Research Methods Exam Reviews
Research Methods Exam Reviews 3301
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This 43 page Bundle was uploaded by Kaitlyn Kirkhart on Monday October 5, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 3301 at Texas State University taught by Professor Chilton in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Language at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Research Methods Exam 1 Review 12142014 This is a general list of information covered during Unit One The test will cover textbook readings inclass lecture notes and discussions The Scienti c Method all steps 0 Not indebt 2 3 4 Conduct observation of measurement or experiment 5 AD Analyze data 0 1 Start with an interesting question quotBig Qquot Big Question 0 2 Propose informal hypothesis H or research question RQ Based on formal knowledge or experience You need to formalize your informal H or R0 Previous research suggests what 0 3 Formalize the HypothesisResearch Question Retesting previous research I Put it in line to what previous research suggest a When you read an article the authors are Repurposing something old to see if it s something new 0 Therefore no research is new a You will not see a Hypothesis be negative I We re going to reword the previous research Research Question a clearly articulated statement about a topic of interest a Ex Is there a difference between people with socially conservative political beliefs and the people with scally moneyrelated conservative police beliefs with regard to attitudes toward sexuality 0 4 Conduct the observation Qualitative measurement Quantitative or experiment Quantitative Basically collect data 0 5 Analyze and interpret the data Analyze what study the data and get the answers lnterpret why assigns meaning the explains meaning to something mm 0 Variable by means of observation qualitative or experiment quantitative 0 We assume that the information is a fact 0 Conclusions are based on evidence data Collected form participants now Quantitative vs Qualitative Research essential differences 0 All research beings as Qualitatively 0 You have to learn about it before you can test it controlled 0 Observe a phenomenon o Create a theory 0 Continue Quantitatively 0 Test theory to con rm or contradict it 0 Verify it keep testingkeep learning it 0 Quantitative numerical measurement in a controlled setting experimentation 0 Numerical data surveys 0 Participants selfreport data 0 Collect data in a controlled environment O O O O Relatively large sample Higher quantity of data numbers Duhhhhh QUANTITY Testing assumptions Qualitative observation of participants in a natural setting 0 An interview is a form of observation 0000 O Ex Interviewing for a job they are observing you for sure Researcher collets data personally This can be very bias Five different data collection methods Five is important because there is only one way for quantitative Often interact with participants Relatively small sample Higher quality of data more detail Creating assumptions Qualitative ndings are still theoretical Bottom line 0 O Qualitative Do not know much or anything about it Goal being to understand it Quantitative Want to know more about it Goalunderstand it better Replica ble o Demonstration of the same ndings of a study in a different place or with a different group of people Repeatable or over and over and over again the value of repetition o Selfcorrecting 0 We do this so that we can see if research is still true Heuristic If a study generate more research it is said to have a heuristic value 0 Enabling a person to discover or learn something for themselves 0 O Answersmore questions quotSuggestions for further research Generalizability Results need to apply to as many people as possible Extending conclusion from the sample data to the larger population 0 O O O A very small majority of the population speak for a very big majority of the population Sampleljdatalj conclusionsljljgeneral population Research starts with quotIn generalquot Everything you do has the potential to nd your generalized ability How do we know if it is generalizable Not a number Not an answer Not in the research report The result of Adhering to the scienti c principle quality controls n Or doing the research well A normal sample REMEMBER multiple generations a larger sample compared to just one generation Inductive vs Deductive Reasoning Qualitative Research 0 lnductive before gather speci c data conclusion theorize You learn it and from those ndings you get your quantities research