Small Group Communications Lecture Notes
Small Group Communications Lecture Notes
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Small Group Comm Test 1 05182014 January 22 2014 Chapter 1 What is Small Group 0 Small Group a small group of people meeting with a common purpose feeling a sense of belonging and exerting in uence on one another Small Groups 0 Minimum of three people 0 Two people is a dyad Maximum is 1220 people A Small Group of People Meets with a purpose 0 Ex Deadline Project Feels a sense of belonging o What does this mean You feel a sense of belonging to this group Exert in uence 0 What does that mean You can in uence the group when it s decision making You are dependent on one another to get something done What s the Team Communication 0 Team Communication team is coordinated group of individuals 0 Team with a speci c goal Ex Basketball team to win a game 0 Establish clearly de ned roles 0 Ex Being a pitcher to help the team win 0 Create clearly de ned rules 0 Ex Showing up for practice on time 0 Coordinate a collaborative work ethic Characteristics of an Effective Team 0 Clear elevating goal 0 Results driven structure Competent team members Uni ed commitment Collaborative climate 0 Doesn t mean there s not con ict but they resolve it 0 Standards of excellence 0 Always get their job done or a decision made on time 0 External support and recognition 0 Ex A town throwing a parade for a sports team 0 Ex In the work place a raise Principled leadership 0 Ex A coach Dysfunctional Team Members 0 Don t trust other team members Fear con ict Don t commit to the team Avoid accountability Don t focus on achieving results Effective Team Members Qualities Expedence Problemsolving ability Openness Supportiveness Action oriented Positive personal style Positive overall team perceptions Advantages of working in Groups and Teams Offer more resources 0 Every body has some skills that other people don t have Stimulate creativity 0 People spin off one another Support learning and comprehension Foster Commitment and satisfaction with decisions Enhance feedback and selfunderstanding Disadvantages of Working in Groups and Teams Pressure to conform o Groupthink Dominant group members Reliance on others When NOT to Collaborate When there are time constraints 0 When an expert already has the answer 0 When the information is readily available 0 When con ict and contention become unmanageable Me Vs We 0 lndividualistic Culture 0 l me and my Collectivist Culture 0 We us and them What are Different Types of Small Groups 0 Primary ful ll basic needs 0 Ex Family and friends 0 Secondary accomplish task or achieve goal 0 Ex Study group problemsolving groups decisionmaking groups study groups therapy groups committees focus groups What is Virtual Small Group Communication Telephone conferences Electronic mail Video conferences Electronic meetings systems 0 Web pages Virtual and Nonvirtual Communication Differences Time 0 Asynchronous and synchronous o Varying degrees of anonymity Potential for deception Nonverbal messages Virtual Group and Team Theory CuesFilteredOut Theory No NV 0 Media Richness Theory 0 Social InformationProcessing Theory 0 The group is in charge of processing info not just you Nine Core Competencies Problemoriented 0 De ne the problem 0 Analyze the problem Solutionoriented 0 Identify criteria 0 Generate Evaluate solutions Discussionmanagement 0 Maintain task focus 0 Manage interactions Relationalcompetencies 0 Managing con ict 0 Maintain climate February 3 2014 Chapter 5 Relating to Others in Groups and Teams Culture of Origin 0 Culture fosters different beliefs and attitudes about 0 Communication Status Nonverbal behavior Gender and Communication Interpersonal dynamics People move closer to woman than men Woman move closer to others than men do Men maintain less eye contact than women Women use more facial expressions Men use more gestures Men initiate touch more Women speak softer Group Task Roles Initiatorcontributor proposes new ideas suggests different approach Information Seeker asks for clari cation or facts Opinion seekers seeks clari cation of values and opinions Information giver provides facts examples statics Opinion giveroffers beliefs or opinions Elaborator provides example based on experience of self or others Coordinators clarifynote relationships among the ideas Orienteer attempts to summarizekeep the group focused on the task Evaluatorcritic judges the evidence and conclusions the group suggests Energize more group to actionattempts to motivatestimulate the group Procedural technician performs tasks for the group Recorder makes a record of the group s progress Group Building and Maintenance Roles Encourage praises agrees with others Harmonizer reconciles disagreements mediates differences Compromiser offers to compromise when own ideas are involved in a con ict Gatekeeper and expediter encourages interaction form those members who are silent Standard settersets standards for the group to achieve Group observer observes group processprogress Follower goes along