Research Methods Lecture Notes
Research Methods Lecture Notes 3301
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Research Methods Lecture Notes 12142014 August 27 2014 Introduction to Communication Research What is Research 0 Search for TRUTH o For now because they are observable results that may change dude to human nature 0 No research nding leads to 100 of the population There will always be people that do not t into a certain category 0 Process of 0 Creating assumptions o amp Then testing the assumptions n We need to properly and create things in a very controlled way How do we create and properly control things in a good way 0 Identify what it is and explaining why it s happening behavioral patterns 0 What are we doing And why do we feel compelled to do it 0 Ex What month is the main month that people get a divorce March A lot of us thought it were February or December a Is it from taxes New Years Revolution failing How do we test these theories Interview couples and get data 0 Application of 0 Scienti c and Systematic Procedures If you do something in a systematic fashion then you do something the exact same over and over again It can be broken down into steps and do it over and over again If you skip a step it s not systematic and can create error The Scienti c Method 0 1 Start with an interesting question 0 quotBig Qquot Big question 2 Propose informal hypothesis H or research question RQ 0 Based on formal knowledge or experience 0 You need to formalize your informal H or R0 0 Previous research suggests what You made an uneducated guess so now you need to educate yourself 0 3 Formal2e the HRQ o Retesting previous research Put it in line to what previous research suggest When you read an article the authors are repurposing something old to see if it s something new a Therefore no research is new You will not see a H be negative We re going to Reword the previous research 0 4 Conduct the observation Qualitative measurement Quantitate or experiment Quantitative 0 Basically Collect data 0 5 Analyze and interpret the data 0 Analyze what study the data and get the answers 0 lnterpret why assigns meaning and explains meaning to something Remember 0 Communication Studies is divided into two areas 0 1 Empirical Research science 0 2 Rhetoric analysis Empirical Research 0 Empirical variable by means of observation Qualitative or experiment Quantitative 0 We assume that the information is a fact 0 Conclusion are based on evidence data Collected from participants now So 0 Empirical Research 0 1 Qualitative observation 0 2 Quantitative experimentation Qualitative Research 0 Definition Observation of participants in a natural setting 0 An interview is a form of observation Ex Interview for a job they are observing you for sure Researcher collets data personaly o This can be very bias 0 Five different data collection methods 0 FIVE is important because there is only one way for quantitative o Often interact with participants 0 Relatively small sample 0 Higher quality of data more detail 0 Creating assumptions Qualitative ndings are still theoretical Quantitative Research 0 Definition Numerical measurement in a controlled setting experimentation 0 Numerical data surveys Participants selfreport data 0 Collect data in a controlled environment Relatively large sample 0 Higher quantity of data numbers 0 Duhhhhh QUANTITY 0 Testing assumptions Quantitative or Qualitative ALL research begins Qualitatively 0 You have to learn about it before you can test it controlled 0 Observe a phenomenon o Create theory 0 Continue Quantitatively 0 Test theory to con rm or contradict it 0 Verify it keep testing keep learning it September 3 2014 The Bottom Line Qualitative 0 Do not know much or anything about it 0 Goal begin to understand it 0 Quantitative 0 Want to know more about it o GoalUnderstand it better Social Scienti c Research Replicable repeatable or over and over and over again The value of repetition o Selfcorrecting 0 We do this so that we can see if research is still true Heuristic enabling a person to discover or learn something for themselves 0 Answers more questions 0 quotSuggestions for Future Researchquot Generalizabilitv Extending conclusion from the sample data to the larger population 0 A very small majority of the population speak for a very big majority of the population 0 Sample Data Conclusionsl General population 0 Research starts with quotIn generalquot 0 Everything you do has the potential to nd your generalized ability 0 How do we know if it is Generalizable Not a number Not an answer Not in the research report 0 The result of Adhering to scienti c principle quality controls n Or doing the research well A normal sample September 8 2014 Stuff for Quiz Monday September 15 2014 o 10 questions multiple choice 0 5 are going to be journal articles o 5 are a mix of book edited collect and magazines The Research Process Getting Started The Scienti c Method 0 1 Start with an interesting question Big Q o 2 Propose an informal HRQ 0 Personal subjective guess 0 What does previous research suggest o 3 Formalize the HRQ 0 Based on what previous research suggests 0 We are not testing new suggestions we are testing old suggeonns 4 Conduct the observation measurement or experiment 0 5 Analyze and interpret the data Qualitative Research InductiveGather speci c data Conclusion theorize Observe a repeating Phenomenon o Whatis it 0 Why does it happen Speci c examples Explanation theory Quantitative Research Deductive Advance a theoryljl gather data o Is it true o Is there more 0 Testing Variables o Hypothesis theory Speci c data The Resea rch Cycle 1 Qualitative Inductive quotLearn itquot 2 Findings 3 Quantitative Deductive quotTest itquot 4 Findings 5 Quantitative Deductive quotTest itquot If anything changes then we go right back to the beginning The quotBig oquot Initial quotinspirationquot for a project 0 Not in the article Come from 0 Your experiences 0 Existing theory 0 Past research Testing an existing theory 0 In a new context Qualitative selfdisclosure study 2009 On a speci c demographic o quotArgumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness in Dating Relationshipsquot Past research 0 Replication studies Limitations quotSuggestions for Future Researchquot Purpose Statement 0 Explanation of 0 Goal 0 Necessary o Valuable Conceptual De nition 0 The speci c way each variable Quantitative or phenomenon Qualitative is de ned for your study 0 Listed in quotLiterature Reviewquot 0 Original creation or 0 Taken from previous studies Previous Research 0 Several functions Educated assumptions Other studies Model Already done Intellectual property Previous research suggests Formalize the HRQ September 10 2014 Why conduct Research FOR THE THEORY Qualitative research generates the theory Quantitative research tests the theory quotEnd Resultquot of social science O 0000 0 Ex Will all people have nal conversations before someone dies No but it is very likely D So then why do we research it for a theory 0 Because all people are different so not all of them will be about love 0 Identify patterns increase predictability 0 Better understanding Theory is our Attempt to explain describe