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Public Speaking Lecture Notes

by: Kaitlyn Kirkhart

Public Speaking Lecture Notes 2338

Marketplace > Texas State University > Communication Studies > 2338 > Public Speaking Lecture Notes
Kaitlyn Kirkhart
Texas State
GPA 3.3
Public Speaking
Professor Critchfield-Jones

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These notes really helped me study for the exams and I hope they can help you too!
Public Speaking
Professor Critchfield-Jones
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This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Kaitlyn Kirkhart on Monday October 5, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 2338 at Texas State University taught by Professor Critchfield-Jones in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Public Speaking in Communication Studies at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 10/05/15
Public Speaking 12142014 Ted Talk httpswwwtedcomtaksjanemcgonigathegamethatcangiveyou10 extrayearsoflife August 28 2014 Chapter 1 Speaking with Con dence Why study public speaking o Empowerment 0 Con dence o Conviction 0 Critical Thinking 0 Employment 0 Employers desire skilled speakers The Communication Process 0 Reviewing the Parts 0 Source encodes message 0 Encoding can also be nonverbal Message what is said and how it is said 0 Channel how message is transmitted Receiver decodes message 0 Decoding how things can be said 0 Noise interferes with message 0 Context Reviewing the Models 0 Action Linearone way Going out 0 Interaction Feedback context 0 Transaction mutual in uence Speech Making had a Rich Heritage 0 Aristotle 4th Century Greek Rhetoric Flourishes Early Elocutionists Movements stylized posture and gesture Current electronic media makes speaking to vast audiences possible Understand Your Nervousness Nervousness is normal 0 Public Speaking ranks high in anxiety creating situations 0 The audience cannot see your nervousness remember the quotillusion of transparency from COMM 1310 0 Use your anxiety Build Your Con dence 0 Don t procrastinate Know your audience and focus on them 0 Select an appropriate topic 0 Prepare Be organized Be familiar with your intro and conclusion Simulate actual speech conditions Breathe deeply Picture positive outcomesvisualize Use positive selftalk Chapter 3 Speaking Freely and Ethically 0 Ethics the beliefs values and moral principles by which people determine what is right or wrong 0 What else do you include in your de nition of ethics 0 In American we are taught to value The American Dream Self Individualism Money 0 As a student we value Education 0 In family life we value Ourselves How do your ethics in uences your behavior 0 ParentsGuardians Where did you re acquire your ethical standards Speaking Ethically Your goal should be clear to your audience no hidden agendas Use sound seasoning and evidence Be sensitive and tolerant of differences Be honest 0 Do not plagiarize 0 Do your own work 0 Cite your sources Speak credibly o Knowledgeable dynamic trustworthy September 9 2014 Chapter 5 Analyzing Your Audience Becoming an AudienceCentered Speaker 0 lnformally 0 Demographics information about Age gender sexual orientation education and religious views culture socioeconomic status ethnicity o Formally o Openended questions unrestricted answers 0 Closedended questions limited answers Information About Your Audience 0 How are they similar 0 How are they different 0 How can I establish common ground Adapting to Your Audience Ethically using audience information to adapt messages for clarity and your objective Modifying messages for better clarity Helps achieve ethical goalgoals More About Demographics Socioeconomic status 0 Income 0 Occupation 0 Education 0 Group Membership 0 Religious 0 Political 0 Work 0 Social 0 Service Adapting to Cultural Differences Cultural Value Cultural Characteristics Individualistic Individual success emphasized Collectivistic Group success emphasized HighContext The context of the message nonverbal cues is valued more than words LowContext Words are more important than context Tolerance for uncertainty Accept ambiguity Need for certainty Want speci cs HighPower Culture Status and power are emphasized roles clearly de ned LowPower culture Strive for equality LongTerm Time Accomplishing goals may take time time is abundant ShortTerm Time Time is an important resource Adapting to Diverse Listeners 0 Focus on target audience 0 Use variety of supporting materials Tell stories 0 Balance logic with emotion Psychological Audience Analysis Attitudes likes and dislikes Beliefs perceptions of true or false Values enduring concept of good or bad right or wrong Audiences can be 0 Interested or uninterested o Favorable or unfavorable 0 Voluntary or captive Situational