with the movement of the group passively Individual Roles Aggresso makes personal attacks using belittling and insulting comments Blocker opposes every idea or opinion that is put forward Recognition seeker seeks personal attention and praise Selfconfessor discloses personal feelingsissues oke uses group meetings as fun time Dominator controls conversation and dictate what people should be doing Help seeke looks for sympathy by expressing feelings of inadequacy Specialinterest pleader makes suggestions based on what others would think or feel Identifying Group Norms Rules for appropriate behavior ingroup o How will group members dress What are their attitudes about time What level of language is used Will humor be used to relieve tension Do members address group leader formally OOOO o Is it proper to use rst names How Norms Develop Based on norms form previous groups structuration theory Based on what happens in group s early stages Factor s affecting conformity to group norms Individual characteristics of the group members Clarity of the norm and the certainty of punishment for breaking it The number of people who have already conformed to the norm The quality of the interpersonal relationships that have developed in the group The sense of group identi cation that members have developed February 5 2014 Typical Team Ground Rules Everyone will attend all the meetings Meetings will start on time Member will follow through on individual assignments Members will be prepared for every meeting Decisions will be made by consensus Con ict will be managed when it arises SMARTS Test of Group Goals Covey 1989 Sped c Measurablea goal that you either make or you don t 0 Ex We will all be on time for a meeting Attainable Relevant Time bound Stretch the team HighStatus Members Talk more Communicate more often Have more in uence Abide by group norms Are less likely to be ignored Are less likely to complain Talk to the entire group Are likely to serve in leadership roles LowStatus Members Direct conversation to highstatus members Communicate more positive messages to high status members Are likely to have comments ignored Communicate more irrelevant information o Might not have access to the relevant info Talk to highstatus members as substitute for climbing social hierarchy Observing Status Differences Predicts 0 Who will talk to whom o What kind of messages will be communicated in group discussions Affects 0 Group cohesiveness 0 Group satisfaction 0 The quality of a group s solution Five Power Bases Legitimate being elected o Referent being well liked Expert based on knowledge Reward provides rewards for behavior Coercive Involves punishment Impact of Power on Group Deliberations Struggle results in poor decisions 0 Denominate members interfere with group goal 0 Members who talk less have less power 0 Member who communicate more have more power 0 Members lose power if have personal motives Power and Gender 0 Women are not more easily in uenced than men 0 Women just as likely as men to use strategies to associate with power 0 More rms are viewing diversity as a competitive advantage Status and Power a Cultural Footnote 0 High status is in the eye of the beholder Status becomes meaningless when someone crosses cultural boundades Trust 0 Takes time o Is based on previous experiences with others o Improves with effective communication Develops when one can predict how a person will behave under certain circumstances 0 Is always a gamble Trust in Virtual Teams o Involves timely information Depends on sharing appropriate and sounds responses to electronic communications Group Tensions Primarv tensions uncertainty about task and relationship 0 Secondary tensions struggle for in uence roles and norms Impact of Power on Group Deliberations High status privileges can have negative effect on group 0 Too much power can lead to less group decision making 0 Increasing one s activity in group can increase power 0 Groups with equal power show higher quality group communication 0 In corporate work teams individual power is related to fact that members must depend on each other Conversation Style 0 Norms vary by culture Some cultures love good argument Other encourage harmony Western culture exerts control by speaking Eastern cultures express control through silence Time 0 Western Culture 0 Time is something to be manipulated o The present is a waystation between he past and future 0 Time is resource that can be said spent or wasted 0 Time is an aspect of history rather than part of an immediate expenence Eastern Culture 0 Time simply exists 0 The present is more important than the future 0 Time is the limitless pool 0 Events occurs in time they cause rippes and the rippes subside o Monochromic o Comfortable doing one thing at a time 0 Like to concentrate on the job at hand 0 Sensitive to deadlines and schedules 0 Stress the importance of starting and ending 0 Polychromic 0 Enjoy mutitasking 0 Less concerned about deadline February 10 2014 Chapter 3 Group Formation Abridged How Do Groups Develop Tuckman s 5 phase