 0 Things are sometimes out of our conscious awareness Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanism techniques that ego uses to keep certain thoughts and impulses hidden in order to avoid or lessen anxiety 0 Not used consciously Ex Strangling your mom a Your ego doesn t want you to know about why you are the way you are so you do strange things to hid things from yourself 0 Denial Refusal to acknowledge or failure to see a source of anxiety 0 Common and effective in the short run or as a way to deal with initial shock 0 Can lead to lack of contact with reality Ex Grandma s not dead We re still going on vacation with her this summer 0 Blame failures on external circumstances or other people Ex It s the rain that made me do badly on that test 0 Research Ex Your friends tell you that you boyfriend is cheating on you but you don t want to deal with it Defense Mechanisms o Repression Banishing the past from present awareness more complex farther reaching and longer lasting than denial 0 Things that are too upsetting to think about so your brain pushes things away 0 Ex Your uncle raped you as a child but you don t remember it because it s too hard to think about 0 Ex You go to New York and got mugged but now you can t remember anything about the whole week that you were there 0 Ex Kids who get abused can t remember being abused sometimes they probably repressed out of your awareness The stronger and anxiety would be if something were remembered the more things are repressed Can cause depression if the ego runs out of energy a If you re hiding too many things from yourself your brain runs out of energy and things leak out Research Defense Mechanisms Reaction formation Suggesting the opposite of forbidden thoughts feelings and impulses 0 Ex Someone always making fun of gay people when really they are gay So they re constantly trying to prove themselves Common with especially strong sources of anxiety 0 Usually illogically strong and out of proportion Ex Politicians saying that they are all against child porn but they get caught with child porn 0 Research support Seen in research studies a Ex Narcissism personality disordered and they constantly tell you how amazing they are But during a test they don t correlate what s being controlled and what s going on inside your mind Defense Mechanisms Proiection attributing to someone else a thought or impulse that is feared in oneself 0 Research 0 Ex You were taught not to be angry So you ask someone if they are mad at you all the time but really you are mad at them 0 Rationalization creating a rational reason for doing something that would otherwise cause shame 0 Perhaps the most common defense mechanism 0 Trivialization convincing yourself that your shortcomings or regrettable actions don t matter Making you feel less ashamed Ex You get so black out drunk and get embarrassed about it but you say to yourself yeah but I don t really know those people and I ll never see them again to make yourself feel better 0 Research Cognitive dissonance Tension between what we think and what we do We try to reduce the dissonance about how we do act and how we should act Ex If someone paid you a lot of money to go threw hazing then you might think it s worth it for the money a You convince yourself it s worth it so that you don t have anxiety Defense Mechanisms o lntellectualization turning an anxietyprovoking feeling into a thought that is cool abstract and analytical 0 Ex quotYour grandma is deadquot vs Your grandma has passed awayquot You would rather hear that your grandmas has passed away 0 Common in warfare and medicine 0 Useful when reality is horrifying or too painful to deal with directly 0 Problematic if reality is not dealt with appropriately 0 Research Defense Mechanisms Displacement replacing one object of emotion with another 0 Ex Going home and kicking your dog because you can t kick your boss you re pissed at or else you will be red 0 Ex I m not going to punch my boss in the face so I m going to be angry with my boyfriend so I don t have to feel bad 0 The other object is safer target and usually resembles the real target 0 Can be a problem if the necessary direct action is not take or if the target is victimized 0 Research Sublimation forbidden impulses are transformed into constructive behaviors or socially acceptable actions 0 Ex Cutting open your sibling to perform practice surgeries but you grow up and become a surgeon This is now socially acceptable 0 Occupational choice 0 A positive process Parapraxes Parapraxes leakages form the unconscious mind that manifest as mistakes accidents omissions or memory lapses o Freudian slips Ex You call your current partner your ex partner s name 0 From belief in psych determinism o Forgetting Usually the result of repression n Ex Forgetting someone s name but you only repress their name because you think they re really attractive Parapraxies Slips unintended actions 0 Often in speech but also in action 0 More likely when a person is tired not paying attention in a hurry or excited Ex Forgetting to pay your friend back 20 but you see them all the time Maybe you think that they owe you 20 0 Humor a form of sublimation o A forbidden impulse is vented or expressed in a controlled manner 0 Good jokes vs bad jokes Ex Video we watched about the football player yelling at his friend If you laughed at it I did then you think aggression is funny Psychoanalytic Theory A Critique Sexism o Males are considered to be the norm 0 Females are considered as aberrations or deviations form the male model 0 Freud thought females had less selfesteem creativity and morality than males and spent most of their lives coming to terms with not being male penis envy Freud was extremely sexist Psychoanalytic Theory A Critique Excessive complexity 0 Dependence on case studies 0 Theories are based on introspection and insight form speci c cases not on public scienti c observations Ex In a therapy session you always bring up your patient s daddy issues but you are the only with the daddyissues 0 High likelihood of bias Vague de nitions 0 Concepts are hard to measuretest and thus dif cult to prove false The brain can be doing two things at once Why Study Freud Popular culture 0 Everyone knows who he is Focused on ideas that are underemphasized elsewhere 0 In uence on modern conceptions of the mind 0 In uence on the practice of psychotherapy 0 Use of talking to help problems free association and transference Think About it 0 Which of the following statements about anxiety is true 0 Answer Anxiety can result form two sources the mind and the outside world March 112015 Chapter 12 NeoFreudians and Modern Theories of Psychoanalysis Modern issues and Theorists NeoFreudian Psychology a general term for the psychoanalytically oriented work of many theorists and researchers who were in uenced by Freud s theories Often used the same methods as Freud Modern Issues and Theorists Common themes in NeoFreudian thought 0 Less emphasis on the reinterpretation of the libido as a general motivation behind life and the creativity 0 Less emphasis on unconscious mental processes and more on conscious thought Ego psychology 0 Less emphasis on instinctual drives and mental life as the source of psychological dif culties and more on interpersonal relationships lnferiority and Compensation 0 Social interest the desire to relate positively and productively with other people Organ lnferiority the idea that individuals are motivated to attain equality with or superiority over other people to compensate for what they felt in childhood was their weakest aspect o Masculine Protest Feeling inadequacy as a child they have to prove themselves Boys and girls struggle with this 0 Helps explain universal needs for power amp achievement For boys it is especially bad because the most powerful person in their lives is their mother and they feel insulted and inferior 0 Style of Life Ruling type Don t give much they take a lot Getting type Avoiding type checking out Social useful type giving back to the society and not draining The collective Unconscious Persona and Personality Collective unconscious memories and ideas that all humans share most of which reside in the unconscious in the form of basic images 0 Ex The devil snakes are bad 0 Archetypes core ideas of how people think about the world both consciously and unconsciously Earth mother hero devil supreme being Appear in dreams fantasies mythology and modern Hterature The Collective Unconscious Persona and Personality Persona the social mask one wears in a public 0 Everyone s persona is false to some degree 0 Possible danger shallowness o Anima and Animus o Masculine and feminine within us Anima male anticipates how a man would think about something and deal with something Animus female anticipates how a man would think about something and deal with something 0 Shapes our responses to the opposite This could be problems with how men and women communicate interpersonally The Collective Unconscious Persona and Personality Introverts vs extraverts psychologically turned inward vs outward o Corresponds with the Big Five Extraversion Ways of thinking rational feeling sensing and intuiting 0 People vary in which way predominates but having a balance is best 0 The MyersBriggs Type Indicator MBTI I ve taken it and get the same score every time MBTI Mine is a ESFJ Provider Feminine Psychology and Basic Anxiety 0 Disagreed with penis envyquot and women s desire to be male 0 More due to lack of powercontrol in society 0 Basic anxiety fear of being alone and helpless in a hostile world 0 Neurotic needs needs that people feel but that are either realistic nor truly desirable Wanting to have someone who really and truly understands you n Wanting a life partner that makes every decision for you and that s probably not very good decision Psychosocial Development 0 Many con icts are conscious and arise at various stages of life 0 8 stages of Erikson s theory 1 Basic trust vs mistrust 02 years 0 Learn whether needs will be met ignored or overindulged 0 Development of hope and con dence that basic needs will be met 0 Very pivotal stepping stone 2 Autonomy vs Shame 34 years 0 Autonomy being your own person 0 Figuring out who is in charge 0 Someone telling you when to go to the bathroom is very important 3 Initiative vs guilt 47 years 0 Anticipating and fantasizing about life as an adult 0 Develop a sense of right and wrong seen as the beginning of adult morality Very concrete because Mommy said soquot 4 Industry vs Inferiority 812 years 0 Develop skills and abilities to succeed in the work world and contribute to society 0 Must begin to control imagination and unfocused energy 5 Identity vs identity confusion adolescence 0 Figure out who I am and what is important 0 Choose consistent meaningful and useful values and goals 0 Ex Growing up if your parents are democrat than you re probably democratic too 0 Ex Growing up if your parents are Catholic then you re probably going to be Catholic too 0 quotThis is when the teenager starts to think about who they are and what they believe in 6 Intimacy vs Isolation young adulthood 0 Find an intimate life partner 7 Generativist vs stagnation middle age 0 Turn concerns to next generation or become passive o Generative EX Being a mentor giving back to the community 0 A lot of this focus is a shift from helping others opposed to helping yourself 0 Stagnation not doing anything to help society or help the community 8 Integrity vs despair old age Brought on by the prospect of death Based on feelings about one s life Object Relations Theory 0 Melanie Kline and DW Winnicott Objects represent emotionally important people 0 Object relations theory the analysis of interpersonal relationships 0 We relate to others via the images of them in our minds 0 The images do not always match reality and this causes problems Ex You have daddy issues and your male boss unconsciously they are not going to appreciate who you are like dad did We live out these relationships we rst had as a child Ex You grew up in a house where your parents are very critical so if you miss a meeting you assume that your boss will be mad at you Object Relations Theory 0 Love and Hate every relationship has elements of satisfaction and frustration or pleasure and pain 0 The psyche is aware of and disturbed by these contradictory feelings of love and hate o Neurotic defenses are used to split the love object into good and bad parts We can ignore the bad part of the person through the use of idealization Ex Sometimes mom doesn t drop everything she does to do something for us but we still love her because she s a good mom Object Relations Theory 0 Transitional Objects used to bridge the gap between private fantasy and reality 0 Source of comfort when the adult is not available helps the child face the world alone Ex A teddy bear or blanket 0 Do you know anyone who brought transitional object to coHege Ex Christmas tree 0 The False Self used to please others 0 Prevents exposure of the true self which protects the true self from exploitation or harm Ex Walking to class and someone you don t know very well asks how are doing and we want to spill our lives out to them This is probably not going to happen all the time Objects Relations Therapy 0 Purpose of object Relations Therapy 0 Minimize discrepancies between true and false selves 0 Help the rational resources of the mind work through irrational defenses 0 Help the client see important people in hisher life the way they actually are as whole individuals with good and bad parts 0 Ex Dating someone who is somewhat likes your