or predict o What we do pattern 0 How we do it speci c behaviors 0 Why we do it motivation 0 Improvement 0 Remember theories are tools Tools are meant to be used Role of Theory Qualitative research creates the theory 0 Quantitative research tests the theory 0 Confirm or Contradicts it 0 Three C s o 1 Create o 2 Con rm 0 3 Contradicts Use existing theory interpret ndings The Quantitative Research Report Ethical Reporting 0 Full disclosure oletail every aspect 0 quotTransparentquot quotInformed Consumersquot o All information accurate evaluation Not all surveys are good surveys Academic Writing Style 0 Past tense and passive voice 0 Distance from participants 0 No researcher interference objectivity No pronouns Soft language 0 Examples of language they might use Suggest immolate not guaranty This You Know 0 Abstract 0 Brief summary 125 words or less 0 Reference Page 0 APA style 0 Good source for more articles The Quantitative Report 0 Whether it s quantitative or qualitative it starts with these 4 things 0 1 Literature Review past 0 2 Methods section how THIS IS THE ONE WE WILL MOST LOOK AT BECAUSE WE ARE IN A RESEARCH METHODS CLASS o 3 Results section what 0 4 Discussion section why Literature Review 0 Introductory paragraphs 0 Conceptual De nitions o How variabes are de ned for this study 0 Previous research suggests o APA parenthetical citations Parenthetical Citations Paraphrase 0 Smith Jones Lewis and Johnson 2000 0 Direct Quotation 0 Smith Jones Lewis and Johnson 2000 pg 87 0 Citing the same study more than once 0 Smith et a 2000 0 Smith et a 2000 p87 Literature Review 0 Purpose Statement 0 What was the goal 0 Hypotheses amp Research Questions 0 At the end or 0 As they emerge 0 H1 H2 RQ1 RQ2 etc September 15 2014 Methods How Where this article really begins form what we really did 0 Description of participants 0 Sample size n203 N means number of participants 0 Demographic information 0 Geographic generalities Sampling techniques used 0 The procedure 0 What did the participants do 0 How were data collected 0 Operationalization of each variable 0 What Surveys were used 0 What Stimulus was provided 0 Descriptive Statistics 0 Mean Median Model GENERALIZE ABILITY comes from this things The people who participated in collecting the data 0 Survey Reliability Manipulation check data 0 Onlyif a stimulus was given TRUE EXPERIMENT Only going to nd this info if it s a true experiment a Won t always nd this then Results What 0 For each HRQ 0 Statistical test used o r R Rquot2 t F 0 Numerical results of statistical test F116 2294 p s 05 0 Researcher39s interpretation 0 Restate results what 0 Explain results why 0 Current ndingsl previous research 0 Limitations 0 Suggestions for future research Introduction to Quantitative Research Comparing Variables to M1 Qualitative vs Quantitative 0 Qualitative Methods Create theory 0 Observation 5 methods Researchers collects data Natural environment Small sample 0 Quality of data 0 Quantitative Methods Test theory 0 Numbers 0 Surveys 0 Selfreport data 0 Controlled environment OOOO 0 Large sample 0 Quantity of data Why Quantitative Research 0 Test theory 0 quot Con rm or contradict Better understand variables 0 Test TestTestTRUTH More speci c results 0 Different contexts 0 VA amp ARG in dating relationships 0 Lots of data small package 0 Objectivity o Minimize error 0 Compare data other data 0 Survey scores vs other survey scores Two Possible Outcomes 1 Determine if variables are related to each other 0 HAS TO COME FIRST 0 Correlational research quotITJUST SO HAPPENSquot OR 2 The effect of variables on other variables 0 Experimental research September 17 2014 Why Quantitative Research 0 Lots of data small package 0 Objectivity o Minimize error 0 Compare data other data Survey scores vs other survey scores Comparing Scores 0 Beforeljlefter a stimulus o Competence before creativity training 56 0 Give training stimulus Competence after creativity training 78 Comparing Scores 0 Democratic Leaderljl Task Satisfaction 98 o Authoritarian Leader Task Satisfaction 44 Two Possible Outcomes 1 Determine if variables are related 0 Correlational research 0 OR o 2 The effect of variables on other variables 0 Experimental research 0 If there is not correlation there will be no causation So 0 Quantitative Research 0 Correlational Relationships 0 Experimental Effect This is the stumbling block to this class It helps to know which article is which And Now for Something Completely Different Error 0 Error is as bad as group think is to small groups Unplanned mistakes 0 Participants AND Researchers Faultyskewed data 0 Faulty data faulty conclusions Want the most actuate and truthful info that people can get 0 Natural 0 Cannot be eliminated Sources of Error 0 Previous research I 0 Your HRQ I Surveys Sources of Error Researcher in uence 0 Stimulus o Researcher creates this 0 Sampling error Sources of Error 0 Data entry 0 Missing a number or entering the wrong thing 0 Data analysis 0 Participants 0 quotSocial Desirability Biasquot 0 quotHawthorne Effectquot change their behavior when being interviewed 0 Mistakes on surveys Now The Scienti c Method 0 3 Formalize the HRA The Process 0 1 Non directional RQ 39 El 2 Directional RQ o Retesting what you just found with different people and hopefully a larger sample I 3 Non directional Hypothesis El 4 Directional Hypothesis Hypothesis Educated guess Tentative educated guess bout 0 The effect on 0 Or relationship between variables Predicts the outcome 0 That a difference will occur When you said the word difference think a difference between groups or a change from beginning of stimulus to end of stimulus 0 That a relationship exists Hypothesis 0 Based on previous research 0 Previous ndings exist Worded in af rmative o Predict quotmore of the samequot l Formalized Not testing new assumptions we re testing old assumptions We re rewording assumptions to see if it s still true 0 Research or quotAlternatequot Hypothesis 0 When you hear the words Research hypothesis think your hypothesis Directional Hypothesis Predicts the nature and direction of a relationshipdifference o AKA quotonetailedquot hypothesis ll So be aware that this means going one direction than the other Direction words 0 Ex MoreLess IncreaseDecrease PositiveNegative most common etc 0 Many previous quantitative ndings Nondirectional Hypothesis 0 Only that a relationshipdifference exists A o AKA quotTwotailed Hypothesis quot I Could be good or bad positive anegative o Nondirectional words quotDon t know which way it will goquot 0 Few or no quantitative ndings Correlation Buzz Words THEY WILL BE A CORRECTION ONLY IF THEY ARE IN THE STATITSTICAL CONTEXT September 22 2014 Research Questions 0 Questions that asks o IfHow variables are related Correlational o IfHow variables cause effect The process 0 Non directional RQ O o Direction Variables Variable 0 Property or characteristic That varies in quality or magnitude 0 An attitude feeling or behavior 0 Fuctuates based on context Variables Behavioral variables 0 Can be observed Easily concrete Psychological variables 0 Felt or perceived Easily abstract Demographic variables 0 Membership to a speci c group 0 Ex age gender