model Gersick s Punctuated Equilibrium Model Poole s MultipleSequence Model Group Formation Over Time 0 1 Forming anxiety cautious behavior 2 Storming competition con ict 3 Mgcon ict resolution 4 Performing cooperation productive work 5 Adiourning end of their involvement shed their task Punctuated Equilibrium Model Gersick asserts that group development is not sequential but based on time Phases Based on time o 1 Phase one initial encounters and little work is accomplished group members diagnose the issue not problemsolve or make decisions Transition quotoh crapquot we just used or wasted half our time talking about how to accomplish tasks 0 2 Phase two much more work accomplished but no panic to nished yet Completion must absolutely nished the task now MultipleSequence Model Poole Does not follow a rigid phaselike approach rather based on actives 0 Three activity tracks 1 Task Process analyze the task and make decisions while problem solving assess pros and cons 2 Relational Engage in behaviors that promote relationships and might deal with con ict 3 Topical Focus members deal with major issues and themes that emerge from the group s work 0 In an ideal group experience members will move forward on all three tracks to successfully complete their goals Characteristics of Group Development Regardless of the developmental path a group tasks these 5 characteristics re ect group development 0 1 How cohesive is the group 0 2 How does the group handle con ict 0 3 How does the group balance its task and socioemotial needs 0 4 How does the group communicate o 5 How involved is the group with its task Socializing New Group Members 0 Groups form quotpersonalityquot over time 0 Members share collective experience 0 Fantasy chains connected stories rules and systems Newcomers change dynamics 0 Reformation involves o Anticipation encounter and adjustment Chapter 4 Preparing to Collaborate abridged Develop a Plan for Gathering Information 0 Focus on the purpose of the project 0 Encourage all members to participate o Positively reinforce member s contributions 0 Establish a timeline of what s due when Periodically review timeline Follow a Structured Agenda 1 Identify and de ne the problem 2 Analyze the problem 3 Generate several possible solutions 0 4 Select the best solution or combination of solutions 0 5 Test and implement the solution Formulating Discussion Questions 0 Questions of Fact 0 Questions of Prediction 0 Questions of Value 0 Questions of Policy Questions of Fact 0 1 Are phrased so the answer can only be yes or no 0 2 Reconstruction developing a story with a beginning a middle and an ended to answer the question 0 3 In trying to answer an question of fact make sure that all group members understand the key words an phrases in the discussion queonns Question of Fact 0 quotDid the New York Yankees win the Yankees win the World Series in 2009quot o quotAre more incident of terrorism in the US today than there were before September 11 2001quot Questions of Prediction 0 Will tuition increase result in the university s having a balanced budget 0 Will the levee withstand a force3 hurricane 0 Will the new airport security measures make air travel safer Dennis Gouran s Research 0 Develop if then statements 0 Analyze the problem 0 Use evidence 0 Evaluate the quality of the evidence Questions of Values Attitude a learned predisposition 0 Change most easily Beliefs what you hold to be true or false 0 Kind of easily to change 0 Values enduring perception of good and bad o Harder to change Question of Value 0 quotWhich political party in the US produced the best presidentsquot Questions of Policy 0 quotWhat should be done to improve the quality of education in US colleges and universitiesquot quotWhat can Congress do to reduce American s trade de citquot A WellWritten Policy Question 0 Should imply that a problem exists and must be solved 0 Should be limited in scope Should be controversial Using Local Reasoning lnductive arrive at general conclusion from speci c examples 0 Deductive going forma general statement or principle to a speci c conclusion Causal relate two or more events conclude that one caused the other Inductive Reasoning Are there enough speci c examples to support the conclusion 0 Are the speci c instances typical 0 Are the instances recent Deductive Reasoning Syllogism 0 Major premise Is the major premise general statement true 0 Minor premise Is the major premise the particular statement also true 0 Conclusion Casual Reasoning Reason forms cause to effect 0 Moving form the known fact cause to predict a result effect 0 Reason backward 0 Moving from a known effect to an unknown cause Fallacies Casual assuming one event caused another when it might not have 0 Ex 3 or 4 things might have also caused an event to happen 0 Eitherlo assuming there are only two ways Bandwagon everyone s in favor thus 0 Hastv Generalization Too little evidence or every little information Attacking the Person Ad hominine quotCan t trust his plan because he s stupidquot 0 Red Herring getting the group off track 