dad but not fully he is most likely the parts of your dad that you like Current Psychoanalytic Research 0 Discuss current research on attachment theory 0 Identify parts of psychoanalytic theory that have been empirically supported Current Psychoanalytic Research 0 Most research in psychology is done by academics not practicing psychoanalysts 0 Most researchers are not trained in psychoanalysis so this results in fewer studies in this area 0 Some researchers cognitive psychologist might not realize that what they study is Freudian 0 Also researchers tend to prefer oneshot laboratory studies over dif cult complex theoretical efforts After you get your Dr you have to get additional 812 years of training in the psychoanalytic eld 0 Practicing psychoanalysts tend to shy away from conventional scienti c research Current Research Related to Freud Independent and simultaneous mental processes that con ict 0 Unconscious mental processes Compromises among mental processes negotiated outside of consciousness Selfdefensive thoughts and selfdeception o The in uence of the past on current functioning especially cthhood o The in uence of sexual or aggressive wishes Testing Psychoanalytic Hypotheses The unconscious part of the mind can perceive things without the conscious mind s awareness 0 To prevent anxiety 0 Recognition of dirty vs neutral words Ex When ashing words on the screen very fast participants didn t see a dirty word their minds were protecting them Catharsis we feel better when let things out 0 Ex Crying Does work It s a relief 0 Most of what the mind does is unconscious 0 Supports Freud s idea that consciousness is just the tip of the mental iceberg Ex Can be both your working memory too Your brain does so much behind the scenes n Ex Pumping blood and breathing 0 Parallel distributed processing PDP amp Connectionism Connectionism things are connected and they belong together a Ex White good Black bad March 23 2015 Attachment Theory 0 Based on idea of transference and building on object relations theory 0 Applying old patterns of behavior and emotions to new relationships 0 Focuses on patterns of relationships with others that are consistently repeated with different partners throughout life 0 Consistency of attachment styles is empirically supported 0 Applying new patterns in new relationships 0 Ex Dating someone like your abusive Dad 0 Ex Everyone in your life left you so you re afraid that your spouse is going to leave you so you pull away Attachment Theory 0 john Bowlby Saw attachment as basis of love 0 Watched the video of how much parents affect their infants mental health 0 Based on evolutionary theory 0 Humans evolved in a risky environment and feared being alone which motivated the desire for protection from someone else interested in the person s survival and well being Desire for protection leads to attachments Based on childhood experiences 0 Lessons learned by the child from early experiences with adult caregivers People think that they don t bring to relationships on how they were raised but they do no matter what It s always with you Attachment Theory 0 Mary Ainsworth Developed the strange situation task 0 Child is brie y separated from and then reunited with the mother Watched a video about it too 0 Look at reactions to mother leaving and returning to determine type of attachment Attachment Theory 0 Secure attachment Greets mother happily when she returns Easily soothed actively explore environment Con dent faith in themselves and their caregivers Adult characteristics Positive attitude toward relationships nds it easy to get close to others and depend on them tends to have long and stable relationships isn t passiveaggressive seek out others for emotional support when under stress a Ex Applying for a job that you probably know you won t get u Ex Talk to a new person 00 O O O O n Ex Can move past disagreements Attachment Theory Anxiousambivalent attachment 0 Vigilant about mother s presence and becomes upset when sheleaves o Caregivers are inconsistent 0 Adult characteristics Preoccupied attempt to cling to others drives them away obsessed with romantic partners frequent worry about partners don t really love them extremely jealous high rate of relationship failure highly emotional when under stress a Ex Drives people away because they are clingy n Ex Accuses their spouse of cheating D So much pressure on the other person in the relationship a This person s relationship runs their relationship Attachment Theory Avoidant attachment 0 Not distressed when mother leaves and ignores her when she returns 0 Caregiver reject attempts for contact and reassurance Adult characteristics 0 Dismissive angry selfreliance and cold distant attitude toward others feel uncomfortable being close to others dif cult to trust others completely uninterested in romantic relationships likes to work alone withdraw from romantic partners when under stress Ex I can t depend on anyone so I ll just depend on myselfquot Ex Like being a bachelor don t like being tied down Attachment Theory Disorganized Attachment 0 Added later when a number of children de ed classi cation in terms of Ainsworth s original classi cation scheme 0 Conceptualized as the lack of coherent organized behavioral strategy for dealing with stresses 0 Children inconsistently reacts to caregiver s departure and return Child may stare or yell freeze look scared or confused when mother leaves Child may act oddly such as screaming hitting self throwing things when mother leaves 0 Adult characteristics o FearfulAvoidant at increased risk for psychopathology Attachment Theory 0 Attachment patterns are selfful lling o Learned in childhood reinforced across young adulthood 0 Attachment Questionnaire 0 Look at PowerPoint 0 Evidence of unconscious priming of attachment gures 0 Research shows that when we re scared we think of loved ones to feel safer Two Dimensions Anxiety amp Avoidance ILi39ii39 in39l leEE Ji El ili E P Ei i UF iE Law 1 4 HIEH lali tlET t39 It39HiEIET T I39 39 l i l i EE HFiJL igllullEI39AI iIT 39r AHEIDAETr39 HlEEH i fE lDI HUE o What happens when you look for things to go bad You re going to nd things 0 High anxiety Don t pay attention to people s emotions and don t think people can be there for them Psychoanalysis in Perspective 0 It s dif cult to evaluate psychoanalytic theory 0 Five NeoFreudian propositions that are rmly established and supported 1 Much of mental life is unconscious 2 The mind does many things at once and can be in con ict with itself 3 Events in childhood shape adult personality especially in styles of social relationships 4 Relationships formed with signi cant other people establish patterns that are repeated 5 Psychological development involves moving from an unregulated immature and selfcentered state to more regulated mature state in which relationships become increasingly important Question 1 0 According to Karen Horney why do women envy men 0 C Men have more freedom to pursue their interests Question 2 o C Erickson s theory of development focuses on conscious social con icts whereas Fraud s theory focuses on the location of mental energy Question 3 0 According to object relations theory 0 A Interpersonal relationships are very important March 25 2015 Chapter 13 Humanistic and Positive Psychology Humanistic Psychology Humanistic Psychologists are interested in selfawareness Goal overcome the paradox of studying humans who are aware and know they are being studied 0 Implications of uniquely human selfawareness 0 Free will willpower re ective thinking imagination introspection selfcriticism aspirations creativity and happiness Even if we want to do something we can re ect on ourselves lntrospection we can think about our feelings and feelings about our thoughts Phenomenonology Awareness is everything Phenomenology one s conscious experience of the world everything a person hears feels and thinks 0 Being aware of what s around you Reality exists but it has to be perceived to matter 0 Basis of free will the realization that only one s present experiences matters if the past is gone the future is not here yet we can choose what to think feel and do Phenomenology Awareness of everything Construal a person s particular experience of the world 0 Everyone has a different construal 0 Forms the basis of how you live your life Goals you set Perceptions of obstacles and opportunities 0 Ex If you think in a racist sense you re going to think everyone is out to get you because of your race 0 Free will is achieved by choosing your construal Leaving the choice of how to interpret your experience to others is how you lose your autonomy You re not born with this you learn it Existentialism A reaction against rationalism science and the industrial revolution Purpose regain contact with the experience of being alive and aware Key questions 0 What is the nature of existence 0 How does it feel to exist 0 And what does it mean to exist Existentialism Three Parts of Experience Biological experience Umwelt the sensations you feel by virtue of being a biological organism pleasure heat cold etc Social experience Mitwelt what you think and feel as a social being emotions and thoughts about other people and emotions and thoughts directed at you Psychological experience Eigenwelt the experience of experience itself and of introspection how you feel and think when you try to understand yourself your mind and your existence Existentialism Thrownness and Angst Thrownness the time place and circumstances into which you happened to be born 0 An important basis of your experience 0 Being thrown into modern society is particularly dif cult 0 Ex Being a Christian you re supposed to spread the word of God and tell people about Jesus Angst the unpleasant feeling caused by contemplating the meaning of life and how one should spend one s time also called existential anxiety 0 Anguish Forlornness Despair Existentialism Bad Faith Our moral imperative face thrownness and angst directly and seek purpose for existence in spite of these 0 Requires existential courage or optimistic toughness Living in bad faith ignoring the existential questions and ignoring our moral imperative o Creates three problems living a cowardly lie unhappiness and it is impossible Existentialism Have courage as humans who are going to die Existentialism Authentic Existence 0 Authentic Existence coming to terms with existence being honest insight and morally correct 0 The alternative to bad faith 0 Will not relieve loneliness and unhappiness 0 Because every person is alone and doomed 0 Life has no meaning beyond what you give it o The essence of the human experience is understanding that you must die Not a happy place to be but to face it be authentic The existential challenge do all you can to better the human condition despite that you re going to die 0 Go to college anyways Get a good career Suck it up and live life 0 Don t ask what do I want from life Ask what does life want from me Existentialism Eastern Alternative 0 Existentialism is based on the Western focus on the individual and the dif culty of nding meaning in life 0 Some say existentialism is fundamentally wrong 0 The self is an illusion and this illusion is harmful o All people are interconnected and thus immortal o Enlightenment caring for others the same as for yourself leads to universal compassion 0 When you die it doesn t matter because your connection with other people will make you seem like there s a bigger picture You re life doesn t end there it lives on Optimist Humanism Rogers and Maslow o Began with existential assumption that one s conscious experience of the world is important and that people have free will 0 Added the crucial idea People are basically good There s no proof for this assumption SelfActualization people have one basic tendency and striving to actualize maintain and enhance their own experience Rogers Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs The ultimate need to reach selfactualization full potential Optimist Humanism The Fully Functioning Person 0 The Fully Functioning Person someone who perceives the world accurately without neurotic distortion and takes responsibility for hisher choices 0 Non Ex Sorry that I stole money from that store What do you expect I grew up in a poor family It s not my faultquot Importance of unconditional positive regard Conditions of worth a From thinking that people value you only if you are good enough 0 Ex Your parents only like you when you have good grades n Limits your freedom to act and think 0 Ex f make a lot of money I m a value person f lose my job I am worthless Optimistic Humanism Psychotherapy o m help client become fully functioning person 0 The therapist develops a genuine and caring relationship with the client and provides unconditional positive regard to make the client feel appreciated 0 Helps the client perceive her own thoughts and feeling without trying to change them in any way thus allowing insight o Removes conditions of worth Personal constructs George Kelly 0 Personal constructs bipolar dimensions along which people or objects can be arranged o Helps to determine how new experiences are constructed or interpreted as good or bad Ex quotWas that roller coaster ride fun or not funquot Ex quotThat really wasn t very nice That was very meanquot Ex Being raised in a family where your dad judges people on whether they are brave or not this rubs off on you and you start judging people the same way 0 Constructive Alernativism the view that any pattern of experience can lead to numerous construal s and people choose which construal s they use 0 