Public Speaking Exam Reviews
Public Speaking Exam Reviews 2338
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Public Speaking Review Test 1 12142014 Exam 1 is a multiplechoice exam covering Chapters 1 3 5 6 7 and 8 Chapter 1 Speaking with Con dence Why Public Speaking 0 Public Speaking the process of presenting a message to an audience small or large Empowerment having resources information and attitudes that lead to action to achieve a desired goal 0 Critical Thinking Analyzing information to judge accuracy and relevance The Communication Process 0 Source encodes message 5l v39 o Encoding to translate ideas and images into verbal or nonverbal symbols Encoding Decoding Message what is said and how it is said o Receiver decodes message o Decoding to translate verbal or nonverbal symbols into ideas and images Sender 3 Encoding Receiver Decoding Oi Message Receiver Sender 0 Noise interferes with message o Context the environment or situation in which a speech occurs Reviewing the Models 0 Action linearone way 0 Interaction 0 Feedback 0 Context v0 e I m C 0 0 Transaction Mutual in uence The Rich Heritage of Public Speaking 0 Rhetoric the use of words and symbols to achieve a goal 1 Aristotle 4th century Greek Rhetoric Flourishes is T 7 394 P I F o arly Elocutionists Movements stylized posture and gesture 0 Current electronic media makes speaking to vast audience possible 733 l l r h l 1rquot t l a llitigquot ill l l l Lira l iiiquot All H A lilHJJM Understand Your Nervousness o Nervousness is normal 0 Public Speaking ranks high in anxiety creating situations 0 The audience can t see your nervousness remember the quotillusion of transparencyquot from comm 1310 Use yur anxiety i Build you con dence 0 Don t procrastinate Know your audience and focus on them 0 Select an appropriate topic 0 Prepare 0 Be organized 0 Be familiar with your intro and conclusion Simulate actual speech conditions 0 Breath deeply Picture positive outcomesvisualize Use positive selftalk Chapter 3 Speaking Freely and Ethically Intro 0 Ethics beliefs values and moral principles by which people determine what is right or wrong 0 Free Speech legally protected speech or speech acts o 1791 First Amendment guarantees that Congress shall make no law abridgingthe freedom of speechquot o 1798 Sedition Act provided punishment for those who spoke out against government Thomas Jefferson and James Madison declaredhs unconstitotional and te layy as allod to lapse quot H LI 1 5557 xx W F t l l r ll l l 39 n E l ll I 39 5 l I ll l xl 7 ul l n I u lu I Q I Il lr l 1 IIii I u 1quot 3 e an warl 39 jcrzx o 1919 US Supreme Court ruling that clear and present dangerquot to the nation type speaking wouldbe restricted SPECIIAL COLLECTOR S EDiTION o 1920 founding the American Civil Liberties Union Liberties Union in response to the clear and present dangerquot law M A I N o 1990 Formation of the American Center for Law and Justice to espouse conservative viewpoints I iil Center Law it J l t 0 2001 Passage of the Patriot Act in response to the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks The debate over the balance of national security vs free speech continues Speaking Ethically Your goal should be clear to your audience no hidden agendas Use sound reasoning and evidence Be sensitive an tolerant of differences Be honest 0 Do not plagiarize 0 Do your own work 0 Cite your sources Speak credibly Chapter 5 Analyzing your Audience Becoming an Audience Centered Speaker 0 Informally 0 Demographic information about Age gender sexual orientation education and religious views culture socioeconomic status ethnicity Gentle E gl phl 9 e incline l It ccupuli n Etluc ii n ii 0 Formally o Openended question unrestricted answers 0 Closedended questions limited answers 1 Information about your audience 0 How are they similar 0 How are they different 0 How can I establish common ground 3 A4quot r u a 2r Adaption your audience 0 Ethically using audience information adapt messages for clarity and your objective Modifying messages for better clarity 0 Help achieve ethical goalsgoals More about demographics Socioeconomic status 0 Income 0 Occupation o Educti f 0 Group membership Religious Political Work Social Service 0 O O O O v A 739 r A l r r A w i m J 7 r l A i n a r A a J I ill quotI 1 39 l f r A r r 39 F L A flu w 1 r 39 393 Adapting to Cultural differences lndividualistic individual success emphasized Collective group success emphasized o Highcontext the context of the message nonverbal cues is valued more than words Lowcontext words are more important than context Tolerance for uncertainty accept ambiguity H 1 i J 1 I iiIJ n 1 Li r r J Jlii T 0 Need for certainty want speci cs n o Highpower culture status and power are emphasized roles clearly de ned o Lowterm time accomplishing goals may take time time is abundant u Hill a 39 i quot u i q GI J 7 r il L i39iiix n Islquot 539 Lawiii i i W i 7J 1 o hortterm time time is an important resource i Adapting to diverse listeners Focus on target audience Use variety of supporting materials Tell stories Balance logic with emotion l i Psychological audience analysis 0 Attitudes likes and dislikes o Beliefs perceptions of true or false o Audiences can be 0 Interested or uninterested o Favorable or unfavorable 0 Voluntary or captive 3391 Situational audience analysis 0 Time when and how long will you speak Audience size 0 Location type of room arrangement of chairs D m Occasion event Customizing your message to you audience Refer to 0 Name of listeners 0 Place of speech 0 Historical events Mention recent news related topic Give positive reference to groups or organizations in the audience Discuss topic s relevance for listeners lI 39 W I 17 Analyzing your audience after you speak Observe nonverbal responses Listen to verbal comments Survey audience Check for desired behavioral responses form audience Chapter 6 Developing You Speech Steps in Preparing a Speech 0 1 Select and narrow topic 2 Determine purpose 3 Develop central idea 4 Generate main ideas A l 5 r I iiJl39 1 a Step 1 Select and Narrow Yourpic Should be relevant to listeners interests and expectations 0 Show consider knowledge levels of listeners Should be important Should be appropriate to audience and occasion Should interest you Selecting a Topic Relevant Knowledge level of audience Important Appropriate for the occasion Does it interest you the speaker O 0000 Smart Car TUxedos Green Tea Sickle Cell Anemia Jane Elliot Strategies for selecting a topic Brainstorming creative problemsolving technique used to generate many ideas 0 Ex what wordsideas come to mind when you write the words piracy or quotretroquot 0 Listening and reading 