income marriage status Common lP Variables Communication apprehension o Psychological Shyness o Behavioral Selfesteem o Psychological Commination competence o Psychological Argumentativeness hard one o Psychologicalvariable Verbal Aggressiveness hard one o Psychologicalvariable Selfdisclosure o Behavioral Immediacy o Behavioral Trust 0 Psychological Relational satisfaction 0 Psychological Common Small group Variables Cohesiveness o Psychological Leadership style hard one o Psychological Brainstorming 0 Behavior Group Size 0 Demographic Trust 0 Psychological Task Satisfaction o Psychological Con ict management style 0 Psychological Argumentativeness o Psychological September 24 2014 Variables Fluctuate based on context 0 Physical environment 0 Relationship 0 Situation Differ quotwithin usquot andor Differ quotbetween usquot 0 Ex Different ages genders income levels 0 Must have 2 or more levels or groups 0 Ex Passing a class is between AD Think of an exam as a survey and this puts you in a group Variable Levels 0 Scores ordered highest lowest 0 Group participants by their scores 0 2 minimum 4 maximum levels 0 Ex High low 0 Ex High moderate low 0 Ex High moderate high moderate low low Con ict Management Style 0 120101 collaboration 0 10081 compromising 8061 competing 6041 accommodating 4020 avoiding Variable Groups 0 Based on personality or demographic characteristics 0 Any number of groups 200 0 Demographic o Sexgender 0 Employment status 0 Personality 0 Con ict management style 0 Leadership style Independent Variables and Dependent Variables 0 Not correlational research questions 0 Independent Variable stimulus or survey o Operationalzed to these two things Dependent Variable survey 0 Operationalzed with survey 0 Something is going to change something else 0 Something is going to impact something else Independent Variable Variable manipulated by researcher o 1 minimum 4 maximum per HRQ Variables work together We don t experiment one variable at a time We can have 100 s1000 s of variables going on per second Independent variable manipulation causes change to DV o AKA Antecedent Predictor Treatment or Casual variable Dependent Variable o The result that we are looking for This is why the experiment that was conducted 0 Variable of interest result 0 As many dependent variables as you want 0 46 maximum 0 Research questionhypothesis predicts change in dependent variables 0 AKA criterion or outcome variable lntervening Variables o Identi es the context of this particular study 0 Physical environment 0 Relationship type 0 Situation Narrows the focus of HypothesisResearch Question 0 More speci c results 0 If intervening variable changes Confounding Variables ERROR Not listed in the hypothesisresearch questions 0 Not predicted but present 0 Cause error 0 Where 0 Accounted for with error signi cance 0 Limitations September 29 2014 A o 35 multiple choice 2 points a piece 0 45 short answer 0 Very straight forward questions Surveys amp Instruments Surveys 0 Interchangeable words 0 O 0 Measure Survey Etc Operationalization quotHow a variable is measured or observedquot 0 AKA Give it a physical form to measure or observe it Measured Survey I O O Numbered responses Has to come before observation 0 Observed stimulus l O O O Actively demonstrated Even if you re able to created a stimulus for something it is a variable One of the most easily demonstrated stimulus is self disclosure Not all variables are behavioral variables Operationalization quotHow a variable is measured or observedquot 0 Most variables Multiple operationalizations 0 There is not perfect survey Only 95 of surveys are accurate I Sometimes questions can be confusing etc 0 Learning Ex How do professors ask it you know the information a Test quizzes papers 0 Repeated measurement 0 Why Correlational amp predictive studies 0 Surveys for all variables 0 True Experiments 0 Stimulus IVs amp Surveys DV5 0 quotEx Post Factoquot Experiments 0 Surveys for le amp DVs l Advantages of Surveys 0 Advantages such as 0 Anonymous 0 Convenient 0 Complete at own pace 0 Proctors can facilitate Disadvantages of Surveys Comprehension rates vary 0 Learningdevelopmental disorders 0 Proctor may in uence participant 0 quotLife is not a snapshot it s a moviequot 0 quotOne shotquot studies collect data one time at that precise moment and think that their mood won t change This can cause bias Disadvantages of Surveys 0 Social Desirability Bias tendency not to answer questions truthfully o Societal expectations 0 quotUndesirablequot topics Why 0 Negative perception of me o Impression Management 0 Used against me later 0 Pressure to conform 0 Social 0 Biological hmmm What to do 0 Remind participants 0 Anonymity identity will not be linked to data 0 Con dentiality only researchers have access to your data Let s get to work 0 Choose one o Create one Finding a Survey Scholarly articles 0 Edited collections a book of surveys 0 Can check this book out at the library Communication Research Measures 2 A sourcebook Educational Testing Services Database a website full of surveys o wwwetsorgtestcoll Google Scholar Choosing a survey 0 Existing instruments 0 Extensive testing and evaluation 0 Demonstrated Reliability and Validity Minor changes okay 0 Major changes pilot test October 1 2014 After Exam 1 0 Exam 1 recap Article Quiz discussion 0 2 more discussion articles 0 Quantitative Research Project discussion pt 1 0 Print read amp bring quotCorrelational Researchquot 0 Meet your team Finding a Survey Scholarly articles 0 Edited collections 0 Educational Testing Service Database 0 wwwetsorgtestcoll Google scholar Choosing a Survey 0 Existing instruments 0 Extensive testing and evaluation 0 Demonstrated Reliability and Validity Minor changes okay 0 Major changes pilot test Designing survey items 0 Typicaly Qualitative ndings 0 Repeated by multiple participants 0 A declarative statement 0 Re ned over time Designing Survey Items 0 Easy to understand Shorter is better No abbreviations or slang There is a limit Survey Items 0 Closed Questions 0 Predetermined responses 0 Alternate positive amp negative items Likertype Scales Each numberl speci c designation Attitudebased o How you thinkabout something 0 Typically 5 points not always 0 Common descriptions o What it looks like 1 Very dissatis ed 2 Somewhat dissatis ed 3 Neither satis ed nor dissatis ed 4 Something satis ed 5 Very satis ed Semantic Differential Scales Bipolar adjectives at opposite ends of a continuum Feelingbased 0 Ex Friendly unfriendly 0 Ex Warm cold 0 Typically 7 points not always 0 quotPaired adjectivesquot o Bipolaradjectives o quotLikedislike o quotGoodbad o What it looks like 0 Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Disagree Selfreport data 0 Participants ll out surveys themselves 0 They are the best judges of their own behaviors o quotAffectivequot measures 0 Cannot accurately observe some variables 0 Psychological variables 0 Demographic variables URVEY What does it all mean 39 0 Numbers are compared to others 0 Where do you fall on the continuum 0 Compared to others And Now Something Completely Different Reliability amp Validity o Surveys must be 0 Valid Validity Argument You argue