0 Ex Getting yelled at by your parents and you saying quotLook dad See the moonquot Chapter 6 Improving Group Climate Behaviors that In uence the Climate o Defensive 0 Evaluation you Control Strategy Neutrality Supenor Certainty OOOOO Supportive 0 Description I Problem or ideation Spoinatiety Empathy Equality Provisionalism Evaluation Vs Description 0 Evaluation taking someone s comment of idea and trying to make them feel stupid for staying it 0 Description although it may seem stupid saying something like Control vs Problem Orientation Control communicative behavior that aims at controlling that can produce defensiveness and lack of trust 0 Problem orientation if others perceive you looking for a solution that will bene t all that perception will lead to a supportive climate and increased productivity Strategy vs Spontaneity Strategy prepanned message that may appear to have manipulation involved 0 Ex Withholding information acting mysterious or pouting Spontaneity responding sponatnesoily marks you as a person who can respond honestly to a situation idea or suggestion Neutrality vs Empathy Neutrality reacting with a whatever attitude makes mark as a person who has no feelings for group members or the outcome of the group s work Empathy being involved and concerned about your group members and the group s goals will be perceived as supportive Superiority vs Equality Superiority ego motived behavior or language designed to show superiority over others can lead to a lack of trust and willingness to work toward group gals o Eguality making the group feel like they are all equal will create an environment with a n mutual trust and respect for one another which will then create a more supportive climate Certainty vs Flexibility OOOOO Certainty members who have all the answers to every issues or problem will often attempt to prove other people wrong Flexibility members who are genuinely committed to solving problems rather than to simply taking sides on an issue Interpersonal Con rmation and Discon rmation Con rming responses causes people to value themselves more Discon rming responses cause people to value themselves less Discon rming Response lmpervious re5ponse ignored Interrupting response cut off Irrelevant response Unrelated Tangential response other direction Impersonal response monologue Incoherent response rambling Incondruous re5ponse V and NV clash Con rming Responses Direct acknowledgement direct verbal Agreement about content reinforce information Supportive response understandreassure Clarifvind re5ponse requestingencouragingrepeating information Expression of positive feelind expresses personal feeling about others communication Small Group Socialization Five phase Model illustrate how communication in uences group socialization process 0 1 Antecedent Phase members may express positive or nega ve o 2 Anticipatory Phase members decide what they expect form group membership as well as each group member 0 3 Encounter Phase members come together for the rst time facetoface or mediated o 4 Assimilation Phase new members accept the established group culture 0 5 Exit Phase members exit work learning and social groups Small group Socialization When entering new group you should 0 1 Accept the values norms and behaviors established in the group 0 2 Acquire the skills and knowledge needed by the group to assume appropriate roles o 3 Learn what is and what is not important Group Cohesiveness Attraction members feel toward one another and the group as a whole 0 Deep loyalty to the group its members Espirt de corps pride in belonging Group s goal becomes one s own one for all and all for one Group Cohesiveness Cooption and cohesiveness building team the members need complement one another develops around both task and relationship 0 Individual benefits af ictionpoweraffectionprestige Task effectiveness success creates cohesiveness Communication the vehicle each of the interactions above take place Cohesiveness in Virtual Teams 0 Virtual teams show lower levels of initial trust Difficult to provide and process information about takes goals and team work relationships Communication Networks 0 Pattern of interaction in a group some member s talk more than others seems that communication is addressed to the group as a whole 0 Who talk to whom most of the time members talk directly to either members 0 Equal distribution improves performance members can and do talk to all members vs members direct comments to leader leader talks to group Group Size 0 As a group size increase the opportunity for interaction decreases production and cohesiveness decrease 0 Three to six members are more productive than seventh to ten members Group Climate and productivity 0 Positive climatecommunication is free open all participate Trusting atmosphere members don t fear disagreement or con ict in task matters 0 Members act with group in mind members personally commit to group s wellbeing and success 0 Strong bonds develop between members 0 People depend on group to meet personal needs February 24 2014 Chapter 