0 Scanning web directives ie Yahoo o Leads to Folk Music 0 Leads to Irish Folk Music 0 Lead to The popularity of Irish Folk Music in the United State 0 Lead to Tire Safety 0 Leads to the lack of expiration dates on tires insects utterfies Monarch utterflles General Purpose 0 Speaking to inform o Educates Speaking to persuade 0 Changes or reinforces an audience s convictions o Urges action 0 Speaking to Entertain o Promotes relaxation and enjoyment Speci c Purpose 0 At the end of the speech the audience will be able to Focuses on observed and measured behavior Focuses on one idea Considers audience needs and knowledge 0 Guides you choice of supporting material I r 1 l l 4 J l Develop Your Central Idea Complete declarative sentence not a phrase or questing Direct and speci c language not quali ed or vague Single idea Re ects consideration of the audience audiencecentered Generating Main Ideas 0 How ideas support central idea logical divisions Reasons why central idea is true 0 Can be sequential steps showing a progression II39 39Ila I ll 39 liitl r a39friiilriii ll h in 39 PtL if i 1 iii 77 7 TV v u It Ii ujgrl r 39I 39 k 39 Ill ERITIEM T L quothullms EVEquot Previewing Main Ideas 0 Make sure ideas previewed match how you plan to discuss them 0 Main ideas will make up a blue print of the speech mm EA Chapter 7 Gathering and Using Supporting Material Supporting Material is Important 0 Personal Knowledge and experience 0 The internet 0 Online databases 0 Traditional library holdings 0 Interviews 0 Potential sources 0 Variety creates interest A KHWIEQE Experience Potential Sources of Supporting Material Personal Knowledge and Experience Skills Hobbies Expe ences Poetical Sources of Supporting Material 0 The Internet 0 Most popular places for info 0 Directories leads to subjects Google 0 Search engines use keyword or subject earaches Yahoo 0 Vertical search engines focused and specialized searches Google Scholar o Boolean search includes quotandquot or quotquot Accuracy is the information thoughtful Obiectivity does site represent special interest 7 7 7 7r i if rv PI A 7 1 i39v i i J i u L i J i fr 1 r 39 r r v w i w 39 J A j 7 i i r quot E Date is site current 39 1 3955 133 3 a 0 Diversity is this site inclusive Library Resources Books Periodicals Fulltext databases JSTOR Academic Search Premier LexisNexis Newspapers Reference Resources Govt Documents Special Services H m 7 I l I H 7 L V i ll l J Him a quot lull I l i llifhl Iln I Iili I iii 39L I ill l J r illllilil 7 n l I II E quotIn mull l l 7 qi Interviews Prepare ahead of time Determine purpose Schedule interview Plan questions beforehand Conduct interview promptly amp w structure Follow up by reviewing notes And You may also conduct interviews using email Skype etc 39 MERE Jim Bquot lill Research Strategies 0 Take notes 0 Use not cards 0 Be sure to use quotation marks when copying a quote phrase sentence or paragraph verbatim 0 Record the source of supporting material 0 Leave enough space on the notecard to summarize the content 5L l L i i J n i H W 1 i I I F r m i i I u i l 39I r H 1 i 39 I in r H I lquot i u i i i39 39 IE l E i i i H L39s ima if U E i ll a li39 2 t 39 H NH i lL j lint F il aquot l l39 l n 1 l i 1 I i i l a I f i i i l A 39 h l Hal l 39 a J t L I i 7 an ll 1 l d I I n F l l 7 l V FF l l L l r i J E 5 u L r l fl i l 1 i L t I H r al Research Strategies 0 Identify possible presentation aids 0 Make notes of various visual forms of evidence charts graphs picture etc 0 These might be used as presentation aids as 51 li l q 3i E l E I 4 l1 ar Line rea Please select a FEFIII T WFI39E t Imam Types of supporting material 0 Illustrations Short stories anecdotes with exhales to support idea issue or problem Brief simpli ed example Extended indepth example Hypothetical potential example 0 O 0 Using Illustrations Effectively Be sure they clearly relate to the ideas they support Be sure they are typical Make them vivid and speci c Pick illustrations the audience can relate to o The best illustrations are personal ones Descriptions and explanations Descriptions words painting a mental picture of what something is like STRDING o Exploitations discussions of o How something is done or why it exists 0 Reason why something happens 0 Using descriptions and explanations effectively 0 Provide suf cient information 0 Make information clear 0 Don not overload listeners with too many details De nitions 0 De nitions are statements about what a term means or how it is applied in a speci c instance 0 Technical specialized or unknown terms may need to be de ned 0 The languages of pop culture and electronic media may be specialized and unknownquot to some audience members E i 5 I a I 1 l L 7 L W 1 I i Lquot I r i in r q i 739 I r A l n 1 i 1 i i I a m I I EA 1 L j y i J L l I n i J 39 l l 39 mi i c u 43 II i JP 39u L A E I E n r w Two types of de nitions 0 By classi cation constructed by rst placing a term in general class to which it belongs and then differentiating it form other members of that class li L quotl H i ii 7 Operationa an explanation of how something works or what is does More original than dictionary de nition PROCESS OPERNHONAL EXCELLENCE TECHNOLOGY Analogies Literally means comparing two things that are similar Figurative comparing two dissimilar things that share some common feature that forces a basis of comparisons Comparisons Helps listeners understand the less familiar by showing how it is similar to the ore familiar Analoies Literal Vs Figurative Analogies o Literal Analogy o What worked in New York City on 911 for disaster management should work in Los Angelesquot Two US coastal major metropolitan cities o Figurative Analogy 0 Homeland Defense is the best medicine against the epidemic of terrorismquot Comparing terrorism to a virus Psswarids re like bubblegum lllley re If li ti lire strangest f f illierln lying 1 if when if Sh39lllfl w fund ta Flu FI and up I U wifh t l 3 11th massif he used if 1 individual nut ti group Statistics 0 Numerical date summarizing facts or samples 0 Can be express the magnitude or seriousness of situations 0 Can be percentage expressing relationship of part to whole 0 Effective use 0 Use reliable authoritative unbiased sources Interpret accurately Make understandable and memorable quotRound offquot Use visual aids to present statistics 0000 Three Types of Opinions 0 Expert Testimony statements of recognized authorities 0 Often more creditable Lay Testimony statements of non experts with rsthand knowledge 0 Often more emotional g r 0 Literary Ouotations opinions or descriptions by writers speaking in a memorable often poetic way 0 Often have more impact Use Opinions effectiver