for the answer 0 AND 0 Reliable Reliability Number it s a statistic It changes every time from sample to sampletosample etc 0 These concepts apply to the survey item ReHathy 0 Understanding vs Answering 0 You understand what the questions wants and to answer it 0 Understanding know the answer and answering it truthfully 0 Do survey items invoke consistent understanding 0 Was the item confusing 0 Would they answer it the same way again This makes it LESS TRUTHFUL ReHathy Reliability coef cient AKA quotchronbach s alphaquot 0 Represented by a o A 88 0 Above 70 is acceptable 0 quot70 reliablequot Establishing Reliability o The consistency of scores Two differentadministrations Same survey Same participants Establishing Reliability Splithalf reliability 0 Compare similaritems to each other Same item multiple times 0 AKA quotInternal Consistencyquot 0 Reverse coding Positive and negative feelings about the same questions just written differently I You re answers should match and line up and this causes reliability October 8 2014 Quiz for Monday 0 Multiple choice AD Open notes quiz article 1 0 First 5 minutes of class Correlational Research The Scienti c Method 0 Where are we 0 4 Conduct the observation measurement or experiment 0 5 Analyze and interpret the data Then 0 Quantitative Research 0 Correlation relationships 0 Experimental effect Remember the quot2 possible outcomesquot Now 0 Correlation Research 0 Correlation relationships 0 Predictive Potential Effect Before we begin 0 Don t let it happen to you 0 We re talking about super complex things 0 Ask questions quotNonexperimentalquot Design 0 AKA Correlation or Descriptive study 0 No variable manipulation 0 Participants surveys only quotNonexperimentalquot Design 0 Statistical relationships between variables 0 No quotuseablequot results a He wants us to add this to the beginning of the nding The Case in point 0 Recent survey shows that 10 of people who drinks water dies That s a fact 0 It doesn t mean that the water causes the death October 13 2014 quotITJUST SO HAPPENSquot Because 0 x could cause y o y could cause x o 2 could be causing it What s your 2 factor Dig those CRAZY correlations lice cream consumption ldrawings lDiet soda consumptions ldepression o It might be a third fourth fth correlation that causes this lBoy s unpopular names ljuvenile delinquency lCollege tobacco use lePA lCIassroom multitasking ljalcohol tobacco amp drugs So what s the point 0 quotFirst Quantitative Filterquot 0 No relationship NO experiment 0 No correlation NO effect Inferential Statistics 0 The results 0 The numerical answers HRQl statistical tests 0 Also called inferential statistics 0 Results section Inferential statics Examine sampe quotinferquot conclusions 0 Make an educated assumption based on data 0 Number of variables 0 And 0 Type of variables 0 Determine the statistical test When you look at your hypothesis or research question will tell you if you need to run a correlation or experiment a This will also help you on the project lnferential Statistics Tests of Relationships 0 Correlation correlational HRQ 0 Regression predictive HRQ 0 Tests of Difference experimental o Ttest 0 ANOVA Remember Correctional buzz words 0 Relationship 0 Related to 0 Association 0 Associated with Correlation Correlation examines the relationship 0 Between variables of variables 0 ln correlational HRQ Type of variables Represented by r o Aka quotPearson coef cientquot 0 You won t always see Pearson but you will always see r Relationship Direction 0 quotPositivequot relationship 0 Scores of both variables increase ll 0 OR 0 Scores both variables decrease ll So they either both increase of both decrease In This is what a Pearson coef cient does it s a correlational prediction Relationship Direction 0 quotNegativequot relationship 0 Aka inverse 0 Scores of one variables increase 0 AND II 0 Scores of the other decrease Relationship Strength 0 Intensity Stronger relationshipl experiment 0 The standard Is that it Correlational I o What happens in between 0 Experiment 39 I 0 Done 0 Of course not And now for something completely different Variable quotDimensions Ex Following a recipe a good cake 0 Predictor variable to a outcome variable Ingredient quality Ingredient proportions lMORE IMPORTANT Cooking time lMORE IMPORTANT Cooking temperature MOST IMPORTANT Equipment quality Variable Dimensions Divided up into different sections And now for something just a little different Correlational III 0 quotPredictivequot lArticIe 3 0 Find a relationship look at the dimensions of them and see if you can do an experiment on them I 0 Experimental III 0 More experiments 0 Experimentsresults o Experimentscausation We want that concrete answer Research 0 Advanced CORRELATIONAL study 0 Identify the variable dimensions Most likely to produce effect 0 In a future experiment 0 quotShowing causation without experimentationquot 0 Law and order example There is a study that is done says that gun violence is like a virus and people who deal with this will do it in the future a What is a known saying Guns don t kill people people kill people They argue blame for violence can be directly blamed on the gun virus u If you shot from a gun before you will do it again I Think it s a medical problem a It s more predicted than drug violence They interviewed 1500 people and coded the frequency of what was said was tallied and you can enter it into data October 15 2014 Predictive Research 0 quotWhat should we focus our experiment onquot 0 quotSecond Quantitative Filterquot 0 Narrow future experiments 0 Eliminate quotdead endquot variablesdimensions Remember 0 Correlational quotbuzz wordsquot 0 Relationship 0 Related to 0 Association 0 Associated to NOW 0 Predictive HRQ 00000 O Predictpredicted Predictorpredictive Moderatemoderator Mediatemediator quotContribute toquot quotAccount forquot Regression a Multiple Regression O O O 0 Shows potential effect Without an experiment 3 or more variables l of variables In a Predictive HRQ ltype of variables Represented by F R Rquot2 No other statistical test uses r only Pearson If you see a t experimental It will say regression in front of the quotFquot it is different than quotF R Rquot2quot Experimental Research Experiment 0 quotLaboratoryquot setting 0 Minimize extraneous in uence 0 Determine effect 0 14 le o On any number of DVs The quotClassical Experimentquot 0 What does that mean You have a control group You have a noncontroled group Then you have a survey after Looking for a difference 0 After a stimulus Article 4 0 True experiment 0 Between groups of people Article 2 0 quotEx Post Factoquot experiment 0 Statistical tests of Difference o ttest 0 ANOVA Operationalizing Variables Means to observe it or measure it Correlational amp Predictive studies 0 Surveys for all variables lt 0 True Experiments 0 Stimulus IVs amp Surveys DVs 0 quotEx Post Factoquot Experiments 0 Surveys for IVs amp DVs lt Let s start with what we know October 20 2014 True Experiment 0 Active manipulation of Vs To assess the effect of the DVs o Posttest only 0 The procedure 0 Expose to stimulus IV 0 Collect DV data with survey Common Stimuli o Randomly assign to quottreatment