Observe a repeating phenomenon n Whatis it n Why does it happen 0 Speci c examples explanation theory 0 Quantitative Research 0 Deductive After advance a theory gather data Is it true Is there more a Testing variables Hypothesis theory Speci c data KEEP ON ASKING WHY THE CYCLE NEVER ENDS Statement 0 Like a thesis statement 0 Breaks it down so other technical terms aren t distracting It should be straight to the point 0 Explanation of o Necessary o Valuable 0 Ex No previous research has investigated the relationship between sex and CA regarding classroom participation ual De nition 0 The speci c way each variable or phenomenon is de ned in your study 0 Listened in quotliterature Reviewquot 0 Original creation or 0 Taken from previous studies 0 Your own paraphrase of what the study is 0 Ex quotCA is an individual s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication quot Be able to recognize computerized databases for locating research 0 EBSCO 0 ERIC 0 Psych INFO PsychARTICLES Sociological Abstracts Social Science Full Text 0 Psychology and Behavioral Science Collection My Attempt to explain describe or predict o What we do pattern 0 How we do it speci c behaviors 0 Why we do it motivation Improvement 0 Remember Theories are tools Tools are meant to be use The role of theory in research Qualitative researchljl creates the theory 0 Quantitative research tests the theory 0 Con rm or Contradicts it 0 Three C s o 1 Create o 2 Con rm 0 3 Contradicts Use existing theory interpret ndings Four primary sections of a Quantitative report and what information is in each section 0 0 Abstract 0 Summary of the research project 0 Limited to 150 words 0 1 Literature review past 0 Introductory paragraphs 0 Set the stage for the upcoming study 0 Conceptual de nitions How variables are de ned for this study 0 Previous research suggests APA parenthetical citations o Hypothesis 0 About 1520 pages 0 Remember 1 State why the problem is important 2 Link the research methods to be used to the area of inquiry 3 Describe the theoretical implications of the proposed invesUgann 2 Methods section howto THIS IS THE ONE THAT WE WILL MOST LOOK AT BECAUSE WE ARE IN A RESEARCH METHODS CLASS 0 Order 1 Participants 2 Materials or apparatus 3 Procedure 0 Deception of participants Sample size n203 n N means number of participants 0 Demographic information Geographic generalities 0 Sampling techniques used 0 The procedure What did the participants do How were data collected 0 Operationalization of each variable What surveys were used What stimulus was provided 0 Descriptive statistics Mean Median Mode l GENERALIZE ABILITY comes form this things a The people who participated in collecting the data Survey reliability 0 Manipulation check data Only if a stimulus was given TRUE EXPERIMENT a Only going to nd this info if it s a true experiment 0 Won t always nd this then 0 3 Results section what 0 Answer the questions 0 For each HypothesisResearch Question Statistical test used r R Rquot2 t F Numerical results of statistical test a F 116 2294 p s 05 0 Statistical Designations 4 Discussion section why 0 Researcher39s interpretation Restate results what Explain results why 0 Current ndingsl previous research 0 Limitations 0 Suggestions for future research Two possible outcomes of Quantitative research 1 Determine if variables are related to each other 0 HAS TO COME FIRST 0 Correlational research quotITJUST SO HAPPENSquot 0 OR 2 The effect of variables on other variables 0 Experimental research If there is not a correlation there will be no causation 0 Think Lisa Simpson OVERALL 0 Quantitative research needs Correlation relationships Experimental effect I This is the stumbling block to the class It really helps to know which article is which Error amp Sources of error E rro r 0 Error is as bad as group think is to small groups 0 Unplanned mistakes Participants AND researchers 0 Faulty skewed data Faulty datafautly conclusions U Want the most actuate and truthful info that people can get 0 Natural Cannot be eliminated o Source39s of error Pervious research 39 lIl Your HRQ 39 lIl Surveys 0 Sources of error Research in uence Stimulus n Researcher creates this Sampling error 0 Sources of error Data entry I Missing a number or entering the wrong thing Data analyses Participants a quotSocial desirability biasquot n quotHawthorne Effectquot change their behavior when being interviewed a Mistakes on surveys Hypothesis vs Research Question 0 W educated guess Tentative educated guess about 0 The effect on 0 Or relationship between variables 