7 Enhancing Group and Team Communication Skills How to avoid word barriers Barriers o Bypassing people assign different meanings to the same word Ex love respect communication 0 Allness simple but untrue generalizations Ex men can run faster than women and football players are stupid 0 Feedback any response by listeners that lets speakers know whether they have been understood accurately o Factinference confusioninference confusion not fact but conclusion drawn Ex quotmen are better than women in mathquot I This is untrue and an inference To avoid 0 Use speci c language be aware of words that may have multiple meanings 0 Look for uniqueness in people and ideas 0 Recognize the difference between fact and inference and clearly point out to others Disadvantages of Conversational Styles Overlapping o Sel sh distracting interruptions 0 Individual ideas lost or undervalued o Incomplete thoughts 0 Outcomes frustration and domination o Turntaking o Sel sh serial monologues 0 Individual ideas not connected together 0 Repetition 0 Outcomes withdrawal and domination Rapport talk and report talk Rapport talk women use conversation to build community 0 Report talkmen use conversation to competitively gain information Listening styles Peopleoriented listeners most comfortable listening to other people39s feelings o Actionoriented listeners prefers information to be well organized brief and error free They are more likely to assume taskoriented roles to achieve the group s goals 0 Contentoriented listeners more comfortable with complex detailed information The analyzer Timeoriented listeners just the facts they prefer brief messages Barriers to effect listings Prejudging communicator to judge before hand Be aware of their ethic back round race etc before jumping to conclusions Prejudging communication same as the one above Rehearsing response coming up with something in our heads to say to someone and not listening to the person speaking When listening to someone 1 Stop before you can effectively tune in to what someone else may be feeling you need to sop what you re doing eliminate many distractions as possible and focus fully on the other person 2 Look clue that you will help you identify how the other person is feeHng 3 Listen listen of what another person is telling you 4 Ask appropriate question to obtain addition inform to nd out how someone feels ask for clari cation of a word or phrase to verify your confusion about your prater s meaning or feeling 5 Paraphrase content restate your own words what you think another person is saying Nonverbal research ahs been done in the following Posture movement and gestures Eye contact Facial expressions Vocal cues Personal space Territory Seating arragment Personal appearance Communication environment Five Major types of nonverbal behavior Ekman and Frieze Emblems replace spoken word 0 Ex A nod or putting your nger up to quotshhhhquot someone without any sound lllustrators accompany verbal messages gestures to words you re using 0 Ex holding up your hand to representing stopping Affect displays display emotion 0 Ex A facial expression that shows confusion Regulators control ow Can be eye contact posture gestures facial expression and body position 0 Ex participants raise their hands so that the chairperson will recognize them before they speak Adaptors satisfy personal needs 0 Ex tapping your pen before a test twirling your hair biting your nails and scratching Eye contact functions 0 Cognitive provides cues about thought and process 0 Ex Some people look away when they are thinking ofjust he right words to say 0 Monitoring allows feedback form others 0 Looking for nonverbal in others 0 Ex If you say something that other members disagree with you may observe a change in facial expressions body posture or restless movement 0 Regulatory Signals ow of a conversation 0 Ex If the chair of a committee asks for volunteers and you don t want to participate you are unlikely to establish eye contact Expressive reveals emotions feelings and attitudes 0 Ex Crying or using your facial expressions Six Primary Facial Expressions Happiness o Anger Surpdse Sadness o Disgust Fear Vocal cues Paralanguage is pitch rate volume and voice quality Cues show how a person feels about you 0 Articulation improves credibility Nonverbal cues should be evaluated in context Personal Space Edward Hall s Space Zones Proxemics the study of how close or far away we choose to be other people and objects helps us understand how our use of personal space gives us clues about the relationships we have with others 0 lntimate O to 1 12 feet 0 Personal 1 12 feet to 4 feet 0 Social 4 feet to 12 feet 0 Public 12 feet and beyond Territoriality Strake out How 0 Want the same position at every meeting may manipulate o Defend given area How 0 ConfrontPush back may indicate feelings toward other members 0 Claim territory by leaving markers How 0 Personal material used to mark boundaries Highstatus people claim more space Lowstatus allow more invasion Seating Affects group interaction 0 Power positions