conditionsquot 0 Before you example Watch a video Read a scenario Interact with people View pictures Then of course ll out a survey for each DV True Experiment 0 What is the effect of selfdisclosure on relationship satisfaction 0 Disclosure IV 0 High 0 Moderate high 0 Moderate low 0 Low 0 Satisfaction DV 0 Lower levels 0 Highest levels This is where human beings want to be 0 Higher levels 0 Lowest levels True Experiment 0 How is student Learning in uenced by Teacher lmmediacy o lmmediacy IV High Moderate Low 0 Learning DV Lower levels Highest levels Lowest levels True Experiment 0 What is the effect of Leadership Style on Group Cohesiveness 0 Leadership IV Authoritarian Democratic Laissezfaire o Cohesiveness DV Lowest levels Highest levels Lower levels Stimulus the downside Stimulus Demonstration or Reenactment 0 Independent variable A demonstration A reenactment Reenactment confusion o Researchercreates stimulus Surveys DV Reliability 0 Stimulus IV Manipulation check Manipulation Check quotPretestquot or quotDouble checkquot of the stimulus 0 Participants must understand stimulus o The way you intendthem to 0 Test to verify participants did understand stimulus 0 True experiments only 0 Basically says yes it will have a little bit of error but not too much 0 Ex The boring video we watched of the Masters students listening to a boring subject a professor If they would have shot the camera in a different angle you could have saved the participant watching the video from focusing on the teacher because the researchers wanted the participants to focus on the nonverbal cues from the students This messed up the whole study But with a manipulation check the researchers changed the camera angle the second time around and this changed the survey It was successful One last thing 0 Participants MUST understand a stimulus the way you intend them to Research Ethics 0 Intentional Deception o No other methodl honest responses 0 Using Confederates 0 Agent posing as a participant o Introduces a secret stimulus More honest responses 0 Confederates people who are above you Not a participant not apart of the data But effect the research study So how do you conduct an experiment without a stimulus Psychological variables 0 Demographic variables 0 TAKE A DEEP BREATH quotEx Post Factoquot Experiment 0 quotThat which we are we arequot 0 Tennyson 1842 0 We are just part of the group So which group are you in 0 Some variables cannot be 0 Actively manipulated o Accurately manipulated Reenactmentl confusionl ERROR o If participants are confused they will not answer the questions untruthfully This leads to error Ex Post Facto Experiment 0 quotThat which we are we arequot 0 Assess differences in o Psychological variables 0 Demographic variables 0 No stimulus surveys only 0 You do manipulate your participants by dividing them by their demographics They have to naturally belong 0 Look at the PowerPoint slides 24 amp25 Ex Post Facto Experiment 0 quotThat which we are we arequot 0 Manipulationl purposely grouping participants 0 By their scores on the IV surveys Compare each group s DV scores 0 A difference between groups Ex Post Facto 0 quotThat which we are we arequot 0 Does Sex impact Classroom Communication Apprehension Sex IV 0 Female 0 Male Classroom CA DV 0 Higher levels 0 Lower levels CA IV 0 High 0 Moderate 0 Low 0 Perceived Learning DV 0 Lowest levels 0 Higher levels 0 Highest levels 0 Con ict Style IV 0 Avoider o Accommodator 0 Competitor 0 Compromiser o Collaborator Satisfaction DV 0 Lower levels 0 Lower levels 0 Lowest levels 0 Highest levels Ex Post Facto 0 quotThat which we are we arequot 0 What is the effect of Leadership Style on Group Cohesiveness 0 Leadership IV 0 Authoritarian 0 Democratic o Laissezfaire o Cohesiveness DV 0 Lowest levels 0 Highest levels 0 Lower levels The Bottom Line 0 True Experiment 0 Active stimulus IVs 0 Random assignments to conditions 0 DVs survey 0 Ex Post Facto o IVs and DVs surveys 0 Participants purposely grouped By something uncontrollable or vague QuasiExperiments Outside the laboratory 0 Most realistic environment 0 More realistic but 0 Environmentl natural variation of IV QuasiExperiments 0 Field Experiments 0 Completely realistic and environment 0 Collect DV data with survey 0 Lose some control Confounding variables October 22 2014 QuasiExperiments 0 Mock Experiment create a simulated environment 0 O O 0 YOU CREATE IT Collect DV data with survey Lose some control Confounding variables Ex The video we watched Does ambiance makes food taste better They costumers lled out a survey in a sematic scale With the data the scored concluded that the costumers thought the cheep ambiance food was bad and the expensive ambiance food was really good Detailed way to explain this a Is it really science a Restaurant Ambiance study 0 quotFood Detectivesquot Sept 20 2008 Replicate restaurant a Procedure RQ Does ambiance make food task better 0 Most experiment 0 Food form Costco a prepared the same way 0 2 treatment groups n Operationalization s IVs Language and Ambience 0 Languagemenu names fancybasic o Ambianceenvironmenta accents fancybasic n DesignPosttest only 0 Group 1 0 Basic menus names IV Basic environment 0 Group 2 o Fancy menu names IV 0 o Fancy environment IV 0 But Was it language or environment 0 OR BOTH m 0 When we talk about design we are talking about experiments Decisions Decisions 0 So far 0 Type of experiment True or Ex Post Facto o Surveys to sue Stimulus 0 Laboratory or Quasi 0 Now 0 What is the DESIGN quotProcedure for collecting dataquot D So in what order Wait a minute 0 What about Correlational Designs 0 Correlational study quotNoexperimentalquot o Predictive study quotNonexperimentalquot Experimental Designs Posttest only PretestPosttest IV 0 Longitudinal design Factorial design 724 IVs Posttest only 0 Measures DV ONCE 0 quotOne Shot Studyquot 0 True experiment 0 Stimulus IV Surveys DV 0 Ex Post Facto experiment 0 IV survey amp DV surveys PretestPosttest 0 Measure DV TWICE 0 Give the participants DV surveys Give stimulus IV Same DV surveys again Longitudinal Design 0 Measure DV multiple times over time 0 Longitudinal design is over a long period of time 0 DV surveys immediately then 0 DV surveys again and again and again Set intervals Longitudinal Design Example quotlntergenerational Transmission of Divorcequot 0 Does divorce pass down to the next generations 0 Data collect 1980 1983 1993 0 Results No parental history IV 10 divorce rate DV One person s parents divorced 15 divorce rate Both people s parents divorced 30 divorce rate Extra Those in 2nOI marriages highest likelihood a Difference between groups Ok but what about more than 1 IV Factorial Design 0 Effect of multiple IVs o IVs 24 0 DV5 00 0 Do IVs work together to in uence DV 0 quotVariancequot Variation Change In uence Effect Factorial Design 0 Main effect 0 Unique separate effects Each IV on the DV 0 Interaction Effect lt This is what we re main after 0 Combined in uence IVIV on the DV X o quot2 x 2 factorial designquot 0 Look for o Of numbers Of le Each number itself 0 GroupsLevels in each IV X 0 2x2 0 2x3 0 3x3 2x2x2 3x2x3 0 Don t do the math on these 0 These will tell you what kind of