0 Predicts the outcome The difference between variables a That a difference will occur 0 When you said the word difference think a difference between groups or a change from beginning of stimulus to end of stimulus 0 That a relationship exists 0 Based on previous research Previous ndings exist 0 Worded in af rmative Predict quotmore of the samequot l Formalized a Not testing new assumptions we re testing old assumptions n We re rewording assumptions to see if it s still true 0 Research or quotAlternatequot Hypothesis When you hear the words Research hypothesis think your hypothesis 0 Research Questions questions that asks o IfHow variables are related Correlational o IfHow variables cause effect Directional vs Nondirectional HRQ Directional Hypothesis predicts the nature and direction of a relationshipdifference o AKA quotonetailedquot hypothesis ll So be aware that this means going one direction than the other 0 Direction words Ex MoreLess IncreaseDecrease PositiveNegative most common etc 0 Many previous quantitative ndings Nondirectional Hypothesis only that a relationshipdifference exists A o AKA quotTwotailed hypothesisquot Could be good or bad positive or negative 0 Nondirectional words V quotDon t know which way it will goquot 0 Few or no quantitative ndings Correlation buzz words they will be a correction only if they are in the statistical context 0 Relationship 0 Related to 0 Association 0 Associated with 39perationalization quotHow a variable is measured or Ibservedquot o AKA Give it a physical form to measure or observe it 0 Measured Survey o Numbered responses 0 Has to come before observation 0 Observed stimulus l o Actively demonstrated 0 Even if you re able to create a stimulus for something it is variable 0 One of the most easily demonstrated stimulus is self disclosure 0 Not all variables are behavioral variables 0 Most variables Multiple operationalization s 0 There is not a perfect survey 0 O Only 95 of surveys are accurate I Sometimes questions can be confusing etc Learning Ex How do professors ask it you know the information a Test quizzes papers Repeated measurement Why Variable characteristics Fluctuate based on context O 0000 Psychological environment Relationship Situation Differ quotwithin usquot andor Differ quotbetween usquot Ex Different ages genders income levels 0 Must have 2 or more levels or groups 0 Ex Passing a class is between AD Think of an exam as a survey and this puts you in a group Behavioral variables 0 Can be observed Easily concrete Psychological variables 0 Felt or perceived Easily abstract 0 Demographic variables 0 Membership to a speci c group 0 Ex Age gender income marriage status 0 Variable Levels 0 Scores order highest lowest 0 Ex High low 0 Ex High moderate low 0 Ex High moderate high moderate low low Independent variable The one that is The variable that is manipulated by researcher Variables work together We don t experiment one variable at a time We can have 100 s1000 s of variables going on per second It causes change to depended variable Stimulus or survey 0 Operationalized with survey 0 Something is going to change something else 0 Something is going to impact something else Dependent variable 0 The This is the experiment that was conducted 0 Survey o Operationalized with survey 0 Variable of interest result 0 As many dependent variables as you want 0 46 maximum 0 Research questionhypothesis predicts change in depend variables 0 AKA Criterion or outcome variable F lntervening variable 0 Identi es the context of this particular study 0 Physical environment 0 Relationship type 0 Situation Narrows the focus of hypothesisresearch question 0 More speci c results 0 If intervening variables changes Confounding variable o ERROR FYI Confounded used for emphasis especially to express anger or annoyance Not listed in the hypothesisresearch questions 0 Not predicted but present 0 Cause error 0 Where 0 Accounted for with error signi cance 0 Limitations Social Desirability Bias Tendency not to answer questions truthfully o Societal expectations 0 quotUndesirablequot topics 0 Negative perception of me o Impression managements Used against me later 0 Ex In a job interview 10 years later stuff happens 0 Pressure to conform 0 Social 0 Biological Anonymity amp Con dentiality o Anonymity identity will not be linked to data Con dentialitv only researchers have access to your data Selfreport data 0 A technique that social scientists commonly use to collect data Asking participants to answer questions on their own collects them This could be done by 0 Survey