Audience Analysis 0 M when and how long will speak 0 Audience size 0 Location type of room arrangement of chairs Occasion event Customizing Your Message to Your Audience 0 Refer to 0 Name of listeners 0 Place of speech 0 Historical events Mention recent news related to topic 0 Give positive reference to groups or organizations in the audience 0 Discuss topic s relevance for listeners Analyzing Your Audience After You Speak Observe nonverbal responses Listen for verbal comments Survey audience Check for desired behavioral responses from audience September 112014 Chapter 6 Developing Your Speech Steps in Preparing a Speech 0 1 Select and narrow topic 0 2 Determine purpose 0 3 Develop central idea 0 4 Generate main ideas Step 1 Select and Narrow Your Topic 0 Should be relevant to listeners interests and expectations Should consider knowledge levels of listeners Should be important Should be appropriate to audience and occasion Should interest you Selecting a Topic Smart Cars TUxedos Green Tea Sickle Cell Anemia Jane Elliot Marxism Film Noir How Film is Developed Fashion Relevant Knowledge level of audience Important Appropriate for the occasion Does it interest you the speakercreator Strategies for Selecting a Topic Brainstorming creative problem solving technique used to generate many ideas 0 Ex What wordsideas come to mind when you write the words piracy or quotretroquot 0 Listening and reading 0 Scanning web directories 0 Ex Yahoo Narrowing the Topic 0 Music 0 Leads to Fold Music 0 Leads to Irish Fold Music 0 Leads to The popularity of Irish Fold Music in the US 0 Leads to Tire Safety 0 Leads to The lack of clear expiration dates on tires 0 Or Tire Construction 0 Or Recycling Old Tires General Purpose 0 Speaking to Inform o Educates Speaking to persuade 0 Changes reinforces an audience s convictions o Urges action 0 Speaking to Entertain o Promotes relaxation and enjoyment Speci c Purpose quotAt the end of the speech the audience will be able toquot Focuses on observed and measured behavior Focuses on one idea Considers audience needs and knowledge 0 Guides your choice of supporting material Develop Your Central Idea 0 Complete declarative sentence not a phrase or a question 0 Direct and speci c language not quali ed or vague Single idea Re ects consideration of the audience 0 Audiencecentered Generating Main Ideas 0 How ideas support central idea logical divisions Reasons why central idea is true 0 Can be sequential steps showing a progression Previewing Main Ideas 0 Make sure ideas previewed match how you plan to discuss them 0 Main ideas will make up a blueprint of the speech Thursday September 18 2014 Chapter 7 Supporting Material Is Important 0 Personal Knowledge and Experience 0 The Internet 0 Online Databases 0 Traditional Library Holdings 0 Interviews 0 Potential Sources 0 Variety Creates Interest Online Database Accountability 0 Is information about authorities disclosed Accuracy 0 Is information truthful Interviews 0 Prepare a head of time 0 Determine purpose 0 Schedule interview 0 Plan questions beforehand Conduct interview promptly amp w structure Follow up by reviewing notes You may also use Skype or email Research Strategies Take notes Use not cards Be sure to use quotations marks when copying a quote phrase sentence or paragraph verbatim Record the source of the supporting material Leave enough space on the note care to summarize the content Identify and possible presentation aids Make notes of various visual forms of evidence charts graphs pictures etc These might be used as presentation aids Types of Supporting Material Illustrations Short stories or anecdotes with examples to support an idea issue or problem Brief simpli ed example Extent indepth example Hvoothetical potential example Using illustrations Effectively Be sure they clearly relate to the ideas they support Be sure they are typical Make them vivid and speci c 0 Pick illustrations the audience can relate to the best illustrations are personal ones Descriptions and Explanations Descriptions words painting a mental picture of what something is like Explanations discussions of o How something is done or why it exists 0 Reasons why something happens 0 Using descriptions and explanations effectively De nitions 0 De nitions are statements about what a term means or how it is applied in a speci c instance 0 Technical specialized or unknown terms that may need to be de ned Analogies Comparisons help listeners understand the less familiar by showing how it is similar to the more familiar Statistics 0 Number data summarizing facts or samples 0 Can express the magnitude or seriousness of a situation 0 Can be percentage expressing relationship of part to whole 0 Effective use Use reliable authoritative unbiased sources Interpret accurately Make understandable and