Contractures less 0 Direct eye contact with more people gives more opportunity to control discussion Small Group ecology Small group ecology examines the consistent way in which people arrange themselves sin small groups Interacting patterns you usually talk to those you can make eye contact with Leardership emergence expect that the person at the head of a rectangular table to be the leader More outspoken people will choose to sit at the head 0 Stress the mores tress the more space we want 0 Gender woman tend to sit close to others while men prefer more personal space between themselves and others 0 Personality extroverts tend to sit across form others and inverts prefer more distanceless eye contact Personal Appearance 0 Dress Hairstyle Weight Height 0 All have an impact on how others perceive you and how they choose to interact with you Perceptions of attractive people 0 More effective in change attitudes More credible Happier More popular 0 More socialable More successful Communication Environment 0 The general attractiveness or unattractiveness of a physical space can impact the groups performance Contributes to the group s productivity the more attractive the space the greater and more valuable the product Functions of nonverbal cues in groups and teams 0 In uence perceived leadership the more frequent and more animated the gestures the greater the perception of leadership 0 In uence persuasion skills persuasive members demonstrate more animated gestures facial expressions and head nods than less persuasive members 0 Help synchronize interaction group members that share optionspositions on issues not only show verbal agreement but also tend to synchronize their gestures Provide information abut perceive honesty or dishonesty eye contact response time shifts in posture etc Interpreting Nonverbal communication 0 Consider context 0 Look for clusters of clues Consider idiosyncrasies Consider cultural and gender differences 0 Learn from past experiences Dimensions of nonverbal meaning 0 lmmediacy behaviors that signal liking attraction o Nonverbal cues touching forward leaning eye contact 0 Power behaviors that communicate power 0 Nonverbal cues protected space increased distance Responsiveness behaviors that communicate interaction 0 Nonverbal cues eye contact varied vocal cues animated facial expressions Develop Skill of perception checking Observe someone s behavior 0 Think what the behavior may mean 0 Ask if you inference was correct February 26 2014 Movie The Different Ways Women and Men Communicate Different Status Lenses 0 Women try to connect to other people 0 They focus on if a conversation pushes them or pulls them apart 0 Men try to one up each other 0 They focus on if a conversation one ups the person they are talking to Nonverbal Communication 0 Women turn to each other while talking to each other 0 Men turn straight forward and not keep eye contact Conversational Rituals What you say when you meet someone 0 Ex How are you Ritual Apology 0 I m sorry not really being sorry o It means I m sorry that happened Ritual Opposion I m just playing to devil s advocate Small Talk 0 Women talk about details of life 0 Men can talk about details of the information they are talking about Work Orchestration 0 Men tell people what to do in very direct ways 0 Women say quotCould we do thisquot quotDo you think it s possiblequot so that we don t come across as too bossy What If I Don t Fit the Pattern Men can be very indirect The Double Bind Women have to chose if you want to be a women in the work place or talking like a woman 0 You have to do one you have to do one What We Can Learn Form Each Other 0 Men can help by giving praise 0 Women like to give praise Do I really have to worry about how I talk 0 Yes because that s how you get your job done o If you re not happy then you might try another way 0 Ex If you need to say quotI m sorryquot more 0 r less Conversation is a ritual 0 Understanding these rituals will help you get heard be credible and get your work done March 3 2014 Chapter 8Con ict What is con ict 0 An expressed struggle Between at least two independent people Incompatible goals scarce resources and interference achieving a oal g o Scarce resources there is a limited amount of resources and rewards from accomplishing the goal If you don t feel like you re getting what you want you feel like you re being interfered with Achieving a goal B Aubrey Fisher s Group Deliberations Phases Orientation Con ict if con ict doesn t get resolved it ends up as a dysfunctional group Emergence o Reinforcement if there is a settlement to the agreement Causes of Con ict Differences between group members 0 Differences in tolerance and risk 0 Differences in power levels 0 Differences in processes and procedures Con ict in Groups 0 Can be directed toward 0 People interpersonal 0 Ideas task 0 People and ideas Misconceptions About Con ict Con ict should be avoided at all costs 0 Con ict can increase research and indepth thought 0 All con ict occurs because people do not understand one another 0 Understand