quotV gt i Be sure that experts are experts Identify sources Cite unbiased authorities Be sure opinion is representative of prevailing opinion Do not misquote Do not overdo the number of literary quotes Chapter 8 organizing and outlining your speech Organizing your main ideas patterns Topically Chronologically Spa aHy Casual 0 Problem and Solution Topical organization 0 Ideas divide naturally Ideas cover types of topics 0 Ideas broken down by 0 Recency save most memorable point for last 0 Primacy rst point is most convincing 0 Complexity simple to complex points 0 Speci city general to speci c Example Topical Pattern 0 Buying a xerupper home 0 1 Cost of updates 0 2 Bene ts 0 3 Disadvantages 0 Types of living arrangements for college students 0 1 Dorm o 2 Apartment 0 3 FraternitySorority house o 4 Home with parents Chronological Organization 0 Ideas arranged based on sequence of steps Ideas need to be arranged in speci c order History speeches How toquot speeches process 5E ll Film 52 M Ethan nquot stamina alumina1 x Assessment mgm l I M l Example Chronological Pattern o Stripping paint from furniture 1 Prepare the surface 2 Apply chemicals 3 Remove with scraper JClen ad sand O O O O 0 Evaluation of YouTube 0 1 May 2013 viewers o 2 May 2006 Google 0 3 Dec 2005 Publically launched 0 4 Feb 2005 founded Spatial Organization 0 When each idea has a speci c location or direction Can focus on different parts of building organization machine etc 0 Can examine different regions of a city nation continent etc 11 a lunch hung a m A In luau i M c L Jumpnu u I l 141 Eurquot139 Eur uLunLu n 1 D DBL can nun u quot rr h v l u u an sunpm uurhu PDHD Luau ru tAun39L 39 quotl E L71L n ur n1nnln wr 1 njmtj r H 4 u an nrl llSIul bmin M4 u we n l I 30 D HEEL539 an quotll 1 vacuums n Emanue n H u can upbqa 4 3 1t a awash 1Drtrnnv1 7 F4 1 A I Juan f39 rawn v 39i 39hkunnrr39imwehn f mralminrmntanaal 39 quotquott lvb i2quot 39b39hquot39lu 39l 39lurquotlu39luu39lln m H mun u rutIt 11r rEnIniunw1un r m Lb Vi9 39quot3939quot5 5 V5w i wieimWP a mmz m anre l 2251 H 39F V 7 nunu incuIHIHVHIILIIJ 1 39 n39cr nhg39t39hu39a 39 lw era mmmmwfee bu nanf LWJJT u 39 quot quotP3 quotquotquot39 39L il i Eiieen k2ummvrrr 39rUUL I rmn4uAltu 52 L Jr nLauampnn an hullLg J ft in rm 1 s quotD ML musHa minlwwese mltnvwf wj quot39l39hi JFi39iiu 4 Pg iunultnunil quot2 Mlu39ull J D39J39GHV39H inward39Mi uuu u 1 1 a 1 n nnnDLPquot 1 quotlb L quotquot quot quotquotquotquot3955 n K Wer niirunu ur i n NH E L EI39 L 39 I wanna 39 E 4 i n HM u ur tL nu 5 Gncnu a um PMsIaan HVFf Wan35uit5p u a L 11 u F nnuunlrrln LE up mt u a n i M M a s trDuni dawnavIn nmmnv am b ehuy11H 1Ht iu11vuIPE iynuruwg Jaws I unk Ianw i 1 ew eer mtr Haw unr urnjgquot 314 4ou a D lJILHEII FnI 39 a d quot d lrvcauuv Hh zllalllnulquot cnuuu awnmin refquotginx5pwg p mkmyy A L L LE 1 erurH 2 gment at r 1 Lydia aiaag1HAamm PgaMth ti gwgfw 39 L L n m rnrrr I n l39rr jlg n 39 V i w zrwgt L inn1457 IQEDJPR WH Example Spatial Pattern National Museum of the American Indian 0 1 Upland hardwood forest 0 2 Lowland freshwater wetlands o 3 Eastern meadowlands o 4 Traditional croplands Places to study on campus 0 1 Classrooms 2 Student union 3 Library 4 Computer labs O O O Cause and effect organizations 0 Ideas shows relationship between certain factors and certain results 0 From cause to effect 0 Form effect to cause l tr title ti CHEESE Transition Effect Effect Emlcltlsi Example Cause and effect pattern 0 lnhumane treatment of retired racehorses o 1 Effect many off the track racehorse come to bad end 0 2 Cause or causes lack of concern by some owners 0 Increase in consumption of energy drinks 0 1 Cause increase in pace of life 0 2 Effect increase in visits to emergency rooms with heart palpitations r l 0 Kb I 3 Problem and solution organization 0 A relationship between something that is wrong and how it can be correct more useful in persuasion than informative 0 From problem to solution 0 Form solution to problem Example ProblemSolution pattern 0 Problem to solution 0 1 Increased crime on college campuses problem 2 Stricter enforcement of campus security 3 Assign student ID 5 4 Key cards for buildings solutions OOO a in 31 rmquot 0 Solution to problem 0 1 Businessschool partnerships bene t subnets and the community 0 2 Public schools no longer afford special programs 0 3 Public schools have no funding resources Subdiving Your Main ideas 0 Consider how ideas naturally divide those logical divisions will determine the type of pattern to follow 0 For example the topic racket ballquot what kinds of logical division come to mind 0 You may wantneed to arrange main points with one pattern and subpoints with another 0 For example point A of a racket ball might be history the sub points might show a progression of dates in the history of the sport topical pattern with chronological Organizing Your supporting material 0 1 By primacy give the most powerful support rst 0 2 By regency save the strongest support for last 0 3 By specificity give more detailed support rst or at the end 0 4 By complexity being with simple and move to more complex 0 5 By soft and hard evidence begin with opinions and inferences end with facts and statistics Developing signposts o Transitions indicate changes 0 Verbal First next therefore etcquot o Nonverbal Pause change in pitch walk to another location etc Changes HEK39il39 EEll39li39 0 Previews indicate what comes next 39Ii39HE FLLuwmE PREVIEW HAS BEEN APFHWIEIJ FDR ALL AUDIEHBES Summaries review what was said 0 Final summaries review all points or Internal summaries review portions inside the body u LI39 quot u 95 E at Big A J i 1 l 0 Preparing outline should include 0 Main ideas 0 Sub points 0 Supporting material Preparing outline may include 0 General purpose speci c purpose intro initial preview central idea statement transitions and conclusion Write you preparation outline in complete sentences 0 Short phrases are harder to remember 0 Complete sentences assist you in your out loudquot practice Use standard outline form 0 Tells you at a glance what the relationships are to the information Use standard outline numbering Use at least 2 subdivisions for each main point Correct Outline Form I A 1 o a Finishing the preparation outline Include transitions statements between intro and body between each major point and between body and conclusion 0 Conclusion 0 Summarize o Reemphasize the central idea in a memorable way 0 Provide closure Developing your speaking notes 0 Use old fashioned index cards 0 Number the cards and do not use too many you ll be too tempted to read instead of using extemporaneous delivery 0 Use standard outline form on the cards 