or questionnaire Phone Mail Email Internet 0 Group setting 0 Participants ll out surveys themselves 0 They are the best judges of their own behaviors OOOO o Affective measures 0 Cannot accurately quotobservequot some variables 0 Psychologicalvariables 0 Demographic variables 0 What does it all mean 0 Numbers are compared to others 0 Where do you fall on the continuum compared to others Likerttype Scales Each number speci c designation Attitudebased o How you think about something 0 Typically 5 points not always 0 Common descriptions What it looks like u 1 very dissatis ed n 2somewhat dissatis ed n 3 neither satis ed nor dissatis ed n 4 very satis ed a 5very satis ed Semantic Differential Scales Bipolar adjectives at opposite ends of a continuum Feelingbased 0 Ex Friendly unfriendly 0 Ex Warm cold 0 Typically 7 points not always 0 quotPaired adjectivesquot o Bipolaradjectives o quotLikedislike o quotGoodbad o What it looks like 0 Agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Disagree ReHathy 0 Number it s a statistic It changes every time form sampletosample etc 0 These concepts apply to the survey item 0 Understanding vs answering The extent to which a measure yields the same scores across different times groups of people or versions of the instrument 0 All about consistency Validity Truth 0 Argument you argue for the answer 0 A measure shows validity if it actually measures what it claims or is intended to measure Cronbach39s alpha for survey items 0 The most common way to assess the reliability of selfreport items o It measures the degree to which the items in instrument are related 0 Reliability coef cient 0 Represented by a o a 88 0 Above 70 is acceptable 0 quot70 reliablequot I 0 Measures the similarity of participants scores at to different times The greater similarity between the two sets of scores the higher the testretest reliability 0 Testing a NEW survey 0 The consistency of scores 0 Two different administrations 0 Same survey 0 Same participants Splithalf Reliability 0 Comparing the same items multiple times internal consistency A measure of reliability to which a test is split in two parts and the scores for each half of the test are compared with one another 0 Compare similaritems to each other 0 Same item multiple times AKA quotInternal consistencyquot Reverse Coding Conducting a survey that is given to an individual then given the same individual but rewording the second time on the survey 0 Positive and negative feelings about the same questions just written differently 0 You re answers should match and line up and this causes reliability Be able to read a brief summary of a research study and identify pertinent information such as direction of hypotheses variables operationalizations etc 0 Independent variable variable changing manipulated by the researcher Dependent variable variable that is being changed Intervenind variable Identi es the context of this particular study Correlational only correlation if these buzz words are used 0 Relationship 0 Related to 0 Association 0 Associated with 0 Experimental only experimental if there are no buzz words used EXAM REVIEW 2 Nonexperimental Design Aka Correlation or Descriptive Study No variable manipulation check Participants ONLY do SURVEYS what outcome your after Statistical relationships between Variables Theoretical Findings quotNo useablequot results quotITJUST SO HAPPENSquotinsert before reading correlational ndings Ex X could cause y But y could cause xbut 2 could be causing it What s your 2 factor or something we did not predict Example Seinfeld Correlation Seinfed characters can be compared to Mikey Mouse Characters THE POINT First lte re qua ntitative NO RELATIONSHIP NO EXPERIMENT N O CORRELATION NO EFFECT lF two variables are not correlated relationship we will not move onto experiments as there will be no cause between either Operationalizi ng variables in correlational predictive studies Operationalizing Variable in Correlational Studies NoneXperimentaIquot participants measure with survey39s only TWO Variables are being tested to see if there is a relationship between the two variablesif they are not correlated then we cannot move onto an experiment as there will be no cause between either Correlational Studies are usually tell you which type of variable to test and analyze REPRESENTED by quotrquot aka Person Coef cient Lower case quotrquot represent a positive relationship article 1 I n this case quotPositive relationshipquot scores of both variables increase or scores both decrease Operationalizing