just don t agree 0 All con ict can be resolved 0 Ex Abortion Types of Con ict Pseudocon ict people misunderstand one another 0 Pseudo means fake or false 0 Simple Con ict people disagree about issues 0 Someone saying quotI want to Xquot and another person saying quotI want to do Yquot when X and Y are incompatible forms of behavior Egocon ict personal clash Managing Pseudocon ict Ask for clari cation Establish supportive rather than defensive climate 0 Employ active listening skills 0 Stop look listen question paraphrase content paraphrase feeHngs Managing Simple Con ict Clarifying perceptions of message Clarifying issues 0 Use structured problems solving approach 0 Focus on issues 0 Use facts verses opinions Compromise Make con ict group concern 0 Prioritize con ict resolution Postpone decision Managing EgoCon ict 0 Don t permit personal attacks 0 Employ active listening 0 Call for a quotcooling offquot period 0 Focus on key issues 0 Avoid judgment 0 Use problem solving approach 0 Speak slowly and camy Agree to disagree Con ict and Diversity in Small Groups TingToomey 19850 0 Individualistic 0 Direct linear o Confrontational 0 Fact based Collectivistic o Nonconfrontational and indirect methods Lowcontext 0 Greater importance on task 0 More emphasis on words Ex US 0 Our language is more about the language than the meaning Highcontext o Expressive emotional aspects of con ict task on importance 0 Saving face avoiding embarrassment Con ict Management Styles Concern for self Concern for others Con ict Management Styles Avoidance is managing con ict by backing off and trying to sidestep it o 1 This is sometimes called the quotloselose approach 0 2 People may avoid con ict because they don t like the hassle of dealing with a dif cult situation they don t want to hurt other s feelings or they are unable to stand up for their own rights 0 Accommodations managing con ict by giving in to the demands of others Sometimes called the quotlosewin approach because if you consistently accommodate you sacri ce you won needs so that someone else can win an argument 0 Competition is managing con ict by stressing winning at the expense of the other person involved 0 1 A quotwinlose philosophy that places the focus on yourself 0 2 People who compete often resort to blaming or seeking a scapegoat rather than assuming responsibility for a con ict 0 3 If blaming does not work people may resort to threats and warnings Compromise managing con ict by attempting to nd middle ground 0 1 This style is called quotlosewinlosewinquot because each person has to give up a bit of what he or she hoped to get O 2 Compromise is advantageous if a quick resolution can be reached if it reinforces the perception of equal power 0 Collaboration is managing con ict so as to achieve quick solution for all to be involved 0 O 1 People who use a collaborative style are more likely to view con ict as a set of problems to be solved rather than a game in which one person wins and other loses 2 Collaboration is seen as quotwinwin Collaborative Con ict Management Principles Seperate people from problems 0 XYZ formula according to this method you say quotWhen you 00 O O 0 do X in situation Y feel Zquot Ex quotWhen you are 15 minutes late to our staff meetings I feel like you don t care about us or our meetingsquot 1 Acknowledge the person s feelings 2 Determine what speci c behavior is causing the intense feeHngs 3 Assess the intensity and importance of the issue 4 Invite the other person to join you in working toward solutions 5 Make a positive relational statement 0 Focus on shared interest 0 Generate many options to solve problems 0 Base decisions objective criteria Dealing with difficult group members 0 Manage your emotions 0 00000 1 Be aware of your anger level 2 Breath 3 Use selftalk 4 Monitor your nonverbal messages 5 Avoid personal attacks Gunnysack dredging up old problems and issues form the past like pulling them out of an old bag or gunny sack to use against your partner 0 Describe what is upsetting you Disclose your feelings Return to the issue of contention March 17th 2014 Chapter 9 Leaders p Leadership Studies 0 Leadership a behavior or communication that in uences guides directs or controls a group 0 Some Trait Perspective a view of leadership as the personal attributes or qualities that leaders possess 0 Intelligence Enthusiasm Dominance Self con dence Social participation 0 Egalitarianism Functional Perspective 0 Task leadership 0 lnitiation generate ideas 0 Coordinating strengths of all members 0 Summarizing measure and assess progress 0 Elaborating ideas are fully explored Process leadership 0 Releasing tension observing stress levels 0 Gatekeeping coordinating discussion 0000 o Encouraging recognition 0 Mediating limiting personal con ict Situation Perspective Authoritarian leader makes all policy decision 0 Democratic policies are a matter of group discussion LaissezFaire complete freedom for the group Situational Leadership Situational Leadershipquot Ill The Ili LEE lE EI39II swim High EILIE39F39 TlI u E EEHA