0 Include your central idea but not your purpose statement 0 Write out stats and quote and material sources citations 0 Include delivery cue pause etc There are 50 questions and a Scantron will be provided The breakdown of questions per chapter is as follows Chapter 1 7 Chapter 3 4 Chapter 5 8 Chapter 6 5 Chapter 7 19 Chapter 8 7 Use the Power Point slides on TRACS that we have used in class for lecturediscussion as your primary source of study Reading in your text will also assist you in de ning concepts you may not have fully understood or remember from lectures Ninety per cent of the questions are de nition knowing what the terms mean and being able to recognize examples A few questions create a scenariohypothetical example in which you identify the correct term being illustrated in the scenario Sample Questions 1 In the communication process what is the term for anything that interferes with the transmission of a message A Encoding B Decoding C Channel confusion 2 A speaker using visual aids is relying on the channel of communication to assist in the message A External B Internal C Auditory 3 When explaining the progress of molecular discoveries Sarah began by discussing Mendel s 1866 studies about inheritance of biological traits in peas ending with recent information about the human genome project Which pattern of organization would best suit her speech A Topical B Spatial D Cause and effect 4 One way public speaking and conversation are similar is that both are A Formal B Planned D Effective 5 When a person decides not to overestimate or falsify an insurance claim just to have the extra money this action is based on the individual s B Objective rules D Fairness code 6 Ralph found an excellent source for his speech on organic gardening He brought the author s scienti c evidence on earthworms and ladybugs into his speech outline Is this ethical A No this is unethical because it is patchwork plagiarism B No this is unethical because Ralph is not an expert in organic gardening C Yes this is ethical as long as Ralph gives credit to the author in a bibliography 7 The portion of a person s background that relates to a national or religious heritage is known as A Cultural identity C Race D An audience analysis 8 Is it appropriate to develop a speech topic based on something you heard on a television talk show A No using televised information for your speech topic is a form of plagiarism B No most topics discussed on talk shows are inappropriate speech material C Yes but you have to address the topic the same way the talk show did 9 l a speech about the importance of establishing a daily exercise routine Bart sums up his goal for the speech in the following statement quotAt the end of my speech the audience will initiate a daily exercise routinequot You recognize this statement as a B Speci c purpose statement C Concluding statement D Summary statement 10 For her informative speech Cynthia wanted to tell her audience what they need to consider when purchasing a new computer Which organizational pattern lends itself best to this topic A Topical C Chronological D Causeeffect The Final Exam is over Chapters 915 There are 60 multiplechoice questions Each question will be worth 166 points A Scranton 882 will be provided The breakdown of questions per chapter is as follows 0 Chapter 9 9 0 Chapter 10 8 0 Chapter 11 6 0 Chapter 12 6 0 Chapter 13 8 0 Chapter 14 11 0 Chapter 15 12 Study your power point outlines and check the text to ll out the information Sample Questions In the introduction of your speech a good way to establish your credibility is to A Start with a wellknown quotation B C Summarize your main ideas D State your speci c purpose An anecdote is a A Persuasive argument used to counteract the thesis statement B C Way of including expert testimony into the introduction D Fictional statement used to add humor to the speech introduction In a crowded arena you notice that when others laugh clap or cheer on the speaker you are more likely to follow along with their actions This is an example of A Nonverbal expectancy theory C Delivery theory D Collective assemblage theory Given the task of preparing a speech Susan decides to speak from an outline that can help her sound conversational and spontaneous She wants to be able to adapt her remarks to the feedback she receives from the audience She also wants to make more eye contact with the audience What method of delivery will be best given Susan s speech goals A Memory speaking C Manuscript speaking D Impromptu speaking The type of speech that will bene t from the use of presentation aids is A An informative speech B A persuasive speech D A motivational speech In Louise s speech about various golf grips and strokes Louise used several golf clubs and demonstrated the moves herself According to your textbook s guidelines on the use of presentation aids was this a good technique B Yes but only if other objects or charts are used in conjunction with the speaker s movements No Louise should have used someone else to demonstrate so that she could keep speaking No demonstrations like this are distracting and too informal for a public speech 0 U When a speaker shows the audience that the information presented will affect them directly heshe is ful lling which goal of information speaking A To enhance understanding C To be remembered D To be heard What kind of speech focuses on a process or how something works A A speech about an event B C A speech about an object D A speech about a person Persuasion is the process of A Motivating the audience to make a change B Encouraging the audience to think about the topic in a different way C Thinking about a topic or an idea in a different way Jane did not want to change her stance on capital punishment but Jack s argument did make her think twice about her position However instead of being persuaded Jane dismissed the arguments by deeming Jack s facts unreliable How has Jane responded to her own cognitive dissonance in this instance A By reinterpreting Jack s message C By simply refusing to listen to the remaining points D By seeking information from another source Chapter 9 Functions and components of introductions and conclusions amp Types of supporting materials Introductions 0 45 seconds 1 minute 0 Gets the audience attention 0 Give the audience a reason to listen Introduce the subject Establish creditability Preview main ideas Might give an illustration statistic quote humor rhetorical question or personal reference Anecdote an illustration or story Rhetorical question the question intended to provoke thought rather than elicit an answer Give an audience a reason to listen by 0 Explain