Variables in Predictive Study article 3 Correlational with or more variables predicts the potential effect on variable I I Leads to a Regression predictive in HRQ Focus on the individual variables gt your testing the predictive variable and what the outcome of that variable will be Shows a potential effect without an experiment Represented by FRR You have a predictor variable and a quotcriterionquot outcome variable DV C AUSATION WITHOUT EXPERIMENTATION Identify the variables Most likely to produce the effect a FUTURE experiment narrow future experimenteliminate quotdead endquot variables Ex Breakin down a RECIPEquotGood Cake 39Y0u can swap out ingredients and make due with equipment but you screw up the proportions cooking time and tempeture it will AFFECT the variable E Rel ations hip Di rectio ns Positive Relationships Scores of both variables will increase orthe will both decrease Negative Relationships Also know as INVERSE Scores of one variable increase and scores of the other variable decrease MULTIPLE REGRESSION Shows the POTENTIAL EFFE CTgt WO an experiment Remember 3 or more variables is a PREDICTIVE HRQ DIFFERENCES BTWN HRQ CORRELATIONAL HRQ Correlationa two variables testing for a relationship with no variable manipulation n on experimental quotBuzzwordsquot in HRQ relationship related to association associated with PREDICTIVE HRQ Correlation a with 3 or more variables predicting the potential effect they show causation without experimentation for future experiments quotBuzz wordsquot in HRQ relationship related to association associated with mediator contribute to account for predictor predictive predict predicted moderate moderator EXPERIMENTAL HRO EXperimental HRQ has 1 IV and DVs usually IV has 2 levels orgroups in which there is a test Or HRQ has 1234 N s and DVs y V has 3 levels or groups in which we have a factorial design Can be true experiments is an atti ve manipulation in IV to asses effect on Or a Expost facto rvey only quotWith close friends a substantial increase in immediacy will increase perceptions of credibility and attractiveness more than normative levels of immediacyquot Relational satisfaction and selfdisclosure in romantic relationships will decrease due to increased verbal aggressionquot EXPERIMENTOPERATIONALIZING VARIABLES IN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH Experiments quotLa be rato setting m ini mi ze extra neo us i n uen ce minimize confounding variables Determines effect r14 IV s on ANY number of DV S quotTHE CLASSICAL EXPERIMENTquot Lookin for a difference AFTER stimulus quotTRU E EXPERIMENTquot Between groups of people Expost facto experiment One group has a different score than the other Statistical tests of difference ittest ANOVA Observe it or measure it TRUE EXPERIMENT ACTIVE MANIPULATION of to assess the effect on the DVs LPRCEDURE to simplistic Expose IV to STIMULUS Collect DV data with survey thank you for your time Remember what is the effect of the IV on the DV PosttestOnly most commonly used Common Stimuli Randomly assign the treatment conditionssand then fill out a su rvey for each DV before we give them something we must give people treatment condition what version are we giving them Types of Stimulus Watch a video Read a scenario Interact w a person View a picture Manipulation Check Pretest or quotdouble checkquot of stimulus Participants must understand stimulus The way you intend them to Test to verify participants did understand stimulus TRUE EXPERIMENT ONLY Confederates Working on behalf of researcherpoise as agent pa rti lc ipating Ex post experiment Some variables cannot beACTIVELY MANIPULATED or ACCURATE MANIPULATED Some variables cant be changed without causing error ASSESS DifferenCes in PSychological and demagraphic variables No stimulussurveys only Fill out these surveys thank you for your time Manipu lationpurposely grouping participants by their scores on the IV survey Compa re each group39s DV scoresis there a difference between groups Mock Experiment Create a stimulated environment EX The Restaurant Ambiance study Collect DV data with a survey Lose some control because of confounding variables EX Restaurant Ambiance Sturdy Procedure RQ Does ambiance make the food taste better 2 Treatment 9 rou ps Operationalization of IV Language and ambiance ffancy39vs basic Fotod Quality and perceived cost Field Experiment Completer realistic and natural environment EX The restaurant experiment and how people will follow others actions Collect DV data with a survey Lose some control be of confounding variables POST