Maximizes people who believe one should always seek to get as much as one possibly can Ex You re in a current relationship your somewhat dissatis ed because you re wondering if you should have broken up with your last relationship Probably more indecisive More perfectist which can lead to depression 0 Satis ces people who believe that some outcomes are good enough Ex If you go to BestBuy and you have 4 criteria that you need for a TV and out of the 40 TV s there you nd the 4 criteria by the second TV you nd all of them So they pick that TV immediately They re satis ed Might settle more But can enjoy life better than maxismizers Hardiness Savatore Maddi 0 Stress is not always bad 0 Without stress life would be boring and meaningless Many people seek to avoid stress by developing a conformist lifestyle 0 Likely to lead to existential psychological pathology and false sense of self Vegetativenss Nihilism or desire for extreme thrills Hardiness a lifestyle that embraces rather than avoids potential sources of stress 0 Stressful and challenging experience can bring learning growth and wisdom SelfDetermination Theory Deci and Ryan 0 Based on distinction between two ways of seeking happiness 0 Hedonia maximize pleasure and minimize pain Hedonia is dangerous I Ex Not getting into relationships because you don t want to get hurt Focus is on extrinsic goals n Ex Getting a 40 not because you want to do well but because your parents will get you a new car a Ex Going to college because you want a good job not because you want to learn 0 Eudaimonia seeking a deeper meaning in life by pursuing important goals building relationships and being aware of taking responsibility for one s choices in life Focus is not intrinsic goals a Ex You want to get good grades because you enjoy school and learning SelfDetermination Theory Deci and Ryan 0 Three central intrinsic goals attaining them is necessary for being fully functioning o Autonomy nding your own way in life and making your own decisions 0 Competence nding something you are good at and becoming better 0 Relatedness establishing meaningful satisfying ties to other people 0 Research support for advantages of following intrinsic goals Positive Psychology 0 Health means more than the absence of disease 0 Traditional psychology overemphasizes psychopathology and malfunction and ignores the question of meaning of life 0 The focus is on positive phenomenon o The positive subject experience individual traits and strengths and institutions that move people towards better citizenship 0 Ex Dr Bitney s strength is life long learning which is good because she is an educator Positive Psychology 0 Goal Improve quality of life and prevent pathologies True happiness comes form overcoming important challenges 0 Investigates the traits processes and social institutions that promote a happy and meaningful life Ex After about a certain amount of money people become much more depressed Money can t be your number one priority 0 Factors that contribute to happiness and subjective wellbeing Ex Relationships meaning of life Flow Csikszentmihalyi o Autotelic actives ones that are enjoyable for their own sake of your well being 0 Ex You play the violin because you want to and you like the sound of it This is good for us 0 HM the subjective experience of an autotelic activity the enjoyment itself 0 Tremendous concentration total lack of distractibility thoughts concerning only the activity at hand and tie seems to pass very quickly Mood that is slightly elevated Ex Sports painting dancing making movies cooking 0 When you re in your ow you might forget about your other responsibilities 0 When you re getting ow you re usually getting better at it too Positive Psychology Optimism 0 You re more likely to try things 0 Advantages less fearful more willing to take risks relatively happy 0 Disadvantages take foolish risks or fail to anticipate problems Virtues courage justice humanity compassion temperance wisdom transcendence 0 May be evolutionarily based 0 Maybe some of us are very courageous but not very just so we work hard at improving this 0 Happiness Advantage The Implications of Phenomenology Understanding Others 0 Cognitive theorist believe consciousness is a higherorder process Phenomenologists believe it is a feeling 0 To understand another person you must understand hisher construal s Discourages judgmental attitudes Cultural and moral relativism o ldea that there is no objective reality or if there is there is no way to know what is it 0 We all have a right to see things differently 00 March 302015 Chapter 14 Cultural Variation in Experience Behavior and Personality Culture and Psychology CrossCultural Psychology research and theorizing that attempt to account for the psychological difference between and Within different culture groups 0 Ex Comparing how two different American s belief systems no one is the exact same 0 How culture intersects with personality psychology 0 Individuals may differ from each other to some extent because they belong to different cultures 0 The differences we consider are important may vary across cultures Cultural and Psychology Crosscultural universals vs speci city Culture psychosocial attributes of groups including customs habits beliefs and values that shape emotions behavior and life patterns 0 May include language modes of thinking and fundamental views of reality Culture is pretty dynamic n Ex Church gay theater sports 0 Enculturation culture of origin Country or culture you were born into n Ex Being born in America 0 Ex The Fourth ofJuly independence amp individualism Ex Capitalism 0 Ex Strength success 0 Ex Value youth 0 Acculturation new culture The Importance of CrossCulture Differences 0 Evidence that culture affects the way that personality is expressed and emotion is experienced 0 Increasing international understanding 0 Differences in attitudes values and behavioral styles can cause misunderstandings Ex Showing up to a house in Australia and don t have a gift they re going to think you re a sel sh American Amount of eye contact touching loudness etc Spray painting cars in Singapore Leaving sleeping babies outside in Denmark n In Denmark they believe that the cold fresh air is good for the baby The importance of Crosscultural Differences o Appreciating the varieties of human experience 0 Assessing the degree to which psychology applies to people around the world 0 Possible limits on generalizability 0 Most research based on WEIRD countries Western Educated Industrialized Rich Democratic 80 of psychology research is based on only 12 of the world s population Characteristics of Cultures How can one culture be compared to another 0 Behavior experience of emotions thoughts sense of connection with the world Ex Do you face a baby inward or outward when they are strapped to your chest I lnside more vulnerable maybe more likely a woman a Outward exposing them to the world maybe more likely a man a On your back for work mostly in African cultures Etics and Emics o m the universal components of ideas across cultures idea of duty amp marriage 0 Emics components of ideas that are particular to certain cultures what one s actual duty is what rules should be followed reasons for marriage love business etc o Assumption any idea or concepts has aspects that are the same across cultures and aspects particular to a speci c culture Ex Duty and marriage Variation Across Cultures Tough and easy cultures 0 Ex You want to be the president of the US Go to school and gure it out American perspective Achievement and af liation 0 Ex America is high on achievement Complexity of culture 0 Ex ls American or African countries more complex It s an opinion Head vs Heart 0 Heart fairness mercy gratitude religion 0 Head intelligence artistic critical thinking New York is like this Tightness and looseness o Tolerance of deviation to be different from each other 0 Tightness everyone is the same differences aren t encouraged Look how many people are left handed in a culture If there s less than 10 they were probably forced not to be left handed o Looseness encouraged to be different about 10 of population is left handed Tolerance of deviation from proper behavior 0 Cultures that are ethnically homogeneous and densely populated tend to be tighter than cultures that are more diverse or spread out Collectivismlndividualism Collectives values the needsrights of the group lndividualism values the needsrights of the individual 0 Ex American is like this 0 ln individualistic cultures people are viewed as separate from each other Independence is an important virtues people should be willing to stand up for themselves and be more vulnerable to loneliness and depression 0 Different predictors of satisfaction with life harmony of relationships with others in collectivistic cultures vs self esteem in individualistic cultures Collectivismlndividualism Social interactions people in collectivistic cultures spend more time in social interactions that are more intimate Selffocused vs otherfocused emotions 0 People in individualistic cultures report more selffocused emotions such as anger 0 People in collectivist cultures report more other focused emotions such as sympathy and more pleasant emotions when tting in well with their group Collectivismsindividualism Importance of love in marriage 0 Arranged marriages more common in collectivistic cultures Ex They might nd some pride in this because they re helping out their families Fundamental motivations o Collectivistic cultures focus more on avoiding loss of respect because respect by others can be easily lost and is dif cult to regain o lndividualist cultures focus more on achievement of pleasure or reward leads to selfenhancement in individualist cultures Characteristics of Cultures Dignity belief that individuals are valuable in their own right and this value does not come from what others think 0 Ex Gays and straight should be equal 0 Honor it s important not to appear at vulnerable because this could put the person at risk retaliate against insults signal that you are ready to use violence 0 High honor is more common when laws and police are weak and nonexistent and people must pretext themselves their families and their property Ex If someone calls you a fag you need to beat the crap out of them to show them that you re stronger than them 0 high motivation to protect one s and other s social image high respect for authority gures avoidance of controversy 0 High face is more common in societies with stable hierarchies based on cooperation Ex In America if a company doesn t like you you don t really care because there are plenty of other clients are out there Characteristics of Cultures o All cultures have elements of dignity honor and face 0 Individuals within cultures vary in the degree to which they accept the dominate cultural perspective Cultural and Personality Assessment 0 Comparing the same trait across cultures 0 Compared with Americans Chinese on average score higher on emotional reserve introversion considerateness social caution and self restrain 0 Ethnic Chinese living in Canada report being more open cheerful and agreeable compared to ethnic Chinese living in Hong Kong Cultural and Personality Assessment 0 Comparing extraversion across countries 0 Why do certain countries have more extraverts Maybe they encourage it there Maybe people hear about how it s an extraverted sociality and people move there Cultural and Personality Assessment 0 Comparing the same trait across cultures 0 Gender differences larger in developed countries Women scored higher in neuroticism agreeableness warmth and openness to feelings Men scored higher in assertiveness and openness to ideas 0 Personality varies within nations as well Within the US extraversion conscientiousness and agreeableness are highest in the Midwest and Southeast Neuroticism is highest in Northeast openness to experience is highest along the two coasts a They might be like this because the northeast might have more innovation and diversity Ap l12015 Cultural and Personality Assessment 0 Different traits for different cultures 0 Do traits have the same meaning across cultures 0 Big Five are found in 50 cultures 0 Many variations have also been found Translating the Big Five into Spanish misses the aspects of humor good nature and unconventionality Big Seven in Spain and China 0 Only conscientiousness extraversion and agreeableness should be considered universal Least supported is Openness to Experience 0 Dif culties of translations never exact Cultural and Personality Assessment 0 To what degree do people form different cultures think differently 0 Holistic thinking Explaining events in context and seeking to integrate divergent points of view a Collectivistic Ex Something Holistically someone might say I m really friendly with my family but kind of cold to my coworkersquot 0 Independent thinking Explaining events in isolation an setting divergent points of view against each other a lndividualistic a Straight forward black and white Cultural and Personality Assessment 0 Values 0 How can seemingly obvious and basic values vary across culture 0 Implications of universal values Are there quotrealquot values that go beyond cultural judgment and should be values by everyone These could be used to settle disputes between culture 0 Possible list of 10 universal values on next slide Values ipamass to W H 7 7 Ch n Erection Lllniiurareal iamh ax 7 a fr m iir39ja E 39 i a m ETlfil39lEEEHdE EE r is stimulasilan mm mm a Etnfwflme ff quotK EEWEWIEI IEE T 5quot quot r all a quoti E39s E quotif V I V H w Jainism a Emu 39 