memorable quotRound offquot 0 OOO 0 Use visual aids to present statistics Use Opinions Effectively Be sure that experts are experts Identify sources Cite unbiased authorities 0 Be sure opinion is representative of prevailing opinion 0 Do not misquote Do not overdo the number of literary quotes Chapter 8 Organizing Your Main ldeas Patterns Topically Chronologically SanaHy Causal Topical Organization 0 Ideas divide naturally ldeas cover types of topics 0 Ideas broken down by 0 Regency save most memorable point for last 0 Primacy rst point is most convincing 0 Complexity simple to complex points 0 Speci city general to speci c Example Topical Pattern Buying a xerupper home 0 I Cost of Updates 0 ll Bene ts 0 III Disadvantages Chronological Organization 0 Ideas arranged based on sequence of steps 0 Ideas need to be arranged in speci c order 0 History speech 0 quotHow toquot speeches process Sub diving Your Main Ideas 0 Consider how ideas naturally divide those logical division will determine the type of pattern to follow Developing Signposts Transitions indicate changes 0 Verbal quot rst next therefore etcquot 0 September 30 2014 Chapter 9 Introductions and Conclusions Purpose of introductions 45 seconds 1 minute Get the audience s attention Give the audience a reason to listen Introduce the subject Establish creditability Preview main ideas Get the audience s attention 0 Use an illustration 0 Give a starling fact or statistic Give a quotation Use appropriate humor Pose a rhetorical questions 0 Refer to historicrecent events 0 Give a personal reference 0 Refer to the occasion o wwwhisotrycomthisdayinhistory Refer to a preceding speech Give the Audience a Reason to Listen 0 Explain how the topic relates to them 0 The topic might affect them directly 0 The topic might affect them in the future Introduce the subject 0 Within a few seconds of the beginning of your speech your audience should know what you are going to talk about a The best way to introduce your subject is With a complete statement of your central idea 0 Ex quotTraveling by air odes not have to be such a difficult processquot Establish your credibility o Credibilityquot trust competence dynamism or as Mr Aristotle would say quotintelligence trustworthiness and good willquot 0 Be well prepared and appear con dent Speak uently and maintain eye contact 0 Speak to your audience about your personal experience with the topic Preview Main Ideas 0 Tell your audience what you will discuss Signposted previews are better 0 Ex quotToday I will discuss some interesting facts about Facebook warning signs of Facebook addiction and tips that have helped me minimize my Facebook usage Conclusions Summarize the speech 0 Reemphasize the central idea in a memorable way 0 Restate the main ideas 0 Provide closure 0 Give verbal andor nonverbal signals that the speech is ending 0 Motivate the audience to respond 0 Inspire the audience Methods May Refer Back to Your Introduction Quotations 0 Finish a story started in the introduction 0 Answering a rhetorical question used in the introduction Reminding the audience of a starling fact or statistic mentioned in the introduction October 7 2014 Chapters 11 amp12 Delivery and Presentation Aids Methods of Delivery 0 Manuscript read form a written text 0 Good for absolute accuracy 0 Should still have eye contact 0 Memorized delivery from memory without notes 0 Eye contact but may sound wooden o Impromptu delivery without preparation 0 Be brief organized honest cautious o Extemporaneous delivery with notes 0 Sounds conversational preferred by audiences The emotional connection with your audience 0 38 depends upon your vocalics 55 depends upon your facial expression 93 of the emotional meaning of your message is delivered nonverbaHy Emotion contagion theorv people catch the emotions of others Effective use of eye contact Start your speech with good eye contact Establish eye contact with your whole audience not just a few Look at all areas of the room but do not establish a pattern that s predictable Duration of eye contact Do not look above their heads or any of those other tricks you ve heard about Gesture Remember these Repeating contradicting substituting complementing emphasizing regulating Be definite with you gesture but not rigid Use a variety of gestures Try not to overdo or use too many gestures Time of gestures to t with your verbal message three repeating example Adapt to audience and size of the room Gesture They may have taught this in the Elocution Schools at the turn of the century Movement Should be motivated not wandering or pacing May signal a new idea emphasis mood change Movement and immediacy immediacy is the physical or psychological closeness an audience fees With a speaker Immediacy Moves Stand or move closer to you audience 0 Come out