TEST Most common and ea s iest quotone shot studyquot MEASURE DV ONCE Only 1 IV article number 2 PRETEST POST TEST Only do if you have stimulus DV surveys Give stimulus IV DV surveys again same test EX Manipulating behavior to conform LONGITUDIAL DESIGN Longtime design Complete measure over ti me Measure DV MULTIPLE time over time FACTORIAL DESIGN more than 1 IV Effect of multiple IVS Do IVS work together to in uence the DV Maiin effect unique separate effects EACH on the D V nteractigron effect COMBINED INFLUENCES IV IVDV we want to se But doesn t always happen 2X2 design count up number of IVs and for Each number itself is how many groups or levels LEVELS high and low Groups level of communication TTEST Test of differences experimental Represented ONLY WHEN Iv has two groups or levels Only ONE IV but multiple dvs TYPES OF T TEST Directional specifies a difference its either one way or the other Non Directional predicts a difference in either direction ANOVA Analysis on Variance Represented by F WHEN 2VS 3IVS4IVS TYPES OF ANOVA One way liv Two way 2ivs Factorigal 3 or 4 lvs Planned Comparisons predicted in HRQ of cial ndingsquot Unplanned post Hoc not predicted in HRQ quotunof cial ndingsquot POPULATION groups of people you studying demographic of interest Ex the whole pizza Sample Small Portion of populationprovide data we take data from sample roup to generalize pepulation Ex One slice of pizza that represents the population Sample Framing Aka list of names of potential participants subset that has a Chance to be part of the sample Only if everyone has same opportunity of being invited to participate Representative Sample sample accurately represents population most accurate slice of pizza Sample is only representative if everyone has same Chance or participating TYPES OF SAMPLING Random Sampling randomly pick from sampling frame Probability sampleStratig evd sampling subdivide sample frame into groups offers more structure and more diversity m Systematic Samplingset a standard number then choose names from the sampling frame every 107th nameetc Cluster Sam Iin 1 no sam lint frame 0 to them then simpl e random gimpIre BABILITY SAM PLING Convenience sample Participants are easily accessible Criterion sample Standards to exclude some of population 9leave some people out of study Volunteer Sample Participants come to you and OFFER to participate Snowball participants recruit other participants Network researchers recruits participants interpersonall y39 random encounters Purposive are handpicked by researchers Quota set a minimum number and stop Sample Size Number of participants n Larger the sample less bias Larger the sample less error Larger samples a re more representative Ordinal Data Rank Highest to lowest in order and the sequence is suggested data Ratio Data Frequency number of times reported Percentagesbehavior coding Interval Data Survey Responses likert type scaleSemantic Differential Allows us to compa re scores correlational Prest imuluspost stimulus true experiment Group A Group B expost facto experiment Statistical Signi cance Amount of acceptable error in HRQ Every HRQ has error Signi cance tells us accepted or rejected is there a correlation or difference SIGNIFICANT ndings ACCEPTABLE ERROR supported Insigni cant or insigni cant too much error rejected Signi cance Level 05 is acceptable can also be lt 01 and lt 001 THE STANDARD plt 05 meaning every 5 out of 100 survey responses appear valid due to chance CHANCE ERROR LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 05 plt 5 signi cant ndings ess than 5 is due to chance SO if 5 or greater hrq supported lnferential Stats Descriptive Stats Correlational r Demographics Regression R Of case n Ttest t Reliability a Anova F Rangemeanmedianmode Signi cance p Standard Deviation THE ANWSERS WHO GAVE YOU THE ANWSERS Generalizability Extending conclusions Sample must be true of the vast majority of the population In general Adhere to scienti c principles quality controlsreiability measures manipulation check minimize error random sampling A quotNORMALquot sample descriptive stats The Scienti c Method as it pertains to Qualitative research 1 Start with the Big Q I wonder 0 Same as the quantitative process 2 Propose an informal purpose statement or RQ o No hypothesis 0 No predictions 0 Previous research suggests this 3 Re ne purpose statementRQ 0 Decisions decisions 4 Collect and informally analyze what data simultaneously 0 Very different from quantitative 0 You just collect some analyze Collect more analyze Collect some more