quot 39 r quot ETquot 5 radimrl x L4 h L 1 Qh hm Finnmlhj39 l v a H l ER L B 39 39 y Aahievemint Hi F 5 Swarmi 1 a 3 Hi i with Fewer ilk WW quot ff E l m tl f aw Airmanmgr ll 7 h T M N 313 Hmfrli la 7 E lh l ll m t iE 7 g y 7 rganiIEti by mtwatlnal similarities and dissimilarities Hedonism doing the best for you Cultural and Personality Assessment Moral Reasoning individualist vs Collectivist 0 Liberty freedom of choice rights individual needs vs obligations reciprocity duties to the group 0 Seen in the debate on abortion lndividualistic see the mother and her choice as the most important Collectivists see the baby as part of the group and something to be protected The Origins of Cultural Differences Why are cultures different What determines the speci c distinctive psychology that a particular culture develops Avoiding the issue 0 Deconstructionism reality has no meaning apart form what humans invent or construct 0 Viewed these questions as unansweredable 0 Not a useful approach The Origins of Cultural Differences The Ecological Approach view that differences exist because different cutlers developed in different circumstances with the need to deal with different problems Ecology physical layout and resources of the land and the distinctive tasks and challenges this culture has faced 0 Ex Need for complex agricultural projects and water systems in China required coordination and results in collectivism Need for hunting in Germany which required more individual effort and resulted individualism Level of infectious disease based on living in clean vs dirty environments rural vs crowded with high disease associated with low extraversion and openness Need to catch sh in open water which dangerous is related to men with high bravery violence and domination over women Ability to catch sh easily in protected water is related to me who are gentle ignore insults and are respectful of women The Origins of Cultural Differences Older model 0 Ecology Culture Socialization Personality Behavior 0 Newer model 0 Ecology 0 C lturelt gtMind EL Behavior The Origins of Cultural Differences Cultural differences form genetics 0 Assumption differences are learned not innate 0000 0 Culture is based on more than just genetics Genetic differences are small at most People within culture differ from each other People can belong to more than one culture It s possible that personality could in uence culture Ex The ethic Chinese that moved to Canada vs the Chinese that grew up in China they re very different Ex If you put a bunch of introverts to map out an of ce they re probably going to put people in their own of ces with doors Vs if you put an extravert in charge of planning an of ce they might put people in a cubical for more social interaction Challenges and New Directions For CrossCultural Research Ethnocentrism judging another culture form the point of view of one s own 0 Observers need to understand the culture and the assumptions it includes the understand behaviors of people within that culture this is dif cult to do 0 The exaggeration of cultural differences 0 The focus of research has been on differences 0 Large samples sizes lead to statically signi cant results even when differences are very small Ex If we look at studies there s much more differences between women than there is between men and women We want to believe that people are so different but really they re not 0 Outgroup homogeneity bias Ex All Asians look alikequot Not true People from different countries probably feel the same way about white people a Yes we re all very similar but we re also not exactly the same Challenges and New Directions For CrossCultural Research Cultures and values 0 Cultural relativism the idea that all cultural view of reality are equally valid Means cultures can t be judged as good or bad Does not always work a Ex Female genital mutilation ethnic cleansing terrorism 0 Makes sense for universal values epically important Ex Some cultures think plastic surgery pricings and tattoos people think of you differently Challenges and New Directions for CrossCultural Research Subcultural and multiculturalism o It is dif cult to de ne culture Should it be based on languages geography postglacial boundaries or something else De nitions of cultural groups are somewhat arbitrary 0 Important subgroups exist within large cultures Ex Different territories within Mexico 0 People can belong to more than one culture and see the world and themselves in terms of their personality through more than one cultural lens Ex You re a mixed race half Mexican half white Your dad is maybe an individualistic and your mom is collectivistic Think About It 0 Can a person be a member of two or more cultures at once 0 Yes of course Ex What if you re kind of collectivistic but you re also collectivistic o Bicultural identity integration continuum along with people with two cultural backgrounds differ in the extent to which they see themselves 1 As members of a combined joint culture that integrates aspects of both cultures 2 Experiencing con ict and stress form having two cultures and being unsure about which one they really belong to The Universal Human Condition 0 New emphasis on how people are psychosocially similar 0 Differences in rules for appropriate behavior might mask similar motivations Ex The expression of extraversion measuring it in China and America is different In America people think of extraverts as loud In China people think of extraverts of wanting to be more social 0 Culture may in uence how people want to feel more than how they actually feel Ex In Britain they want joy In China they want peace and Zen 0 Desire to please one s parents 0 Personal goals are consistent across culture Question 1 0 People from the same culture A All have the same values B Differ in important ways form people in other cultures C Differ in important ways from people in the same culture D Both B and C 0 Answer D Apnl8m2015 Chapter 15 Behaviorism amp SocialCognitive Learning Behaviorist learning SocialCognitive Learning Learningbased Approaches 0 Learning the change of behavior as a function of experience 0 Stimuli that occur close together in time will come to elicit the same response Ex When you need money but your mom comes home really pissed off from work you know from past experiences that you probably won t get money 0 Behavior followed by pleasant outcomes are more likely to be repeated 0 Behaviors followed by unpleasant outcomes are less likely to be repeated 0 Explain personality in terms of learning principles Behaviorism o Behaviorism study of how a person s behavior is a direct result of hisher environment particularly the rewards and punishments in the environment 0 Belief that the causes of behavior can be directly observed because they are in the environment Rewards and punishments in the social world Ex If a kid keeps on getting in trouble and getting a response from other kids it might be teaching him that he can get attention from others by acting out ALL ABOUT DIRECT OBSERVATIONS 0 Functional Analysis the goal of behaviorism is to determine how behavior is a function is a function of one s environment 0 Situations They think what you re doing what you re doing because of the environment and situation The Philosophical Roots of Behaviorism o Empiricism idea that all knowledge comes from experience 0 Experience is the direct product of reality Reality determines personality the structure of the mind and behavior o In opposition to rationalism The idea that the mind determines our experiences of reality 0 mpies that at birth the mind is essentially empty John Locke tabula rasa or blank slate 0 You will be very different from a different culture and very different parents The Philosophical Roots of Behaviorism o Associatisms idea that any two things became mental associated as one if they are repeated experienced close together in time 0 Ex Lightening ashed then thunder booms thus they become associated 0 Many things are associated because one thing causes the other 0 Ex Your mom always got you chocolate cake for your birthday and it made you happy so now chocolate still makes you happy 0 Not all things are causes amp effect The Philosophical Roots of Behaviorism o Hedonism organisms learn for two reasons 1 Seek pleasure 2 Avoid pain Explains the motivate for leaning and behaving Implications for values and morality o Utiltiarism the best society creates the most happiness for the largest number of people 0 Ex Death row less people murdered learned about this in thosophy Behaviorism 3 kinds of learning 1 Habituation a decrease in responsiveness with each repeated exposure to something 0 Simples form of behavior change Ex Growing up in a quite farm lifestyle then you move to the city and you have to sleep with earplugs Eventually you get used to the sound Ex Video we watched of a mouse hearing shot Jumps at rst but get used to it o Stimulus must change or continually increase in order to maintain the intestate of the original response o It is possible to habituate to violence portrayed in the media and video games winning the lottery and being paralyzed This happiness all the time We go back to our base line 2 Classical Conditioning the kind of learning in which an unconditioned response that is naturally elicited by one stimulus becomes elicited also by a new conditioned stimulus o Physiology classical condition affects involuntary processes Ex You love ice cream and you salivate every time you see or smell ice cream You don t have to tell your brain to do this it just naturally does it Ex You re used to hear your mom making noises in the kitchen and knowing that you re going to eat dinner soon Now you salivate every time you hear her start banging around in the kitchen 0 Pavlov s dog Ex Watch a video on Pavlov s conditioning stimulus with ringing a bell Ex Then they moved on to a guy hearing Don t worry this won t hear a bitquot from two different people a week apart The rst time was when he got a painful shot and the second time was when he was at the dentist He jumped up and ran out of the room at the dentist because the those words freaked him out and brought him back to the original stimulus o Learned helplessness Ex Why do I keep on failing all my tests I can t do anything right I might as well give upquot o Stimulus response connections in personality Ex Maybe when some people hear loud talking it makes them think of fun and for some people it freaks them out 3 Operant conditioning an organism s behavior is shaped by the effect of the behavior on the environment 0 YOU LEARN THIS VOLUNTARY Ex Flushing the toilet making your bed folding your laundry as soon as it gets out of the dryer 0 Thorndike s law of effect responses followed by a rewarding state of affairs will be strengthening and responses followed by an aversive state of affairs will be weakened Ex The mice he studied started move pellets and how fast and smart animals are and how quickly they pick this up with rewards If they turn out bad we start doing this Ex Encouragement good roommates LOL BUT REALLY o Shaping is slowly getting someone to a certain place Ex Rewarding a kid for writing their name letter by letter This will progress to them writing their full name Ex Potty training to go to the bathroom wipe ush the toilet etc Ex You might have been shaped overtime with smiles frowning etc Can be good or bad Behaviorism Punishment 0 Punishment an unpleasant consequence that follows an act in order to stop it and prevent it from happening again 0 Alternative reward and response that is incompatible with the one you want to prevent 0 Ex You want your child to put their dishes in the dishwasher but they just put it in the sink But you encourage them for at least making it to the sink and not leaving their dishes on the table like usual Reinforcement and Punishment Video we watched o Reinforcing the right kind of behavior on your children 0 Ex Every time you have a tantrum your mother is really nice to you This very empathetic but you might nd this child has this kind of outburst a lot 0 Negative reinforcement it s not always punishment 0 Reinforcement a response to what is going on o Punishment is removing the unpleasant state of affairs Rules of correction and application of punishment Availability of alternative responses Alternatives should be available and rewarded so people can learned what they are supposed to do 0 EX If you don t want your kids running around the neighborhood you need to give them an alternative like doing homework or doing sports Behavioral and situational speci city is speci c about what is being punished and when so people learn what they are not supposed to do and what they are not supposed to do and what is an ok to do 0 Don t punished a child for being quotbadquot instead punish the behavior Ex A child can t run around in a restaurant tell them they can t run around in that kind of an environment They re not being quotbadquot because they can do it outside on the playground So maybe bring them a coloring book Apply punishment immediately after the behavior and every time it occurs 0 Consistently helps us understand what is being punished Ex Don t let it deepened on your mood You need to be consistent so the child knows what s going on and what you didn t appreciate Condition secondary punishment stimuli Verbal warnings are usually effective and allow the avoidance of the actual punishment 0 EX Count down 123 Avoid mixed messages Don t console directly after punishing o This can be rewarding Ex quotOh I feel so bad I made my kid sit in their room Maybe I ll bring them ice creamquot