to them how the topic relates to them 0 How the topic might affect them 0 How the topic might affect the future Introduce the subject 0 Within a few seconds of the beginning of your speech your audience should know what your are going to talk about 0 Central idea a complete statement of your whole speech Ex Traveling by air does not have to be such a dif cult processquot Establish your credibility o Credibility trust competence dynamism or as Mr Aristotle would say intelligence trustworthiness and good willquot Be well prepared to appear con dent Speak uently and maintain eye contact Speak to your audience about your personal experience with the topic Preview Main ideas 0 Tell the audience what you will discuss o Signposted previews are better Ex Today I will discuss some interesting facts about Facebook warning signs of Facebook addiction and tips that have helped me minimize my Facebook usage Conclusions Purposes of conclusions 0 Summarize the speech Reemphasize the central idea in a memorable way Restate the main ideas 0 Provide closure Give verbal andor nonverbal signals that the speech is ending Motivate the audience to respond Inspire the audience 0 Closure the quality of a conclusion that makes a speech quotsound finished Methods May Refer Back to Your Introduction Quotations Finish a story started in the introduction Answering a rhetorical question used in the introduction Reminding the audience of a starling fact or statistic mentioned in the intro 0 Basically points back to the intro Chapter 10 Language abstract concrete connotations denotations Oral style vs Written style 0 Oral style More personal more use of the pronouns and You Less formal shorter words and phrases more contractions and colloquialisms Qualifying words many much More repetitive 0 Written style Think elevated language Less personal More formal words and phrases longer and more complex Less repetitive you can read and reread 0 Ladder of abstraction contuum model of abstract and concrete words for a concept idea or thing 0 Use words effectively 0 Less speci c and concrete 0 Sounds of the wildernessquot o It is injured it is sick but it is not deadquot 0 More speci c amp concrete 0 Night crickets lions mating calls my father s advice my friend s laughterquot o It is gasping for breath but it is not deadquot 0 General Semitics the more concrete the better you communicate Use Words effectively 0 Beware of the useoveruse of chinches Ex 247 absolutely awesome I hear what you re sayingquot Beware ofjargon simplify n largon specialized language of a profession Use of words correctly Denotation literal meanings dictionary Connotations associations we have with words 0 Concise succinct or to the point The more of this the more quotear appealquot 0 Clich an overused expression OOOO III I H H a lotquot 00 0 Use words effectively 0 Be concise Eliminate words and phrases that have no meaning a Ex In my opinionquot And all thatquot As a matter of factquot 0 Be aware of diversity Use appropriate unbiased language Be aware of regionalisms in your speech that may not be understood by everyone in your audience 0 Ethnic vernacular a variety of English that includes words and phrases used by a speci c ethnic group 0 Regionalism words or phrases used uniquely by speakers in one part of a country 0 Stand American English the English taught by schools and used in the media business and government in the US 0 Creating drama 0 Using short sentences to express vitally important thoughts Ex And the war camequot To create drama 1 Using Inversion 2 Using omission Ex Been there done thatquot 3 Using suspension Placing key word or phrase at the end of the sentence instead of at the beginning 0 Ex Things go better with Cokequot Chapter 10 Figures of speech and examples 0 Figures of speech language that deviates form the ordinary expected meaning of words to make a description or comparison unique vivid and memorable o Metaphor implied comparison of two things Ex Life is a journeyquot She is shing in a sea of griefquot o Similes use like or as Ex quotMy love is like a red red rose footed as a deerquot o Personi cation giving human characteristics to an animal Ex Opportunity knocks at the doorquot The bees played hide and seek with the owersquot 0 Crisis rhetoric language used by speakers during momentous or overwhelming times Omission leaving out a word or phrase the listener expects to hear lnversion reversing the normal word order of a phrase or sentence 0 Suspension withholding a key word or phrase until the end of a sentence H H She s as eet 0 Creating Cadence o Cadence the rhyme of language 0 Repetition use of a key word or phrase more than once for emphasis Ex quotI have a dreamquot MLK o Parallelism using identical grammatical patterns for two or more phrases or sentences Ex quotI don t want to live on in my work I want to live on in my work I want to live on in my apartmentquot Woody Allen 0 Antithesis opposition such as that used in parallel twoart sentences in which the second part contracts in meaning with the rst Ex quotIt was the best of times it was the worst of timesquot Charles Dickens o Alliteration repetition of a consonant sound Ex And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtainquot Chapter 11 Types of delivery advantages and disadvantages of each 0 Methods of delivery 0 Manuscript read from written text Good for absolute accuracy Should still have eye contact 0 Memorized delivery form memory without notes Eye contact but may sound wooden o lmpromptu delivery without preparation Be brief organized honest cautious o Extemporaneous delivery with notes Sounds conversational preferred by audience The best Chapter 11 Nonverbal functions of eye contact and gesture The emotional connection with your audience 0 38 depends upon your vocalic o 55 depends of your facial expression 0 93 of the emotional meaning of your message is delivered nonverbally o Emotional contagion theory people catch the emotional of others Ex Watching a TV show audience laughing in background make people watching TV want to laugh too 0 Nonverbal communication communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning O Nonverbal expectancy theory a communication theory that suggests that if listeners expectations about how communication should be expressed are violated listeners will feel less favorable toward the communicator of the message So if you look like something but talk about something completely different it can through you off a Ex Looking gay but talking about biblical matters 0 So what are we talking about 000000 0 Eye contact Gestures Movement Posture Facial expressions Vocal delivery Personal appearance 0 