treatment conditions to do October 27 2014 Treatment Conditions 0 True experiments 0 Group of participants randomly Ex Video we watched the man who tested to see if mushrooms absorb water in a ve second rinse or a 30 minute soaking They absorb the same about of water during the 5second rinse and the 30 minutes soak 0 Groups receive variations of stimulus o Mostleast powerful IV effect 0 Treatment Condition Example 0 2x2 We ve only just begun 0 Consider Student engagement and affective learning are positively impacted by teachers level of immediacy and selfdisclosure Directionality Correlational or Experimental IV DV IV Operationalization s a Video clips THEY USED THIS ONE n Scenarios DV Operationalization s a Student Engagement Scale 0 2x2 Factorial Design Selfdisclosure Immediacy 0 Results of Variance from each IV Main Effect n Immediacy 56 n Selfdisclosure 38 Interaction effect a Immediacy Selfdisclosure 73 s quotHighLow Disclosurequot good enough 0 3x2 Factorial Design Immediacy high low SelfDisclosure high moderate low El Treatment conditions 0 Ex Post Facto Experiment 0 Participants grouped o By something uncontrollable Differences between natural groups Mostleast powerful IV effect 0 2x2 Expo Factor Example 0 IVs Leader Style amp Subordinate Gender Perceived Leadership Scale Demographics FM 0 DV Job Satisfaction Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire 0 2x2 Factorial Design 0 Subordinate gender female male 0 Leader style Democratic authoritarian o 0 Drum Roll Please 0 Main effect No main effect for Gender no difference in IS Main effect for Leadership Democratic HigherJS 0 Interaction effect Nope o of variance from each IV on IS GenderNA Leadership Style 32 Is it really science No but is this really science 0 Doctor 02 did an experiment 0 Green Coffee Bean Extract Experiment 0 n 100 o Criterion Sampling 0 2 similar groups Treatment group Control Group 0 quotPrequot data collected from 30 participants Procure o All participants One 400 mg capsule a Three times a day a 30 minutes before each meal 0 Do not change diet 0 Keep a quotfood logquot Operationalization s o VGreen coffee bean extract 0 VFood log 0 DV Weight 0 DVWaist size 0 DV Blood pressure 0 Design 0 Treatment group Green Coffee Extract IV Food Log IV 0 Control Group 0 Results 0 Main effect Coffee bean by itself 0 Overall it was a bad study And now for something completely different 5 Analyze and interpret the data quotlnferentialquot Statistics Tests of Relationship correlational HRQ 0 Correlation 0 Regression 0 Tests of Difference experimental HRQ o t test 0 ANOVA WHY 0 It s going to help you on the quantitative project 0 There s more clues in the hypothesis than in the research queonns This allows us to make an inference t Test t Test Represented by t t1282 1037 ps05 0 Only when 0 IV has TWO groupslevels and type of variables Only one IV DVs Types of t tests Onetailed directional t test o Directional HRQ o Speci es the difference 0 Twotailed nondirectional ttest o Nondirectional HRQ o Predict a difference in either direction ANOVA Analysis of variance 0 Represented by F o F1 161 2294 ps05 o Variance VariationChange In uence Effect 0 More complex ANOVAs o MANOVAl ANCOVAl MANCOVA ANOVA 0 When 0 2 VsANOVA o 3 Vs ANOVA o 4 Vs ANOVA 1 IV of 3 or more evesgroupsANOVA Types of ANOVA o Oneway ANOVA 1 IV 0 Twoway ANOVA 2 IVs o Factorial ANOVA 3 or 4 IVs ANOVA Planned comparisons 0 Predicted in HRQ 0 quotOf cialquot ndings Unplanned Post Hoc comparisons 0 Not predicted in HRQ o quotUnof cialquot ndings quotMixed Designquot 0 Current trend multiple designs 0 Experimental AND Correlational o Correlational AND Predictive Check the HRQs 0 Be mindful of this during your quantitative research 0 quotWhat do I call itquot 0 Reasons for this October 29 2014 Article 4 0 H1 High levels of instructor nonverbal immediacy and humor will have greater effects on perceptions of instructor credibility sociality extroversion competence composure and character than low levels of instructor nonverbal immediacy and humor in CD ROM instruction 0 Directionality 0 Experimental or Correlation 0 IV 0 DV 0 lntervening variable Operationalizations 0 IV Instructor lmmediacy HL 0 IV Instructor Humor HL 0 Video 0 Type of Experiment 0 True 0 Design 0 Factorial 2x2 StatisticalTests o ANOVAMANOVA 4 Manipulation Checks 0 Yes 2x2 Factorial Design o Immediacy high and low 0 Humor high and low Resu s 0 Interaction effects 0 Nope Hmmm What s the deal with humor 0 Main effects only 0 Immediacy amp humor did not interact o No effects for Student Learning recall 0 Low variance for humor 0 What humor operationalized well 0 Remember the medium CDROM Hmm 0 Limitations 0 One viewing of lecture No studentteacher relationship o No quotgroup response phenomenon 0 Response to humor use 0 Delivery of humor eh November 3 2014 Participant Selection Participant Selection 0 Population 0 Demographic of interest 0 Sample 0 Small portion of a popuation provide data 0 Sampling frame 0 Subset that has a Chance to be part of the sample A list of names of potential participant s names Sample Size 0 Number of participants n 0 Recommended minimums Larger sampe LESS bias 0 Larger the LESS error 0 Error is diffused How is that So more cars on the high way fewer accidents Nooo n It s more generalized n Ex If you had the opportunity to take a 100 question vs 10 question test you ll want to take a 100 question test because it s a BIGGER SAMPLE D So all of these mistakes they will potentially make will be less 0 Larger sample is more representative 0 The more people you have the more likely you are to have a population correlate to your study 0 Think about brainstorming Why do you think it s so important to have more ideas Because the more ideas we have over all the better good ideas there are Your population Peperoni pizza vs supreme There are more variables and more to offer Representative sample 0 Sample accurately represents population 0 An accurate slice 0 Sample is representative if 0 Everyone had the same chance 0 Of being invited to the participate Probability sampling 0 AKA quotRandom Samplingquot 0 Probability of being invitedis equal 0 Sampling error WILL occur 0 Combine methods There will be people who get in your research that should not be in there Probability sampling 0 Simple random sampling Strati ed random sampling 0 Systematic sampling Cluster sampling Probably of sampling 0 Simple random sampling o Randomly picking form the sampling frame You and you and you and you and you are going to participate This can be a downside because there might not be a lot of diversity Probability sampling 0 Strati ed random sampling 0 Subdivide sampling frame into groups randomly pick form each group Ex Different colored mampm s divided into colors and you pick and choose how many different people you want form each demographic Probability Sampling 0 ystematic sampling 0 Set a standard then 0 Choose names form the sampling frame 0 quotEvery 10th namequot 0 quotEvery 23rOI namequot Probability Sampling 0 Cluster sampling 0 No sampling frame 0 Go to them then Sample random sample n Ex Going to different departments at Texas State and talking to 10 students to provide