BAD IDEA Dangers of Punishment Arousing emotion in punisher and punished It is dif cult to be consistent moods uctuate It is dif cult to gauge the severity of physical and psychological pain caused Teaches misuse of power that powerful people get hurt less powerful people 0 Ex Parent spanks kid kid spanks younger brother They learned it from you Motivates concealment instead of learning It is nearly impossible to use punishment correctly 0 Ex I want to thank you for doing the dishes so I bought you a six packquot Social learning theory Suspicion that behaviorism did not tell the whole story o Kohler s chimps did more than learn from rewards they developed insight Ex The video we watched chimp had a peanut in a tube of and realize that they can ll it with water so that it will oat to the top Social learning theory 0 Reaction to shortcomings of behaviorism o Ignores motivations thought and cognition o Primarily based on animal research Some aspects of learning insight think may be more important in humans than they are in animals 0 Ignores the social dimension of learning yet we often learn by watching others 0 Organisms are treated as essentially passive We put animals in particular environments with speci c rules People often seek out environments and change them once they are there Dollard and Miller s Social Learning Theory 0 Habit hierarchy all the behaviors an individual might do ranked on order form most to least probable o The effects of rewards punishments and learning is to rearrange the habit hierarchy Ex Coming to class 1 Reading your textbook 2 Printing out textbook notes 3 Going to class 4 Studying after class 0 These might move around based experiences of reward 0 Learning does not change behavior it changes the hierarchy Ex Personality o Understands this to understand the person Dollar and Miller s Social Learning Theory 0 Motivation what a person wants and why they want it 0 Ex Your roommate doesn t clean the dishes 0 Drive a state of psychological tension that feels good when reduced 0 Ex Your room is a mess but you need to study You clean your room so that you can concentrate on your test later 0 Primary drives a drive that is innate to an organism food water physical comfort avoidance of physical pain sexual grati cation etc 0 Secondary drives a drive that is learned thought its association with a primary drive love prestige money power and avoidance of fear and humiliation learned during socialization Ex Wanting sex so you need to nd love rst Dollard and Miller s Social Learning 0 Drive Reduction theory for a reward to have the power to encourage the target behavior the reward must satisfy a need 0 lmpies that the goal of all behavior is to stratify every desire which would result in no motivation 0 Drive primary or secondary Need Behavior Satisfaction Reinforcement Ap l132015 Dollard and Miller s Social Learning Theory 0 ApproachAvoidance Con ict o Excited but kind of nervous about Ex Major marriage faith graduation 1 An increase in drive strength increases the tendency for approach or avoidance 2 When there are two competing responses the stronger response wins Ex You re hungry but you re also lonely So you ll deal with your loneliness after you eat 3 The tendency to approach increases as the positive goal gets closer Ex Worrying that a concert will get canceled but you are still excited 4 The tendency to avoid increases as the negative goal gets closer Ex Thinking about public speaking in front of your class The closer it got the most stressed out you get 5 The tendency to avoid is stronger than the tendency to approach Avoidance gradient as the event close in time the negative elements become more important than the positive elements a Ex Flying to Hawaii amp Fear of ying o The fear of ying makes you back out n Ex Marriage getting cold feet Dollard and Miller s Social Learning Theory Psychological con ict predictions 0 People are willing to commit to behaviors that produce con ict when they are far off in time Plan that trip for Hawaii far in advance o Regret will increase as the event get close in time Possibly a reason for harsh penalties when canceling ights last minute Rotter s Social Learning Theory 0 Emphasis on decision making and expectations 0 Expectancy value theory decisions are determined by the presence or size of reinforcements and about the likely results of behavior 0 Even if a reinforcement is very attractive you are not likely to pursue it if you chances of success seem slim 0 Even something that is not particularly desirable might motivate behavior if the chances of getting it are high 0 Ex You have a 100 chance of getting some hotties number Would you do it I said yes What about if you have a 50 chance of getting a hotties number Would you do it I said no 0 Expectations change what we actually do whether we do them or not Rotter s Social Learning Theory 0 Expectancy for behavior belief about how likely it seems that the behavior will attain its goal 0 Can be right or wrong Ex You believe that you can get everyone s number but you actually don t 0 The belief is what causes action or inaction 0 Different form classical behaviorism in which the actual reward is what is important 0 Speci c expectancy belief that a certain behavior at a certain time in place will lead to speci c outcome Ex You know that if you need money Monday nights are not a good time to ask mom for money You know Fridays are better because she s in a good mood 0 General expectancies general beliefs about whether anything you do are likely to make a difference Ex Believing that you re a dumbie and you re lucky to get into college because you re not very bright then this might limit you Rotter s Social Learning Theory Locus of control Another term for 0 People with high generalized expectancies have an internal locus of control You make things happen Ex quotIf I m failing personality psych l have the ability to change my grade by studying more and reading the chaptersquot 0 People with low generalized expectancies have an external locus of control Things happen to you Ex If I m falling personality psych I m not surprised because everything bad happens to me I m not smart at allquot 0 Video we watched The rat that has control and predictability is less stressed This relates to humans by us having control and predictability makes us have a better sense of well being Bandura s Social Learning Theory 0 Emphasizes the social nature of learning and the ways people interact with situations 0 Ef cacy expectations one s belief that one can perform a given goaldirected behavior 0 Bandura s interpretation of Rotter s expectancies 0 Differences is Rotter focused on the expectation of success if something is done and Bandura focused on the extraction of to do something in the rst place Bandura s Social Learning Theory 0 Ef cacy expectations 0 Selfef cacy a belief about what one is capable of doing another name for ef cacy expectations 0 In uenced by the selfconcept Ex Attractiveness and ability level 0 In uences motivation and performance 0 How To change behavior change ef cacy expectations by watching someone else accomplish the behavior modeling or forcing yourself to do the behavior Bandura s Social Learning Theory 0 Observational Learning learning a behavior by seeing someone else do it o Bobo Doll experiments One group of kids watched a video of adults playing with a Bobo doll and they were kicking the doll hitting the doll etc So when these kids received the doll they did the same thing as the adults in the video The other group of kids who didn t watch the video played with the doll in different ways not hitting the doll kicking the doll etc Bandrua s Social Learning Theory Reciprocal Determinism people affect their environments while their environment affect them 0 Person 3 0 Environment gtBehavior The CognitiveAffective Personality System CAPS People do more than behave observe and expect they also think 0 The most cognitive version of social learning theory Combines two important ideas 0 The individual s interpretation of the world is allimportant 0 Thoughts proceed simultaneously on multiple tracks that occasionally intersect Many things happen at the same time and we are only aware of the some of them CAPS Cognitive Person Variables Cognitive Person Variables properties and actives of the cognitive system that in uences individual differences in personality 1 Cognitive and behavioral abilities Ex High IQ s good at math bad at English 2 Encoding strategies and personal constructs Ex Your parents were very sensitive and support so if you needed help they would help you So now you re going to expect that from others 3 Subjective stimulus beliefs and values Ex 910 If you put your heart into something you will get it Vs Ex 910 if you put your heart into something you won t get it 4 Selfregulatory system and plans How we control ourselves a Ex Concentration rewarding yourself 5 Feelings and emotions Ex Some people are in touch with your sadness some people are fearful of it Sometimes it s conscious sometimes it s not CAPS If and Then 0 If Then Contingencies a repertoire of actions triggered by particular stimulus stations 0 Ex If X then Y o If I work hard then You will graduate People will be proud of me It still won t matter 0 Behavioral Signature a person s unique pattern of contingencies o In uenced over time by many interactions and the development of our cognitive systems Ex quotI m book smart but not street smartquot Ex quotI m good at my job but not at sportsquot Contributions of Learning Approaches to Personality 1 Establishing psychology as an objective science 2 Recognition that people s behavior depends on the environment and event the speci c immediate situation 0 These are due to a lot of our up bringing 3 A technology for behavior change 0 Used to treat phobias addictions and other emotional and behavioral disorders Ex Modeling If you have this belief that you can t y but you did y this changes things Children can watch this and learn from this 0 Works well in the short run Limitations of Learning Approaches to Personality Unclear whether behavioral therapies are generalizable and long las ng Underappreciating of the complexity of people s characteristics ways of thinking and how this can cause them to respond differently to the same situation 0 Maybe you were born with this stuff There s so much variability it s hard to pin down people s personality Ap l152015 Chapter 16 Personality Processes Personality Processes Personality Processes the mechanisms that unfold over time to produce the effects of personality traits 0 Includes perception thought motivation and emotion 0 Personality is a verb or something people do Perception People are predisposed to perceive the world in different ways 0 Part of our personalities o Priming activation of a concept or idea by repeatedly perceiving it or thinking about it 0 Ex Dr Bitney shows us a ash of a hamburger but our brain doesn t resister it because it was so fast Suddenly your stomach starts growling 0 Ex Mentioning to a person who has an eating disorder food they might start jumping to think about if the food will have fat in it the out t they will wear to make them look skinny if they already ate today etc 0 Chronic accessibility the tendency of an idea or concept to come easily to mind 0 People have predisposition to be primed for certain concepts 0 May come from evolution temperament or experience Ex Are you male Female What are you Why do we want to know Maybe because of the mating evolutionary reason Ex Threw experience if you see something quotSquot shaped on the ground you might think it s a snake Ex You grew up in family where your dad values courageous a lot you start looking for a person to marry who is very courageous Perception o Rejection Sensitivity people can be especially aware of suggestions of impending rejection 0 In uences interpretation of ambiguous signals 0 Often creates a selfful lling prophecy Ex This person would freak out if you don t respond to a text or email quickly They jump to conclusions thinking that you re wanting to break up with them In some ways this makes them make that person leave 0 Aggression related to the automatic tendency to perceive others as having a hostile intention or as a threat 0 Ex Antisocial PersonalityConduct Disorder 0 It can be internal and external Perception o Perceptual Defense screening out information that might make us anxious or uncomfortable 0 Similar to repression and denial 0 Research people can have physiological reactions to emotionally charged words before they are consciously aware of them 0 Implication we might be able to avoid conscious awareness of things we nd threatening 0 Ex Walking in on your parents having sex and it affected you but you keep on forgetting to tell your sibling because it keeps slipping your mind There s a reason for it o Vigilance and defense 0 Why do some people tend to see exactly what they fear most Maybe their defense mechanism Ex denial has too much bad stuff in it so you can t hold any of it This could cause you to maybe see the bad things everywhere There are real differences We love to think we re correct Whether it s good things or bad things Ex Dr Bitney s patents that are depressed have a hard time getting out of depression because they have been depressed for so long that they can t see past that Thought Consciousness Determines many but not all actions 0 Not all thinking is conscious Consciousness whatever the individual has in their mind at that moment 0 It s pretty limited Some places consider it your short term memory 0 Limited capacity 72 