Effective use of eye contact 0 Start your speech with good eye contact 0 Establish eye contact with your whole audience not just a few 0 Look at all areas of the room but do not establish a pattern that s predictable 0 Duration of eye contact 0 Do not look above their heads or any of those other tricks you ve heard Gesture 0 Remember these Repeating Contradicting Substituting Complementing Emphasizing Regulating 0 Be definite with your gesture but not ridged 0 Use a variety of gestures 0 Try not to overdo or use too many gestures 0 Time your gestures to t with the verbal message Ex Repeating three 0 Adapt to audience and size of room 0 Movement 0 O 0 Should be motivated not wandering or pacing May signal a new idea emphasis mood change Movement and immediacy lmmediacy moves 0 000000 0 Immediacy behaviors behaviors such as making eye contact making appropriate gestures and adjusting physical distance that enhances the quality of the relationship between speaker and listeners lmmediacy the physical or psychological closeness an audience feels with a speaker Stand or move closer to your audience Come out from behind a lecture Smiling Use appropriate gestures Have an appropriately relaxed posture Moving purposefully Adapt to the culture Posture O O O O Affects the audience s perception of your credibility Posture contributes to the intensity of emotion express What does your body naturally do if you say That really upsets mequot Do not slouch or lean over a podium for long periods of time Fee and hits square but not ridged Facial expression 0 O O Expresses thoughts attitudes and emotions Should match your content Establishes immediacy or the lack thereof Vocal Delivery 0 O O O O 0 Volume loudness or softness of a speaker s voice Articulation the production of clear and distinct speech sounds Dialect a consistent style of pronouncing words that is may occur in ethnic groups or geographical region What contexts can you think of that might bene t or not from use of dialect Pronunciation practice and say words correctly or choose other words ln ection the variation in of the pitch of the voice Speaking with variety 0 O O O O Pitch highness or lowness Rate fastness or slowness Average speaker 120180 words per minute Pauses effective timing Vocalized pauses Ex Uh quotand uhquot Umm quotYou knowquot Like Using a microphone speak in a normal voice movement may be limited unless you have a lapel mic Microphones Stationary and Lapel 0 You re a speaker not a rock star Stationary mic may limit movement but not necessarily gesture Use normal speaking voice Do not test it by blowing into it people hate that Lavaliere microphone clips one clothing Boom microphone a mic that is suspended from a bar and moved to follower the speaker often used in movies and TV Stationary microphone a mic attached to a lecture sitting on a desk or standing on the oor 0 Personal Appearance 0 Dress for the occasion 0 Dress for the audience and image you want to create 0 Consider climate culture audience expectation Diversity and Delivery 0 Know the culture norms and expectations for the audience you re addressing Monitor your immediacy behaviors Monitor your expression of emotion Watch your nonverbal especially the emblems that do not have the same meanings Ask for advice form others who have spoken to a particular group Chapter 12 Presentation aids types and purposes why use them and how to use them Presentational Aid anything tangible that helps you communicate an idea to an audience Ex Drawings charts graphs video images photos sounds Visual rhetoric use of the images as an integrated element in the total communication effort a speaker makes to achieve the speaking goal Model a small object that represents a larger object Graph a pictorial representation of statistical data 0 O 0 Bar graph a graph in which bars of various lengths represent information Pie graph a circular graph divided into wedges that show each part s percentage of the whole Line graph a graph that uses lines or curves to show relationships between two or more variables Picture graph a graph that uses images or picture to symbolize data Chart a display that summarizes information by using words numbers or images Clip art images or pictures stores in a computer le or in printed from that can be used in presentation aid Fonts particular styles of typefaces Value of presentation Aids 0 Enhance understanding 0 Enhance memory for audience 0 Helps listeners organize ideas 0 Help you gain and maintain attention 0 Help illustrate a sequence of events or procedures 0 Types of Presentation Aids 0 Three dimensional Ex Objects models people animals 0 Two dimensional Ex Drawings photos slides maps graphs charts ipcharts chalkboards and whiteboards overhead transparencies o PowerPoint o Audiovisual Aids 0 Developing Presentation Aids 0 Make them easy to see 0 Keep them simple 0 Keep them turned to your audience skills setting and the objective of your speech 0 Do not use dangerous or illegal aids Guidelines for using presentation aids o Rehearse using them 0 Make eye contact with your audience not with your presentation 0 Explain them do not just show them 0 Do not pass objects among audience members 0 Use animals with caution More use Guidelines 0 Use handouts effectively Control the timing and direction of your audience s attention 0 Time the use of any presentation aid to control your audience s attention 0 Use technology effectively Be sure the room you re using has what you need and have a backup plan 0 Remember Murphy s Law Have a back up plan if something goes haywire with your presentation aids Chapter 13 Types and purpose of informative speeches Informative speech a speech to inform shares information with others to enhance their knowledge or understanding of information concepts and ideas you present When you inform someone you assume the role of a teacher Types of informative Speeches 0 Obiects present information about tangible things Ex Sport cars Cellos toys 0 Procedures review how something works or describe a process Ex How state laws are made 0 People current or historical 0 Events current or historical 0 Ideas present abstract information or discuses principles concepts theories or ideas Ex Freedom of speech Theories of aging Ways to enhance audience understanding 0 Use adult learning principles Information that can used immediately Actively involve your audience ask questions Connect audience life experiences with new information Make your information relevant to listeners needs and busy lives Help listeners solve their problems Ways to enhance audience understanding and maintain interest 0 Appeal to variety of learning styles Auditory