from behind a lecture Use appropriate levels of eye contact Smiling Use appropriate gestures Have an appropriately relaxed posture 0 Moving purposefully Adapt to the culture of the audience Posture Affect the audience s perception of your credibility Posture contributes to the intensity of emotion expressed what does your body naturally do if you say quotthat really upsets mequot 0 Do not slouch or lean over the podium for long periods of time 0 Feet and hips square but not ridged Facial Expression Expresses thoughts attitudes and emotions Should match your content 0 Establishes immediacy or the lack thereof Vocal Delivery 0 Volume loudness Actuation clarity Dialect a consistent style of pronouncing words that is ay occur in ethnic groups or a geographical region 0 What context can you think of that might bene t or not from sue of dialect Pronunciation practice and say words correctly or choose other words Speaking with variety Mhighness or lowness M fatness or slowness average speaker 120180 words per minutes Pauses effective timing Vocalized pauses 0 Ex quotuhquot Microphones Stationary and Lapel Stationary mic may limit movement but not necessarily gesture Use a normal speaking voice 0 Do not test it by blowing into it people hate that cips onto clothing Personal appearance 0 Dress for the occasion Dress for the audience and image you want to create 0 Consider climate culture audience expectation Diversity and Delivery 0 Know the culture norms expectations for the audience you are addressing 0 Monitor your immediacy behaviors 0 Monitor your expression of emotion 0 Watch your nonverbal especially the emblems that do not have the same meanings 0 Ask for advice form others who have spoken to a particular group Chapter 12 Presentation aid 0 Anything tangible drawings charts graphs video images photographs sounds Value of Presentation aid 0 Enhance understanding Enhance memory for audience Helps listeners organize ideas Help you gain and maintain attention Help illustrate a sequence of events or procedures Types of Presentation Aids 0 Three dimensional objects model people animals 0 Two dimensional drawings photographs slides maps graphs charts ipcharts chalkboards and whiteboards o PowerPoint excellent info on pages 248251 of your text Developing Presentation Aids 0 Make them easy to see 0 Keep them simple 0 Keep them tuned to your audience skills setting and the objective ofyourspeech Do not use dangerous or illegal aids Guidelines for using presentation aids Rehearse using them Make eye contact with your audience not with your presentation aid Explain them do not just show them do not pass objects among audience members Use animals with caution see examples on page 256 of your text More use guidelines Use handouts effectively control the timing and direction of your audience s attention Time the use of any presentation aid to control your audience s attention Use technology effectively be sure the room you re using has room November 4 2014 Chapter 14 Understanding Principle Of Persuasive Speaking Persuasion De ned The process of changing or reinforcing a listener s attitudes beliefs values or behavior 0 Attitude like or dislike o Belief true or false 0 Value right or wrong good or bad Aristotle39s Traditional Approach Ethos refers to a speaker s credibility Aristotle believed that in order to be credible a speaker should have good character common sense and be concerned with the wellbeing of the audience Logos rational logical arguments Pathos appeals to emotion Elaboration Likelihood Model 0 To elaborate means the listener thinks about the content of the message 0 Two ELM routes 0 Direct persuasion route the listener is persuaded by logic reasoning evidence 0 Indirect persuasion route intuitive the listener has an overall impression catchy music or positive reaction to the salesperson 0 Think insurance advertising Mayhem Geico Gecko or ne looking person in a car How to motivate listeners Cognitive dissonance lack of harmony that unbalanced feeling 0 How do listeners deal with cognitive dissonance o Discredit the source 0 Reinterpret the message hear what you want to hear and discard the other parts 0 Seek new information to validate your belief 0 Stop listening 0 Change an attitude belief value or behavior Using need to motivate Maslow s Needs Theory 0 Physiological needs 0 Safety needs 0 Social needs 0 Selfesteem needs 0 Selfactualization needs Determine your purpose propositions 0 Proposition of fact is something true or false Uneatable quotThe state legislature ahs raised tuition 10 percent during the last three yearsquot Debatable quotThere are more terrorist attacks in the world today than at any previous times in human historyquot Debate label portions can be good topics


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