chunks o Chunks pieces of information that can be thought of as a unit What a chunk is can vary with learning and experience Experts use larger chunks Ex Social Psychology one BIG chunk Thought Consciousness STM and thinking 0 Constructs and chunks are similar ideas and are both based on experience and culture Consciousness and psychological health we can potentially ll up our consciousness with the wrong things negative thoughtsworries 0 Ex quotI need to be studying I m doing horrible in schoolquot 0 Ex quotI need to work more shifts I m not making a enough moneyquot Constructs chunks and consciousness make up distinctive view of the world Thought Unconscious Thoughts 0 People can do things without knowing why know things without knowing that they know and have thoughts and feeling they do not understand 0 The unconscious is important 0 We can do many things without thinking about them digestion pupil dilation or contraction o Consciousness is very small and life is more complicated than that 0 Research on unconscious priming Ex Adverting seeing that cartoon over and over and we want it Two Ways of Thinking DualProcess Models two systems that can work tat the same time o Conscious thought is re ective slow and largely rational o Unconscious thought is impulsive fact almost automatic and sometimes irrational Similar to idea of primarysecondary process thinking and rationalirrational thought 0 Different systems re ect different process Ex You see someone who is hot but you don t ask him or her out because they ve cheating on all of their girlfriends 0 You need this to make good situations Ex Finding a good restaurant you re most likely going to go to one that you ve had experience with CognitiveExperiential SelfTheory CEST Rational system learning memory 0 Experimental System Street smart When we can understand both of these we can better understand people and why they do what they do 0 Ex Conscioust saying something but you subconscious doesn t want you do something Rational System is analytic Resembles brand s secondary process thinlting Is logical driven by What is sensible Affects behavior through conscious appraisal of events Thinks in terms of abstract symbols words and numbers Operates at a slower speed designed for deliberate action Can change rapidly at the speed of logical thought is effortful and deliberate eg sitting down to do some serious thinking Requires justification via logic and evidence Produces knowledge Experiential System is holistic liesembles Freud s primary process thinking Is affective driven by What feels good Drives behavior through vibes from past experience Thinks in terms of vivid images metaphors and stories Operates at a very high speed designed for immediate action is slow to change needs repetitive or intense experiences for change is effortless and automatic eg being seized by one s emotions Is selfevidently valid experiencing is believing Produces wisdom Motivation 0 Goals the end result that one desires 0 Goals drive behavior by in uencing what you attend to think about and do Ex You want to make a lot of money so you get a degree that guarantees you with a high end paying job 0 Explicit goals goals people are consciously aware of can talk about and describe Ex Making an A in a class graduating being a doctor o Implicit goals unconscious goals people may not realize they have Ex You want to help people you like to tell people what to do H Ex Out performs your brother because he was perfect to your parents so you try and one up him and become a doctor Making progress towards implicit goals is related to happiness Motivation Goals Being aware of longterm goals can help a person make better decisions and organize shortterm goals Shortterm goals are needed to achieve longterm goals 0 Ex Short term passing a class 0 Ex Working a job you hate but saving the money to study abroad Being aware of connections between them gives life meaning and purpose ldiographic goals goals that are unique to the individual how pursue them aimed to fairly speci c outcomes and can change over time 0 Current concerns 0 Personal projects Ex Planning a friend s wedding 0 Personal Strivings Ex Loosing weight Motivation Nomothetic Goals Nomothetic Goals universal or essential motivations that almost everyone pursues 0 Research on number of goals 3 goals McClelland s three primary motivations 1 Needs for achievement 2 Af liation 3 Power 5 goals Emmon s Five 1 Enjoyment 2 Selfassertion 3 Esteem 4 Interpersonal success 5 Avoidance of native affect 2 goals Kaiser amp Ozer found two 1 Work 2 Social interaction Motivation Nomothetic Goals Seil fa tralnscendence Spirituality 3 Community Conformity Extrinsic intrinsic Popularity Image v Affiliation lt lSelf nepcepta ce 39 a Physical health Safety Financial success V Hedonism Physical self Motivation Strategies 0 Strategies a sequence of activities that progress toward a goal 0 Defensive pessimism assume the worst will happen and use this to motivate goalseeking behavior Find relief when the worst outcome doesn t happen even when some things do go wrong Ex quotI m going to show up to this job and I m not going to do it People are going to judge me etcquot I using SpongeBob voice 3 hours later Oh I got thejobu They feel better if they think that they won t do very vveH o Optimism assuming that the best will happen Advantages and disadvantages to both strategies but optimists are generally happier Ex Your roommate doesn t do the dishes so you pay her to help do this Emotion o A type of procedural knowledge 0 Knowledge that cannot be learned or fully expressed through words but only through action and experience 0 An Emotion is a set of mental and psychical procedures 0 How the body and mind respond is part of the emotion You learn about depression sadness and joy as being threw all of those emotions Emotion and Experience 0 Basic Stages appraisal psychical response facial expressions nonverbal behavior motives 0 Stages can happen at the same time or in a different order 0 Complex mixture of thought physical sensation and motivations Possible sources immediate stimuli classical conditioning memories and thoughts 0 Ex You think of an embracing moments it can bring you shame 0 Ex Walking down a dark ally where you got mugged so now you get that same feeling when you walk down a dark ally Varieties of Emotions Core emotions happiness sadness anger fear surprise disgust 0 Some emotions may be universal because they were evolutionarily advantageous o It may be advantageous to be able to perceive these emotions accurately in others An Emotions Circumplex Americans usually want high emotions extraverted happiness 0 Ex Some people hate being bored so they do drugs 0 Ex Some people wish they had time to be bored and don t really mind it Aroused Alarme j 39 Defiant Astoniiehed I Exc39ted 39 incensed eager 4 x I iEinV iouis Amused disgusted affectionate f r i i Negatwe i f Posutwe Miserable Nostalgic ashaimiecl humble f x 39 f Dazed Solemni xx Bored lethargic sleepy serene Unaroused Emotion Individual Differences in Emotional Life Emotions are core aspects of personality 0 Emotional experiences people differ in their tendency to experience various emotions o Affect lntensity some people experience emotions more strong than others 0 People who are highly extraverted are more likely to feel more emotions o Emotional intelligence accurately perceiving emotions in oneself and others and controlling and regulating one s own emotions 0 Ex Wow I notice myself being really upset I wonder why I feel like thisquot 0 Very useful Emotion Happiness 0 Three components to happiness 1 Overall satisfaction with life 2 Satisfaction with particular life domains Ex Socialsexual functioning physicalmental health nances family wellbeing spirituality etc 3 Generally high levels of positive emotion and low levels of negative emotion Emotion Sources of Happiness Circumstances quotl 0 Intentional activity 40 Set point 50 0 Ex Circumstances my life will be so much better once I nd a husband good job etc 0 Ex Intentional activity I m going to be more optimistic working on important life goals graduating friends This is easiest to change Emotional Happiness Happiness may also be a cause of important outcomes 0 Health occupational success supportive relationships con dence likeability social ability energy level improved immune function pain tolerance and overall psychical health 0 Happiness may have a dark side negative outcomes 0 Trying to be happy can lead to lying to yourself 0 Research on Happiness o The differences in happiness seem to be same Apnl202015 Chapter 17 The Self What You Know About You The land the Me o The self can have two different meanings The me an object that can be observed and described 0 Easier to describe because you can see it Ex You have brown hair 0 The I Does the observing experiencing and describing Recent research focuses on the me because it can be more easily studied The Self Across Cultures Two approaches 1 The rst assumes the self is a Western cultural artifact that has no meaning in other cultures 2 The second addresses the way the self and its implications differ across cultural context Often explores individual vs collectivist cultures Is the Self a Cultural Artifact Some evidence that people from different cultures do think of the self 0 But in fundamentally different ways 0 Differences in how Americans and South Asians describe others Americans 50 trait terms friendly cheap etc South Asians 20 trait terms what they do for others a Ex Brings cakes to my family has trouble giving to his family Differences in number of trait terms in languages Individualist and collectivist Selves Personality matters in both kinds of cultures 0 Western self is a relatively separate entity 0 Eastern self is more integrated into the social and cultural context Selfregard amp selfrespect Consistency expectations for consistency depend on the perceived cause of behavior 0 lndividualistic cultures perceive cause of behavior as internal and expect consistency o Collectivistic cultures perceive cause of behavior to be external based on context and do not expect consistency also feel less con icted about inconsistent behavior There s more ways for you to be very different a Ex quotWith my family I m sweet With my friend s l m funnyquot The Contents and Purposes of the self 1 Selfregulation ability to restrain impulses and keep focus on long term goals and maintain selfimage 0 Ex If you want to graduate college you stayed motivated by going to class doing homework and reading the textbook 2 Information processing filter helps us focus on remember and organize the information that matters to us 3 Helps us understand others helps with empathy by imagining how we feel 4 Identity reminds us where we t in our relations with others 0 Positive in the family and community The Contents and Purposes of the self 0 Two types of selfknowledge 1 Declarative explicit knowledge the facts and impressions that we consciously now and can describe Ex quotI have blonde hairquot 2 Procedural implicitly knowledge knowledge expressed through actions rather than words Ex quotI m not sure why I picked Chinese food over Mexicanquot We tend to know these things about people by just being around them a Ex Our relationships friendships parents The Declarative Self SelfEsteem o Declarative self all of your conscious knowledge or opinions about your own personality traits o Selfesteem your overall opinion about whether you are good or bad worthy or unworthy or somewhere in between 0 Low selfesteem linked to depression 0 Selfesteem can be too high 0 How to legitimately increase selfesteem Self compassion I The video we watched where the psychologist beat himself up when he messed up during a research study One of his grad students told him to have compassion on himself So many of us have compassion toward others when they mess up but not when we mess up The Declarative Self The SelfSchema SelfSchema all of one s ideas about the self organized into a coherent system 0 Can be assessed with S data or B data 0 May have important consequences for how one processes information What we remember Speed of processing The Declarative Self SelfReference and Memory SelfReference Effect the enhancement of longterm memory that comes from thinking of how information relates to the self 0 The knowledge structure related to the self is rich well developed and often used 0 Explains why your most meaningful memories stay with you thelongest 0 You should do this while studying Depends on culture the selfreference effect may work differently in different cultures The Declarative Self SelfEf cacy SelfEfficacy one s beliefs about the degree to which one will be able to accomplish a goal if one tries 0 Sets the limits for what we attempt to do 0 Growth vs xed mindset 0 Carol Dweck believes this may form the foundations of personality They tested children and gave them a set of problems but then encouraged them at the end When they give them a really challenging set of blocks if you give them praise they are most likely going to do well Because to yourself you re hard on yourself but with someone else gives you praise this helps a lot What you say about yourself says a lot You want them to have a growth mindset The Declarative Self Possible Selves Possible selves the images we have or can construct of the other possible ways we might be 0 Evidence that it affects mate preferences 0 We want future selves that ful ll the needs for selfesteem competence and meaning 0 Possible future selves may affect goals 0 We want similar future selves continuity of identity 