a sample Nonprobability sampling 0 No access to sampling frame or Looking fro speci c people Less representative sample Sampling error WILL occur 0 Combine methods Nonprobability Sampling 0 Convenience sample 0 Participants are easily accessible Criterion sample 0 Standards to exclude some Only want certain people population Nonprobability Sampling 0 Volunteer sample 0 Participants offer to participate FYI T IS THE MOST MISSED THING ON THE QUANT TIVE PROJECT Don t just look at the word volunt r actually read what that means 0 EVERYONE partici ants voluntarily 0 Not forced o Butl quotVolu eerquot Research suggests 0 Typically better educated higher for need for approval and have a higher IQ This can be bad because it sounds like the same kind of people Nonprobability sampling Snowball sample 0 Participants recruit other participants 0 Network sample 0 Researcher recruits participants interpersonaly Random encounters Nonprobability sampling 0 Purposive sample 0 Participant handpicked by researcher Speci cally chosen existing relationship 0 Quota sample 0 Set a minimum and stop Types of Data 8 Signi cance Levels Types of data 0 Ordinal data 0 Think quotRanking things in orderquot 0 Ratio data 0 Think quotFrequency of how many times things are reportedquot 0 Interval data 0 Survey responses Ordinal data 0 Rank existing elements in order 0 Lowl high 0 Highl low 0 Sequence suggests value 0 Distance between them is unknown 0 Not frequently used Consumer Reports quotTop Complaintsquot 1 Hidden fees 2 Not getting a human on the phone 3 Tailgating 4 Cellhone use by drivers 5 Incompressible bills 6 Dog poop 7 Unreliable internet service 8 Discourteous cell phone use 9 Waiting for repair people 10 Spam 11 Shrunken products 12 Very slow drivers 13 Unreliable cell phone service 14 Traf c jams 15 Noisy neighbors 16 Poor airline service 17 Shouting on TV or radio shows 18 Checkout lines 19 Speeding drivers 20 Passwords amp PINs Ratio data Counting o quotHow many timesquot Ex When Marge Simpson counts the amount of times that cartoons are violent She just tallies it Percentages 0 OR Top 10 Cities Results 1 Laredo TX 2 El Paso TX 3 San Antonio TX 4 Aurora CO 5 Corpus Christi TX 6 Glendale CA 7 Colorado Springs CO 8 Milwaukee WI 9 Toledo OH 10 Norfolk VA 0 Conclusions Interval Data 0 Likerttype scale 0 1SA 2A 3U 4D 5SD 0 Semantic Differential o Bad1234567Good November 19 2014 Introduction to Qualitative Research The Qualitative Process 0 1 Start with an interesting question Big Q 0 Same as the quantitative process 0 2 Propose informal Purpose StatementRQ o No hypothesis 0 No predictions 0 3 Re ne purpose statementRQ 0 Decisions decisions 0 4 Collect amp informally analyze data simultaneously 0 Very different from quantitative There s no informal analysis 0 You just collect some analyze Collect more analyze Collect some more analyze Etc This will tell you when you hit saturation o This study can go anywhere it wants 0 Anything can change at anytime o Formally analyze and interpret data 0 III III 0 WHAT quotWHYquot Qualitative vs Quantitive 0 Qualitative Methods 0 Observation 5 methods Researcher collects data Natural environment Small sample quotQualityquot of data OOOOO O O I Create assumptions 0 Quantitative Methods 0 000000 0 Numbers Surveys Selfreport data Controlled environment Large sample quotQuantityquot of data I Test assumptions Why Conduct Qualitative Research 0 New lines of research OOOOO ALL research beings Qualitativer Understand it Test it III III Qualitative Quantitative To create theory A Broad conclusions Why Conduct Qualitative Research 0 quotThe research cycle 0 O O 1 Qualitative inductive quotLearn itquot 2 Findings 3 Quantitative Deductive quotTest itquot o 4 Findings 0 5 Quantitative Deductive quotTest itquot Why conduct qualitative research 0 Identifyexplain a phenomenon 0 quotRepeated occurrence circumstance or factquot Observable 0 Start off on your own but kind of adopting the strive that your serve is in 0 You start seeing this everywhere else Ex The Robin Williams lm where the three men are walking in a circle and they start to start walking the same pace Ex Along with the Scarface movie where the men start walking at the same pace because of the horse rides off in the same speed 0 Patterns of behavior 0 Actual behavior 0 What are the norms o In general November 24 2014 What Phenomena Speci c behaviors 0 Ex Final Conversations article 0 Speci c groups of people 0 In uence of a speci c environment 0 Ex Men and women in the work place Qualitative Characteristics 0 Einrica means new data 0 quotVeri able by observation or experimentquot 39 I I Qualitative Quantitative o Inductive 0 Lots of data Few conclusions 0 FunneV Lots and lots of data and then you narrow it down Bias 0 A tendency or inclination o Prevents unprejudiced consideration Favoring some outcomes over others 0 Looking for it vs Experiencing it I 0 You have to experience this Qualitative subjective o Researcher collects amp interprets Applying educational assumptions Unique Findings 0 Examples not present in the majority 0 Not the norm More unique to certain types of people Qualitative data cannot be discarded 0 Value 0 Humanize participants 0 Upcoming changessocial trends 0 Suggestions for future research Beginning the Process 0 Big Q 0 Now what 0 A challenge 0 Previous ndings in yourdiscipline 0 Existing conceptual de nitions 0 A set of criteria 0 If there are some use them 0 If there aren t any make your own Beginning the Process 0 Purpose statement 0 Explanation of What you hope to accomplish Why it is valuable n Ex Because there is no research on this we need to learn more about this 0 Research Questions optional 0 Based on previous research If it s never been studied before then how can you have any previous research 0 Nondirectional All questions should be nondirectional Qualitative Data Collection The Qualitative Process o 1 Start with an interesting question Big Q o 2 Propose informal Purpose statementRQ 3 Re ne purpose statementRQ 4 Collect amp informally analyze data o 5 Formally analyze and interpret data Data Collection 0 Every time you collect o IMMEDIATELY ANALYZE Informal review a Can be fore 510 minutes Doesn t have to be long a Nothing is nal until it appears in print in that journal 0 Re exive analysis C HA 0 quotThink about what you do as you do itquot Formal nal analysis is how you collect your data This does help you perform better When to stop collecting 0 Saturation 0 Not a good de nition Data start to repeat 0 A better de nition quotHave not observed anything newquot In other words quotI am not learning anything newquot a For quite some time o A subjective decision 0 Collect a little more Threats to Validity 0 Selection bias 0 Speci c data stand out More than others 0 Reactivity bias 0 In uence of researcher on The setting The participants Data Collection Methods 0 Field observation study 0 Interviews 0 Narrative o Ethnography Focus Group 0 Which one of these do I use 0 Combination of these 0 Advantages amp limitations to all 0 Must give rationale Field Study 0 Observe a phenomenon or population 0 In its natural setting 0 Observation is purposeful 0 Observation plan 0 Prolonged