Visual Kinesthetic 0 Maintain interest with good story Con ict Action Suspense Humor 0 Pedagogy the art and science of teaching children 0 Andragogy the art and science of teaching adults Strategies to enhance audience recall 0 Build in redundancy Review statement transitions concluding summary statement 0 Make your key ideas short and simple 0 Pace your information ow Try to give similar amounts of material in each major point 0 Reinforce key ideas Ex quotThis is the most important pointquot quotBe sure to remember thisquot 0 Word picture a vivid description that appeals to the senses Chapter 13 Organizational patterns Consider your audience Select and narrow your topic Determine your propose Develop your central idea Generate your main ideas Gather your supporting materials Organize your speech Rehearse your speech DeHveryourspeech Chapter 14 Persuasion de ne techniques fundamental components of persuasion Persuasion De ned o Persuasion the process of changing or reinforcing a listener s attitudes beliefs values or behavior Attitude like or dislike Belief true or false Value right or wrong good or bad Aristotle s Traditional Approach 0 Ethos refers to a speaker s credibility Aristotle believed that in order to be credible a speaker should have a good character common sense and be concerned with the wellbeing of the audience 0 Logos rational logical arguments o Pathos appeals to human emotional Elaboration Likelihood Model ELM 0 Motivation the internal force that drive people to achieve their goals 0 To elaborate means the listeners thinks about the content of the message 0 ELM of persuasion the theory that people can be persuaded by logical evidence and reasoning or through a more peripheral route that may depend on the credibility of the speak the sheer number of arguments presented or emotion appeab 0 Two ELM routes Direct Persuasion Route the listener is persuaded by logic reasoning evidence Indirect Persuasion Route intuitive the listener has an overall impression n Ex Catch music or positive reaction to the salesperson 9 gt Pquot39gtP l l n Think insurance advertising 0 Ex Geico Gecko or ne looking person in a car 0 How to Motivate Listeners 0 O 0 Cognitive dissonance lack of harmony that unbalanced feeHng How do listeners deal with cognitive dissonance Discredit the source Reinterpret the message I Hear what you want to hear and discard the other parts Seek new information to validate your belief Stop listening Change an attitude belief value or behavior Elaborate from the standpoint of the elaboration likelihood model ELM of persuasive to think about information ideas and issues related to the content of a message 0 Using Need to Motivate O O O O Maslow s Need Theory Physiological needs Safely needs Social needs Selfesteem needs Selfactualization needs Selfactualization need the need to achieve one s highest potential Bene t a good result or something that creates a positive emotional response in the listener Feature a characteristic of something you are describing Determine Your Purpose 0 0 Proposition of fact something true or false Debatable Ex The state legislature has raised tuition 10 during the last three yearsquot Undebatable Ex There are more terrorist attacks in the world today than at any previous time in historyquot a Debatable positions can be good topics for persuasive speeches Direct Persuasion route persuasion that occurs when audience members critically examine evidence and arguments 0 Indirect Persuasion route Persuasion that occurs as a result of factors peripheral to a speaker s logical and argument such as the speaker s charisma or emtional appeals Determine Your Purpose Proposition 0 Proposition of Value the word or importance of something One thing is better than something else or something is either good or bad Ex quotThe electoral college is a better way to elect presidents than a direct popular vote would bequot Ex It is better to keep your nancial records on a personal computer than make calculations by handquot 0 Social Judgment theory a theory that categorize listeners response to a persuasive message according to the latitude of acceptance the latitude of rejection or the latitude of noncommitment Determine Your Propose Propositions 0 Proposition of policy advocates a change in policy or procedures Ex quotOur community should adopt a curfew for all citizens under eighteenquot Ex quotAll handguns should be abolishedquot Ex All citizens wish to vote should present a photo IDquot 0 Proposition summarizes the idea with which the speaker wants the audience to agree 0 Proposition of fact a promotion that focuses on whether something is trust or false or whiter it did or did not happen 0 Proposition of value a position that calls for the listener to judge the worth or impotence of something 0 Proposition of policy a proposition that advocates a change in policy producer or behavior Be aware 0 Of topics hears too often such as Abortion Texting Smoking Chapter 15 Using Persuasive Strategies Enhancing Your Credibility 0 O 0 Also known as ethos Listeners determine credibility Various elements Competence knowledge and skill Trustworthiness believability and honesty Dynamism energy level projected through delivery Charisma charm talent and magnetism Phases of you credibility lnitial pretentions before speech Derived impressions formed during speech Terminal nal impressions after speech Ways to boost your credibility Establish common ground Welldocumented evidences Wellorganized ideas Wellmanages delivery 0 Using Logical and evidence 0 Logos formal system of rules to reach a conclusion 0 Aristotle quotAlways prove what you statequot 0 Reasoning drawing a conclusion from the evidence Chapter 15 De ne types of reasoning and reasoning fallacies Types of reasoning o lnduc ve o Deductive o Causal Inductive Reasoning testing validity o Is there enough speci c instances to support the conclusion 0 Are the speci c instances typical 0 Are the instances recent 0 Reason by sign using the existence of one or more events to reach a speci c conclusion that another event has occurred or will occur 0 Example of inductive reasoning 0 Student are sneezing in dorm rooms and classrooms speci c example 1 o Professors are cancelling classes speci c example 2 0 Campus clinic has long waiting lines Speci c sample 3 0 There must be a ue on our campus general conclusion Reasoning by Analogy o A special type of inductive reasoning 0 Makes a comparison between two things entities process etc o If you conclude that what is true for one can be trust for the other then the analogy is strong 0 Testing validity of analogies Are similarities between both greater than the