0 Ex Someone telling you to picture to what it looks like to be a mom in the future What do you usually look for as women Usually someone who have a good income 0 Ex Someone telling you to think about your future job in ten years This will help you get threw college 0 You don t picture yourself in a future self and are often similar to who we are now Often happier richer selves We re not night and day The Declarative Self SelfDiscrepancy Theory 0 Ideal vs Ought Self the interactions between possible selves and the actual self determines feelings about life 0 Ideal self view of what you could be at your best Discrepancy leads to depression because of disappointment at failing to achieve rewards We have a lot of quotself squot out there It can come from n Ex Family co workers friends What we would love to be doing if life was going really well 0 Ought self view of what you should be Discrepancy leads to anxiety because of fear of punishment This starts to weigh heavy on us and who we think we should be The Declarative Self Accurate SelfKnowledge o A hallmark of mental health Accurate selfknowledge allows people to make better decisions on important issues 0 Process for gaining accurate selfknowledge 0 We learn about ourselves in the same way we learn about others 0 Realistic Accuracy Model RAM Relevance availability detection utilize The Declarative Self Accurate selfknowledge o Selfknowledge vs knowledge of others 0 Important differences in perceiving ourselves vs others Others know our behaviors better than we do n Attending to the self is dif cult a All you see is what you decide to do and this is dif cult to compare to what others do We know our emotional experience better than do others The Declarative Self Accurate Selfknowledge 0 Improving selfknowledge o lntrospection look into your own mind and understand who you are honestly evaluate your behavior 0 Seek feedback either through direct feedback or from reading subtle nonverbal indicators of what people think of you Ex Taking the Big Five a lot of people were surprised how they really are This shows how unobservant we really are with ourselves 0 Observe own behavior put yourself in different situations try new things and meet new people Ex Speaking up about things around certain friends The Procedural Self 0 Procedural Self patterns of behavior that are typical for you the unique aspects of what you do includes ways of doing things or procedures 0 Not conscious and not possible to explain to others 0 Learned by doing and watching others Includes relational self and implicit self The Procedural Self Relational Relational selves patterns of social skills and styles of relating to others 0 Relational self sschema selfknowledge based on past experiences that direct how we relate to the important people in our lives 0 Deeply ingrained and dif cult to change Probably because they are set early in life 0 Ex Going to a social event because you believe you can make friends therefore you make friends easier The Procedural Self Implicit Selves o Implicit Selves selfrelevant behavioral patterns that are not readily accessible to consciousness unconscious selfknowledge 0 We are not aware of these characteristics but they in uence our behavior Ex Self esteem shyness Includes the relational self Measured with the Implicit Association Test IAT by testing the strength of associations in an individual s cognitive system that the person might not be conscious of 0 Doesn t always match up with how we think about ourselves consciously This is hidden stuff 0 Ex You don t think you are worth being loved so you keep on dating really bad and awful people just to feel some sort of love and don t see your worth The Procedural Self Conscious and Unconscious SelfConsciousness Conscious selfconsciousness awareness of who one is and what one is doing 0 Negative implications Unconscious selfconsciousness view of the self affects behavior is ways the person is not aware of 0 Goal directed behavior 0 Information processing 0 Ex Someone giving a speech and aware that you re sweating 0 Ex Evaluating yourself and seeing if you re doing a good job 0 Acquiring and changing procedural knowledge How Many Selves 0 Some theorist think each person has many declarative and procedural selves o The active self depends on where you are and who is 0 Working selfconcept the view that the self is continuously changing Problems with this theory 0 A unitary and consistent sense of self is associated with mental health 0 Which self decides which self to be 0 Where does some stop fractionating the self Video Personality and how it changes over time 0 We end up changing a lot over a decade 0 The one constant in our lives is change Question 1 o The concept of the self A Is the same in all cultures B Exists in only some cultures D ls equally consistent across situations Question 2 0 When you describe yourself as hardworking and friendly you are describing the B Procedural self C lmplicit self D Most important self Question 3 o The procedural self A Is easy to change C Is measured with selfreport or 5 data D Can be used to increase memory for new information because the selfreference effect Apnl222015 Chapter 18 Disorders of Personality Personality Disorders Abnormal Psychology patterns of thought feeling and behavior beyond the normal range of psychological variation 0 Personality Disorder longstanding pervasive in exible extreme and persistent patterns of behavior and inner experience 0 There is not an exact point that differentiates between normal and disorder personality The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM 0 First edition 1952 o Included a list of description of personality disorders 0 The last edition DSMIV TR 2000 o Newly published DSM5 May 2013 0 Purpose of DSM 0 Make diagnosis more objective 0 Common langue for disorders 0 Help researchers insurance billing De ning Personality Disorders Five General characteristics 1 Unusually extreme personality attributes o In terms of cultural context 0 Denial of reality 2 Problematic o For the person anxiety depression confusion 0 Or for others 3 Impacts social relationships 4 Stable over time 0 Begin in adolescence or childhood 0 Dif cult to change with therapy 5 Egosyntonic 0 Symptoms are seen as normal and valued aspects of personality 0 They think others are the ones with a problem Ex quotI just like for things to be tidy There s something wrong with you because you have not been taught to put things in the dishwasherquot Some people know that there is something wrong but some times they have no idea 0 But some people don t know anything is wrong How We Diagnosis 0 Clinical impression most common based on unstructured interviews and clinical intuition and experience 0 Open and exible adjust diagnosis criteria if necessary use common sense 0 Unreliable o Unstructured Tell me about yourself what s going on tell me about your familyquot If they start talking about depression and stuff they will guide it to ask more questions Psychologist uses their experience and what s really going on This can be a very unreliable way This can be very hard to do Selfreport scales ask people whether they exhibit sings of personality disorders S data 0 Advantages o Disadvantages o Gives them big true questionnaires Ex Do I like people yes noquot It s easy it s cheep If they don t think there s anything wrong with them this could be a problem Not always the best because some clients are unreliable How we Diagnosis Structured interviews series of questions designed to maintain objectivity while zeroing in on relevant characteristics 0 Advantages and disadvantages Advantages D You don t have to have a lot to training a You re just asking a lot of yesno questions 0 Ex Do you feel depressed a lotquot yes ask them more questions about depression Disadvantages a You can be bias in what you answer n It can be very frustrating to go threw this because the questions take so much time o Informant report I data 0 Advantages and disadvantages of I data 0 Consensus about symptoms needed The most information form the widest possible number of sources will lead to the most accurate diagnosis Ex Talk to someone s mom or spouse n It can be very bias because maybe you just got into a ght with you n It can be nice to hear the same thing over and over again to see what this person is actually like If they have a personality disorder many people will have problems with them so it will be evident The Major Personality Disorders 0 10 major disorders in 3 clusters 0 Cluster A odd and eccentric patterns of thinking more linked to schizophrenia 3 total 0 Cluster B Impulsive and erratic patterns of behavior 4 total 0 Cluster C Anxious and avoidant emotional styles 4 total Cluster A Odd Eccentric Disorders Cluster A Thinking is strange eccentric or delusional more linked to schizophrenia Schizotypal personality disorder an extreme pattern of odd beliefs and behaviors and of dif culties relating to others 1 Ideas of reference 2 Magical thinking bizarre fantasies believing odd phenomenon 3 Strange perceptual experiences 4 Odd speech or thinking Made up with a lot of different symptoms It s not a lot to have just one or two of them Ex The professor was talking to the class but I knew he was talking to mequot The weather man was speaking to the city but I know he was speaking in code to youquot 5 Suspiciousness or paranoia Ex Wearing a foil cap so people don t eat your mind Inappropriate or attened emotions Odd peculiar or eccentric actions or appearance Ex Dr Bitney thinks he s like Johnny Depp in Willy Wonka 8 Failure to develop friendships and lack of social ties other than one s immediate family Part of it might be that they dress a little different talk a little different 9 Anxiety being around other people that does not go away Cluster A OddEccentric Disorders Schizoid Personality Disorder an extreme pattern of seeming indifferent to others and cold bland style of behavior 0 No pleasure form social interaction This person doesn t really get lonely Not that they don t like people they just don t really care 0 Indifferent to the options of others Ex Maybe live out in the woods 0 Rarely experience strong feelings often having a restricted range of emotional expressions This person is not very likely to come into therapy 0 These folks often live solitary lives Cluster A OddEccentric Disorders 0 Paranoid Personality Disorder an extreme pattern of suspicion hostility and resentment 0 Assume the worst in everyone suspecting that others are exploiting harming or deceiving himher without suf cient evidence Alert for signs of betrayal o Reluctant to trust or con de in anyone ICD O They won t come to therapy because they think that someone will share their info This may nd it very hard to get close to people Cluster B ImpulsiveErratic Disorders Cluster B problems in regulating behavior and thinking lead to impulsive and erratic behavior 0 Histrionic personality disorder an extreme pattern of attention seeking behavior and shallow but dramatically expressed emotions 0 Goal is to always be the center of attention 0 Express strong options without basis 0 Strong emotions that suddenly change or disappear Ex They might be happy to see you one day and pissed off at you in another Ex quotOh my gosh I love youquot We just met This is strangequot Ex Someone dressing a lot like Lady Gaga is weird It s for attention Not trying to make you miserable they just want a lot of attention Relationships are very one sided because they only talk about themselves Cluster B ImpulsiveErratic Disorders Narcissistic personality disorder NPD an extreme pattern of arrogant exploitative behavior combined with notable lack of empathy 0 Excessive selflove o Belief that one is exceptional Ex They might keep someone around because they like them and tell them how wonderful they are More extreme than the trait of narcissism Needs the admiration of others even if it s not genuine Exploits others and expects Lack of empathy Not trying to be jerks just trying to ll in this emptiness with attention 0 Extreme arrogance Ex quotThere s nothing wrong with me They re something wrong with themquot Ex They spend time around famouspopularpowerful people They name drop a lot Oh I just hung out with Beyonc quot This makes them feel famous too and impresses others Hitler was like this Cluster B ImpulsiveErratic Disorders 0000 o Antisocial personality disorder an extreme pattern of deceitful manipulative and sometimes dangerous behavior 0 Illegal actives vandalism theft and drug dealing o Risky behaviors reckless driving drug abuse and dangerous sexual practices 0 Irritable aggressive and irresponsible Ex Hit your car but not leave a note Ex Don t pay child support 0 Problems caused to others do not bother them Ex Someone could be a CEO or a politician by cutting throat to get to the top Ex If you didn t leave such awesome stuff in you car I wouldn t have broken into it and stole itquot Cluster B ImpulsiveErratic Disorders 0 Borderline personality disorder BPD an extreme and sometimes dangerous pattern of emotional instability emotional emptiness confused identity and tendencies toward selfharm most severe PD 1 Rapid mood shifts Might also get diagnosed with bipolar disorder Uncontrollable anger Selfdestructive acts Selfdamaging behaviors Identity disturbance Usually end up in therapy and pretty upset about it Their relationships are pretty bad 6 Chronic emptiness Their relationships are bland 7 Unstable relationships 0 Ex Breaking up and getting back together constantly 8 Fear of abandonment 9 Confusion and feelings of unreality Possible origins