periods 0 Random days times and Places 0 Representative sample 0 Ex The article study about Dinning Hall ndings during nal exam time 0 Not the most common kind of study Field Interviewing quotSemistructured Formatquot 0 Openended questions 0 Core questions 0 All participants Probing questions 0 Extemporaneous responsesl more detail December 1 2014 Narrative approach 0 Tell me your story Unstructured monologue o Uninterrupted store 0 No questions or guidance 0 quotCritical Incident Techniquequot 0 quotRecall a time whenquot Ex Take a paper and pen and write anything you can remember Ethnography When a researcher goes undercover and lives a life with people all the while secretly recording data 0 Holistic description of interactions 0 In their cultural or cocutura group De nefurther understand a population Covert Role 0 Undercover role 0 This makes people feel like they aren t under a microscope Ethnography Share participants environment 0 Extended period time 0 At least a year to develop relationships 0 Capture natural interaction 0 One or small number of cases Focus Groups Structured group discussion 0 Ex What do you think about this new food 0 Interactive 0 Not an interview VideoAudio recording 0 Researcher not present Focus Groups 0 6090 min Facilitated discussion 0 512 participants 0 Should be strangers This will help people speak more freely because they won t feel judged 0 Encourage to talk with each other 0 quotTwo levels of dataquot Focus Group Facilitator 0 Talking points amp discussion questions 0 Content Data Gatekeeping amp Metamessages o Encourages participation Moves it forward backward and people to keep talking talking and talking Nata participant Not the researcher Decisions Decisions 0 Data collection method 0 Field study interview ethnography etc 0 Form of observation 0 Level of YOUR involvement with the people that you re studying o Triangulation 0 Multiple sources of information 0 Sampling Methods o How will I get my participants Decisions Decisions 0 Form of observation 0 Level of YOUR involvement with participants Complete participant Observerasparticipant Participantasobserver Complete observer Complete Participant o Interact with participants 0 Covert role 0 Participants NOT aware of intent o No informed consent 0 OVERALL Ethnography Observerasparticipant quotPassivequot observation 0 No informed consent Do not interact with participants Field studies Narrative 0 Ex The observation study at TX State where they observed people in the dinning halls 0 Watching only not participating Participantasobserver o Interact with participants but 0 They are aware of intent o Informed consent 0 OVERALL Interview 0 Field study 0 Narrative Complete observer Researcher is completely hidden 0 No interaction with participants 2way mirror audiovideo recording o Informed consent OVERALL Focus group Enhancing Validity Triangulation 0 Multiple ways to collect data To validate ndings 0 One source another source 0 Repeated ndingsl TRUTH o The more you see it and experience it the more truth that is there Types of Triangulation 0 Investigator triangulation 0 Multiple researchers Collecting and Analyzing data Methodologicaltriangulation o Qualitative and Quantitative data In the SAME study Types of Triangulation 0 Data triangulation o More than one QUALITATIVE method 5 methods 0 Interdisciplinary triangulation 0 Researchers form different disciplines Qualitative Sampling 0 Purposeful o What this really means because it changes the rules of the game Looking for something or someone speci c 0 Automatically excludes some ALL sampling is nonprobabiity Nonprobability sampling Convenience sample Criterion sample Volunteer sample Snowball sample Network sample Purposive sample you hand pick someone because they have value insight on data that you need Quota sample Ex As soon as we hit 10 we stop Nonprobability Sampling NEW Random Purposive Sample 0 Purposefully select a population behavior or location 0 Go to them and collect data 0 Sample randomly quotField of visionquot The Qualitative Research Report Abstract Brief summary 0 125 words or less Overall purpose 0 Research methodpa rticipants Results Schons IntroductionReview of Literature 0 Method Results amp Discussion 0 Conclusion IntroductionReview of Literature 0 Why phenomenon is important Conceptual de nitions Previous research suggests Purpose statement RQs optional Method How 0 Participants 0 Demographics Location etc 0 Data collection method with rationale Form observation with rationale Data analysis method Results and Discussion What 0 Reporting quotWhatquot 0 De ne categories themes 0 Support categories with best examples 0 Participants quotes if possible 0 Unique ndings 0 Longest because it s goes into the most detail Conclusion why 0 Interpreting Why 0 Logical assumptions theorizing 0 Strategic selfdisclosure 0 At least one per category 0 Link nings pervious research 0 Implications December 3 2014 Reference Page 0 APA style 0 Alphabetical by rst author 0 Include the Methodological Literature o How to conduct good qualitative research Qualitative Data Analys 5 Formally analyze and interpret data I 39 lIllIllIllIllIllIllIl What Why Data Analysis 0 Informal analysis re exive 0 Collect ll Analyze o Saturation Where you haven t learned anything new in a while so you kind of stop collecting data 0 Formal Analvsis o Induche Lots of datal Few conclusions First 0 How will I use the database 0 What is a database Notes Stack of paper with all of your data Two methods to use a database 0 Method 1 quotGreatest Hitsquot 0 Method 2 quotStudio Albumsquot Method 1 quotGreatest Hitsquot Stack amp read notes all together Analyze collectively Compare observations Identify patterns repetition 0 Overall What and Why Method 2 quotStudio Albumsquot 0 Read each piece of data individually 0 Interview focus group narrative etc 0 Everyone would have the39 own section of the report Analyze separately 0 Do not compare cases o What amp Why for EACH case Formal Analysis 0 Analysis read database repeatedly 0 Every time you read do new stuff 0 Code data Categorize data 0 Reporting WHAT 0 Support categories with examples 0 Results amp Discussion section Coding Data 0 Highlight repeated words and phrases 0 Essential elements 0 Raw ndings 0 Data reduction method 0 Do not discard data 0 Unique ndings Categories 0 Classi cation system 0 Broad tites similar data 0 Examples and quotes to support Subcategories Speci c Methods 0 GROUNDED THEORY APPROACH Grounded Theory Approach o A systematic approach 0 To coding and categorizing data Emergent patternsl Conclusions 0 Many readings of database 0 O O 0 First pass Second pass open coding Highlighting Third pass axial coding Develop initial categories Fourth pass and beyond selective coding Re ne and add new categories Formal Analysis 0 Interpretation make sense of patterns 0 Logical assumptions 0 Theorizel WHY it happens 0 Conclusion section 0 Implications of these ndings Interpretations Correct 0 Respondent Validation O O O 0 Participants verify accuracy of interpretations After formaanalysis and interpretation Correct errors Provide alternate perspectives
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