analyze Etc 0 Can change at anytime 0 Being constantly aware that you re collecting data that is bene cial to the study 5 Formally analyze what and interpret why data IMPORTANT IntroLit Review Methods Results and discussions Conclusion Empirical research Empirical means new data Veri able by means of observation qualitative or experiment quantitative by data Conclusions based on evidence from participants Qualitative observation 5 methods researcher collects data natural environment small sample quotqualityquot data Quantitative numbers surveys selfreport data controlled environment large sample quotquantityquot data Reasons for conducting qualitative research THE BEGINNING OF ANY quotBIG Qquot New Lines of research Creates Theory ALL research begins Qualitatively You understand it Then you TEST it Qualitativel Quantitative Identify and explain a phenomenon or a repeated occurrence or fact What is a phenomenon 0 Speci c behaviors 0 An quotAhah movement Ex Final Conversation article 0 Speci c groups of people 0 In uence of a speci c environment 0 Ex Phenomenon of boys walking at the same pace Interactional Synchrony 0 Start off on your own but kind of adopting the stride that your test is in 0 You start seeing this everywhere else 0 Ex The Robin Williams lm where the three men are walking in a circle and they start walking all the same pace 0 Ex Along the Scarface movie where the men start walking at the same pace because of the horse rides off at the same speed Inductive vs Deductive Reasoning o Inductive starting with A LOT of data and ending with a few conclusions 0 ONLY ONE FUNNEL Remember n Gather Speci c data Conclusions n Funnel n Lots and lots of data and then you narrow it down Deductive Advance a theoryl Gather data 0 LOST OF FUNNELS SEPARATE THEORIES Are these theories and conclusions true Is there more Ex Testing Variables starts with a theory and then coects speci c data to support that theory Generalizability Extending the conclusions that you developed and extending them to the larger population 0 Making researcher more population varied How do you know if it is generalizable 0 Not a number 0 Not an answer 0 Not in the research report o It is the result of keeping error out of your research Following the scienti c principles 0 If you do it the right way you will get a quotnormalquot sample a ER RQR Bias vs Error 0 E A tendency or inclination o Researcher in uencing selection of data 0 Prevents unprejudiced consideration 0 Favoring outcomes OVER others 0 Looking for it vs Experiencing it You have to experience it Qualitative subjective o Researcher collects amp interprets Applying educational assumptions 0 Error Faulty SkewedBad data Bad databad conclusions 0 Unplanned mistakes made by both the researchers and participants 0 Error is natural It can39t be eliminated 0 Things that occur that weren t accounted for O Unique Findings 0 Examples not present in the majority 0 NOT the norm More unique to certain types of people 0 Qualitative data CANNOT be discarded 0 Suggestions for future research 0 This would be in the results and discussion of article Purpose Statement 0 Explanation of o What you hope to accomplish Why the research was performed 0 Why it is valuable Previous unique ndings In Ex Because there is no research on this we need to learn more about this Research Questions 0 Based on previous research 0 If it s never been studied before then how can you have any previous research Because you can t DUHHH Nondirectional o All questions should be nondirectional in qualitative Conceptual De nition How the variable is de ned for YOUR speci c research Data Collection Method How you will gather data 0 Field observation study Interviews Narrative Ethnography Focus Group Which one of these do I use a Combination of these 0 Advantages amp limitations to all Must give rationale reason why you chose that method REMEMBER OOOO Selection Bias threat to validity Speci c data stands out o More than others Caution to research 0 Allin all bad 0 Research in uential error Reactivity Bias threat to validity oCan in uence the researcher on oThe setting oThe participants 0 The researchers in uence selection is awed Saturation When data starts to repeat 0 Collect analyze Collect analyze Repeated until there starts to be no new ndings 0 Ex Chilton looking for a weed whacker He searched reviews until they were all repeated Therefore he didn t buy it because of the negative ndings leld observation Studies Observe a phenomenon or populations in its natural setting Observation is purposeful has a plan