differences Is the conclusion actually true 0 Example of reasoning by Analogy O O O O 0 Laws against using a cell phone driving in a school zone in Florida and Missouri has decreased the number of injuries to children The same or similar law should be passed in Kansas Deductive Reasoning O O The opposite of inductive reasoning starts with an accepted general claim and moves toward a conclusion Structure of Deductive Reasoning syllogism Syllogism a threepart argument that consist of a major premise a minor premise and a conclusion Major Premise widely accepted general claim Ex All tough drug laws introduced in mediumsize communities result in reduced drugrelated crimes Generally accepted statement Minor Premise speci c statement that applies to major premise Ex San Marcos TX is a mediumsize community speci c case supporting general statement Conclusion logical outcome minor premise exempli es major premise Ex San Marcos should institute tough drug laws speci c conclusion Causal Reasoning o Relating events to show connection 0 To conclude that one or more events caused another event 0 Can move from effect to unknown cause 0 An example of Causal Reasoning 0 Cause to effect From a known fact to a predicted result Interest rates have increased this week The Dow Jones will decrease 0 Effect to cause from a known result to a predicted cause A major earthquake has occurred The cause was a shift in a fault line 0 Support your reasoning with evidence 0 Use facts m something that has been directly observed to be true or can be proven to be true by veri able evidence 0 Use valid true examples new and speci c evidence 0 Use opinions that enhance credibility lnference a conclusion based on available evidence or partial information Examples illustrations used to dramatize or clarify a fact 0 Use sound and reliable statistics 0 Use reluctant testimony shows that someone has been convinced Avoid Reasoning Fallacies o Fallacy false rasping that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate 0 Causal a fault causeandeffect connection between two things or events Ex Hurricanes are caused by war 0 Bandwagon reasoning s that suggests that because everyone else believes something or is doing something then it must be true Ex Everyone knows cell phones are safe 0 Eitheror the oversimpli cation of an issue into a choice between only two outcomes or possibilities Ex Either you re with us or you re against us 0 Hasty generalization a conclusion reached without adequate evidence Ex Since my niece is failing city schools are bad 0 Ad Hominem an attack on irrelevant personal characteristics of the person who is proposing an idea rather than on the idea itself Ex What does a divorced man know about parenting Personal attack 0 Red Herring irrelevant facts or information used to distract someone from the issue under discussion Ex Let s not focus on the lawsuit against me let s talk about Changing subject to distract o Misplaced authority use of the testimony of an expert in a given eld to endorse an idea or product for which the expert does not have the appropriate credentials or expertise Ex Jessica Simpson says insert brand name here trucks are best not a true expert 0 Non Sequitur Latin for it does not followquot an idea or conclusion that does not logically relate to or follow from the previous idea or conclusion Ex Support me for Congress l have 3 children ideas do not follow Chapter 15 Components of credibility 0 Using Emotion to Persuade 0 Make people feel pleasure or displeasure 0 Can make people feel more aroused 0 Can make people feel dominance or powerless 0 Tips for using emotion to persuade 0 Use concrete examples that will help listeners visualize O O 0 Use emotionalarousing words Ex Freedom 911 Mommy Nonverbal communicates emotion Use visual and images Persuading the receptive audience O 0000 0 Identify with them Clearly state your objective Tell them exactly what you want them to do Ask them for an immediate show of support Use emotional appeals effectively Make it easy for them to take action Persuading the Natural Audience 0 O O 0 Capture their attention early Stress commonly shared beliefs Relate topic to them their friends families and loved ones Be realistic with the response you want Persuading an unreceptive audience 0 O O O O 0 Wait before telling them your purpose Start with noting areas of agreement Set realistic goals Acknowledge how they might oppose you Clearly tell them any experiences you have Consider understanding not advocacy as your goal Strategies for organizing persuasive messages 0 O O O 0 State your strongest arguments rst Do not bury key arguments in the middle Save action calls for the end Consider presenting both sides of an issue State and refute counterarguments Organization Patterns 0 O O ProblemSolution present the problem then present the solution Refutation anticipant your listeners key objections to your proposal and then address them Cause and Effect rst present the cause of the problem then note how the problem affects the listeners Motivated Sequence a vestep pattern of speech Attention image in a pile of 1000 bills 67 miles high That s our national debt Need the increasing national debt will cause hardships for our children and grandchildren Satisfaction we need higher taxes to reduce our debt Visualization imagines our country in the year 2050 it could have low in ation and full employment or be stuck with debt ten times our debt today Action if you want to lower the debt by increasing tax revenue sign this petition that will send to our representatives 0 Other Credibility vocab O O Competent being informed skilled or knowledgeable about one s subject Trustworthiness an aspect of a speaker s credibility that re ects whether the speaker is perceived as believable and honest Dynamism an aspect of a speaker s credibility that re ects whether the speaker is perceived as energetic Charisma characteristic of talented charming attractive speaker Initial credibility the impression of a speaker s credibility that listeners have before the speaker starts the speech Derived credibility the perception of a speaker s credibility that is formed during a speech Terminal credibility the nal impression listeners have of a speaker s credibility after a speech concludes Emotional response theory human emotional responses can be classi ed as eliciting feelings of pleasure arousal or dominance Myth a shared belief base don the underlying values culture heritage and faith of a group of people Demagogue a speaker who gains control over others by using unethical emotional pleas and apples to listeners prejudices
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