o It could be genetic or environment 0 Treatment for BPD Dialectical behavioral therapy DBT Ap l272015 Cluster C AnxiousAvoidant Disorders Cluster C Excessive anxiety avoidance of social contact and relationships behavioral patterns driven by anxiety Dependent personality disorder an extreme pattern of relying on others to take care of one s needs and making decisions combined with a bitter kind of agreeableness o Submissive interpersonal style 0 Fear disagreeing with others U1gtUU Doesn t want to be in charge of their lives They will keep on getting into controlling relationships Very rare disorder and more common in women Cluster C AnxiousAvoidant Disorders Avoidant personality disorder fear of failure criticism or rejection leads to avoidance of normal actives o Expect the absolute worst from others 0 Need to constant reassurance of uncritical acceptance 0 Deep cravings for affection and social acceptance Avoiding people to avoid this painful reality of people not liking them They can come across as cold Cluster C AnxiousAvoidant Disorders 0 Obsessivecompulsive personality disorder OCPD and extreme pattern of rigidly conscientiousness behavior including an anxious and in exible adherence to rules and rituals perfectionism and stubborn resistance to change not the same as obsessive compusive disorder 0 Ex Staying at home all weekend and reorganizing your CD s in aphetically orders 0 High contentiousness 0 Zero exibility o Stubbornness to change Over concern with rules and details Perfectionism Workaholism ln exibility of thinking and behaving Packrat behavior Inability to delegate Miserliness Rigidity and stubbornness n Somewhat egosyntonic n feel like I am very much like this Organizing the Personality Disorders 0 All disorders seem to be associated with an inability to hold thoughts in active working memory which prevents nding different ways to solve problems 0 Disorders can be exhibited in different ways 0 People can exhibit characters of several disorders once Over 50 of personality disorder overlap o No clearcut requirements for diagnosing a personality disorder Only some of the symptoms need to be present Organizing the Personality Disorders Po P P PPUNE 0 Alternatives several suggested 0 m identify a set of dimensions that can describe the entire range of personality 0 Including normal and abnormal patterns This will be useful for psych s to know your strengths Biosocial learning model arrange personality disorders according to three dimensions emphasizing the ways people focus on themselves or others are active or passive and primarily seek reward or avoid pain 0 Not consistently supported by empirical research Organizing the personality disorders Prototypes ideal exemplars real objects may match a prototype more or less well even while differing from each other 0 Degree to which a person s symptoms match a disorder prototype o Acknowledges the complexity of diagnosis the overlap of categories and the heterogeneity within categories 0 There s a lot of grey areas because someone can be depressed for a few weeks because of a break up or a month because of a death Organizing the Personality Disorders Circumplex models 0 Similar to those for goals and emotions The Big Five personality traits one of the best supported and most accepted structures 0 Seen by some as the foundation of most of the variation in personality 0 When traits are at the extremes THE 10 PRINCIPAL PERSONALITY DISORDRES IN TERMS OF THE BIG FIVE TRAITS OF PERSONALITY Personality Openness to Disorder Neuroticism Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Experience Schizotypal High Low High Schizoid Low Low Paranoid High Iow Histrionic High High High High Narcissistic High Low High High Antisocial High High Low Low Borderline High Iow Low Dependent High High Avoidant High Low Obessive High Iow High Low compulsive Note Each of the 10 principal personality disorders can he described in terms of extreme positions on the Big Five factors of personality A blank means that no association between that trait and the disorder is expected Source Adapted from Widiger Trull Clarkin Sanderson 8 Costa 2002 Table 61 p 90 Toward the DSM5 0 Major revision May 2013 0 Proposed major reorganization of personality disorders with lots of controversy 0 Main goals be more in line with modern research correct important shortcomings disorganized and unclear criteria for diagnosis categorical classi cations Suggested retaining only 6 of 10 disorders 0 Antisocial avoidant borderline narcissistic obsessive compulsive and schizotypal Suggestions for the DSM5 0 Ratings of 5 maladaptive personality traits 0 Negative affectivity anxiety depression suspicion Sounds like high neuroticism o Detachment tendency to withdraw from and avoid emotional contacts with others Sounds like low extraversion o Antagonism including deceitfulness grandiosity callousness and manipulations Sounds like low agreeableness o Disinhibiting lack of selfcontrol leading to impulsive behavior Sounds like low consciousness o Psychoticism tendency to have bizarre thoughts or experiences and to exhibit eccentric behavior Sounds like openness to experience You re so open to unique and strange things that is comes off as bizarre Suggestions for the DSM5 Advantages of these ratings 0 Maps onto the Big Five o lmplies the differences between abnormal and normal personality lie along a continuum Personality and Disorder Pathologizing behavior describing them as the result of mental iHness 0 There are disadvantages to describing so many behaviors as pathological 0 Do all bad people have personality disorders 0 Should we refrain from punishing socially undesirable illegal or immoral behavior because people suffer from antisocial personality disorder 0 Describing behavior as the result of mental illness is too easy Personality and Disorder 0 Mental Health 0 Apologizing tells us most us almost nothing about nature of mental health Mental health means more than not having any of the symptoms listened in the DSM 0 Improving mental health requires an understandings of normal personality Not just mental illness and personality disorders This is one motivator of positive psychology Personality and Disorder Labeling o The DSM labels are misleading Because no one ts the act criteria for any category people often have characteristics of several categories and they are dif cult to apply consistently and reliably 0 Can limit understanding By leading to not taking the person s feelings outlook and rights seriously and decreasing empathy o A label is not an expatiation for what is going on This can be helpful though because you can hangout with people like you 0 Labels an be useful and are necessary Normal and Abnormal 0 There is not a sharp diving line 0 Having a mild degree of few characteristics does not imply having a disorder Disorders may be thought of as exaggerated versions of traits that are advantageous when in the normal range ADAPTIVE TRAITS AND PERSONALITY DISORDERS Positive Personality Trait Related Personality Disorder Idiosyncratic original different drummer Scliizotypal Independent self suf cient needs nobody Schizoid Vigilant wary a survivor Paranoid Dramatic flamboyant iun Histrionic Seliconi dent proud Narcissistic Strong willful self reliant Antisocial Mercurial exciting re and ice Borderline Devoted faithful reliable mate Dependent Sensitive quiet a homebody Avoidant Conscientious relialble consistent Obsessivecompulsive Note The personality disorders can be considered extreme variations of traits that may ordinarily be adaptive and desirable Source Compiled from suggestions by Oldham and Morris 1995 and other writers Think about it o It is generally good to be tolerant of individual differences and to accept people as they are 0 Yes because we should all be a little exible Is this wise in case of someone whit a personality disorder 0 Does this depend on which disorder the person has 0 What are the characteristics of a healthy personality 0 The nice mean in between Not on the extreme Ex You re friendly but not too friendly Ap l292015 Chapter 19 Conclusion looking back and looking ahead Why Different Approaches Because we can t account for everything about while person at the same time 0 It s overwhelming and impossible 0 We must limit ourselves to a certain perspective to a questions and variables that seem most important 0 Each approach focuses on a few key concerns and ignores everything else 0 No single approach accounts for everything 0 This might be a good thing a single approach would be unwieldy confusing incoherent and incomplete The Different Approaches Which one is right 0 The approaches cannot be meaningfully compared as to which one is quotrightquot because they are not different answers to the same question 0 They pose different questions 0 A better criterion for evaluating a psychological approach is whether it offers a way to seek an answer to a question you feel is worthwhile Some Worthwhile Questions 1 Does personality exist Trait 2 How does brain structure biochemical and genes produce personality traits Biological 3 What role does unconscious play in motivating personality and behavior Psychoanalytic 4 What role does conscious awareness play in awareness play in motivating personality and behavior humanistic 5 How do we choose to see reality and how is this in uence by culture Humanistic and cultural 6 How do rewards and punishments in the environment in uence personality and behavior Behaviorism and social learning 7 How are basic mental processes related to how we see ourselves Cognitive 8 How is personality developed Learning social learning cognitive The Different Approaches Choosing a basic approach 0 What do you want to understand Ex Freud stuff 0 Which approach is most interesting to you 0 Best potential for doing interesting work The Different Approaches Reasons for maintaining an awareness of alternative approaches 0 Avoid arrogance or thinking you know it all 0 Understanding for evaluating alternative approaches 0 Deal with phenomenon that do not t your preferred approach 0 Have a chance to change your mind Helps us understand mental illness and other things 0 Be able to integrate a few approaches What have we learned Crosssituational consistency and aggregation people remain who they are across situations 0 Yet consistency is limited because behavior does change across situations although people who are high on a trait in one situation are also high on the trait in other situations and personality cannot predict single acts very well but aggregate behavior can be predicted well 0 Both situations and personality are important 0 Video changing your environment changes you A lady was told that she was not a good listener because she was checking her email that people were talking to her This then made her employees feel like she doesn t care So she changed her seating in her of ce so that she couldn t look at her computer This then made her employees feel like they care THIS IS SITUATIONAL BASED What have we learned 0 The biological roots of personality genetics anatomical structure of the brain neurotransmitters and hormones have implications for personality 0 But there is still a lot to learn 0 The Unconscious mind the importance of this is now mainstream o The conscious awareness is not majority of your personality What have we learned 0 Free will and responsibility behavior is determined by genetics or past experiences only up to a point and then the person has to make a choice 0 The nature of happiness based on more than material possessions or from external circumstances 0 Happiness does not come from being stressfree but from seeking out and accomplishing reasonable and meaningful chaHenges What have we learned 0 Behavioral change rewards and punishments affect the likelihood of certain behaviors but people can also often choose which rewards and punishments they will be subject to by choosing to put themselves in certain situations 0 Law school the military medical school What have we learned 0 Culture and personality importance of how people differ between and within cultures but similarities or basic universal psychological processes are also important 0 Ex Race religion sexuality etc Construals our opinion of reality is what matters people have different consturals 0 WE must understand how other people perceive the world to understand other people 0 We should not judge others 0 Ex Jesus compared to someone whom nds value in mediation What have we learned 0 The ne uncertain and important line between normal and abnormal labeling is important and necessary but can also be dangerous because it s easy to apologize too many patterns of thought and behavior and to see people only as their label The Quest for understanding 0 To learn about someone watch and listen to what they do and say 0 We cannot directly know their thoughts and feelings Determine correctness by trying to explain and predict behavior 0 Personality psychology is in the nal analysis a quest for mutual understandingquot Question 1 0 Which approaches to personality isare correct A Social Learning B Humanistic C Psychoanalytic and behavioral Question 2 o The fact that no single approach can A Will never be able to understand behavior B Need to continue to work to develop a unifying theory D Have not been successful scientists Question 3 o In order to understand another person you B Should collect as much of none kind of information as possible C Have to ask the person to tell you about himself or himself D Have to observe the person s behavior


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