Random olays times and places Prolonged periods 0 Ex Restaurant research at Texas State Dinning Halls during nal exam time 0 Not the most common kind of study Purposeful observation 0 Has a reason and a plan 0 Part of the eld studies Field Interviewing Semistructured format openended questions 0 Same core questions may or may not be based on previous research 0 Core questions are the same for all participants SemiStructured Format 0 Openended questions 0 Part of the interviewing Probing Questions 0 quotCan you tell me a little bit more about 0 quotWhere were you when this happenedquot Extemporaneous responses more detail Trying to get more information out to the participant Probingpolting Iarrative Approach Unstructured monologue just talking back and forth 0 Semistructured interview Questionsstructure Therefore less questionsless structure 0 No Questions or guidance 0 Critical Incident Technique Recall a time when Ex Open narrative Tell me your story 0 Ex Take a paper and pen and write anything you can remember Ithnography Under cover 0 Or for more fun secret agent fun lolz Pretend to be someone already in the environment while collecting data 0 When a researcher goes undercover and lives a life with people all the while secretly recording data 0 This makes people feel like they aren t under a microscope At least a year to develop these relationships with people Helps with natural reactions 0 Holistic part of Description 0 Ethnography creates a holistic description 0 People in their cultural or cocultural group 0 A whole picture of a group 0 Ethnography is only a portion of a picturegroup Ex Going to a high school and see what that generation is going threw at that time period 0 Why do we use ethnography 0 To de ne and further understand a population using a covert role undercover 0 YOU as a researcher go undercover 0 You share the participant s environment for an extended period of time oYou capture natural interaction 0 Focus on or a small number of cases locus Group Small Group discusses a topic with each other 0 Ex What do you think about this new food Structured group discussion Interactive Not an interview Researcher is not present AudioVideo Recording 2way mirror Generally 6090 minutes 512 participants who are STRANGERS 0 Ex This will help people speak more freely because they won t feel judged Why do we use focusgroups o Encourages participants to talk with each other TWO levels of data 0 Actual Information 0 How participants interact o No judgment 0 Not as group conformity What is the job of the facilitator Manages the discussion Facilitates talking points and discussion questions Starts with the content and draws data out of the participants NOT a participant NOT the researcher Gate Keeping amp Metamessages 0 Why Encourages participation 0 Moves it forward backward and people to keep on talking Gatekeebind encouraging quieter members to speak up and say what they are thinking Metamessages Talking about something that was already said or something that will be discussed 0 EX quotLet s go back to what tony saidquot quotLet s move ontoquot 0 Repeated topic fro more data Forms of Participant Observation 0 Level of your involvement with the participants 0 Complete Participation 0 Complete Observer o Observeras participant o Participantas observer 0 What are the clues The word participant Remember Iomplete Iarticipant Covert RoleEthnography Participants are not aware of your intent o No informed consent 0 Overall Ethnography Ibserveras Iarticipant 0 Watching not talking People watching Passive observation 0 No informed consent 0 Do NOT interact with participants 0 EX Field Studies Narrative Ex The observation study at TX State where they observe people in dinning halls 0 Watching only not participating Iarticipantas Ibserver o Interact with participants BUT They ARE aware of your intent and have informed consent 0 EX Interviews Field Study Narrative 0 Overall lnterview Iomplete Ibserver 0 Researcher is completely hidden 0 No interaction with participants 0 Ex 2way mirror audiovideo recording focus group Triangulation We enhance the validity of our ndings 0 Repeated truths Multiple ways to collect data 0 Multiple sources of information o The more you see it and experience it the more truth that there is 0 Field o lnterv39 n rrative Why should we use triangulation Because what one source nds should another source 0 Repeated ndingsTRUTH Collecting data more than one way to make sure you re getting the same results Types of Triangulation
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