IITlIEIH h Lilli IEETI II39E IEH El h Hih EEEIQDFEE 5quot Development Level i f iil liE II IEIIIHIT Ilia O Transformational Leadership 0 For de ning characteristics 0 ldealized leadership 0 Inspirational motivation 0 Intellectual stimulation 0 Individual consideration 0 Change organization by realigning culture with new vision 0 Building shared vision goals outcomes processes Surfacing and testing mental models identifying and challenging assumptions Svstems thinking beyond the daytoday and nding forces of change seeing the big picture Emergent Leadership in Small Groups 0 Minnesota Studies 0 Leaders emerge through a process of elimination 0 Members reject dictatorial candidates 0 Accepted the contender with the optimum blend of task efficiency and personal consideration last one standing Emergent Leadership Taskmotivated group members rejected a contender to concerned about feelings to be decisive Processoriented rejected those they saw as too concerned with the task Leadership and Gender 0 Research has changed 0 1960 s women reluctant to take leadership roles 0 1970 s females more receptive to ideas 0 1980 s most effective leaders was androgynous 0 1990 s taskrelevant communication for either gender Leadership and selfdeception in organizations Leaders ignore upward communication from nonmanagerial members Leaders must solicit communication from lowerstatus members Leadership Training 0 Training instruction to develop skills emphasize what can be done 0 Simulation exercises creates situations that the leaders may have to deal with in the real world Chapter 10 Making Decisions and Solving Problems Elements of Group Decision Making 0 Group assesses present situation 0 Group identi es group goals 0 Group identi es several alternatives 0 Group identi es positive and negative consequences of alternatives 0 Group selects alternative Methods of Group Decision Making Experts inside and outside of groups 0 Individual rankings 0 Random choice coin tosses o Majority vote 0 Decision by minority Consensus when the group negotiates works with and has the group go along with Obstacles to Quality Group Decision Making 0 Failure to analyze present situation accurately Failure to establish clear and appropriate goal 0 Failure to identify positive and negative consequences 0 Bad information o No critical thinking about data 0 Too few people involved in discussion High Quality Decisions 0 Use clear criteria 0 Focus on quality 0 Break up bigger issues into smaller ones Two Questions to Reduce Uncertainty s decision a routine decision or unusual decision 0 If it s routine there s probably procedures that makes it routine 0 If it s unusual Have you or others made similar decision in the past Three Elements of a Problem 0 1 Undesirable situation 0 2 Goal what the group wants to achieve o 3 Obstacle something that keeps a group from achieving its goal Barriers to Group Problems 0 1 Lack of structure 2 Lack of cultural sensitivity 3 Lack of planning 4 Lack of resources 0 5 Wrong people present Barriers to Group Decision Making 0 6 Time pressure 7 Poor communication 8 Unsupportive social climate 9 Negative attitudes 10 Lack of problem solving skills Three Approaches to the Study of Group Problem Solving Descriptive focuses on how groups solve problems 0 Functional identi es key task requirements that contribute to effective problem solving Prescriptive recommences speci c agendas and techniques to improve group preferences March 19 2014 Descriptive Approach Fisher 1980 0 There is a natural or normal process of group problem solving 0 Group will follow a normal problem solving approach unless some external authority interferes with freedom to solve problem Descriptive Approach For Group Phases Fisher 1970 0 Phase 1 Orientation forming Phase 2 Con ict storming 0 Phase 3 Emergence norming Phase 4 Reinforcement performing Models of Group Problem Solving o Dialectical Competing tensions within the group 0 Stability versus instability o Familiar patterns versus change 0 The team versus the individual 0 Structure versus interaction 0 Spiral Model cycle or spiral through phases throughout group expenence o LOOK UP PICTURE page 10 0 Teams cycle through their work Q o T Dimensions of time o l Interaction o P Performance Punctuated Equilibrium Model 0 1 lnertia o 2 Break Point 0 3 Burst of Activity LOOK UP PICTURE page 10 MultiSeduence Model activity tracks that do not follow logical steps 0 Task process 0 Relational activities 0 Typical focus Functional Approach o 1 Develop accurate understanding of problem 0 2 Develop requirements for acceptable choice 0 3 Develop alternative to solve problem 0 4 Assess positive feature of alternative 0 5 Assess negative features of alternatives Functions Essential for Effective Problems Solving Groups 0 Group members analyze information appropriately Generate an ample number of ideas 0 Evaluate information and solutions 0 Remain sensitive to others Analysis Function 0 Establish clear criteria 0 See problem form variety of viewpoints Gather data and research issues 0 Use evidence effectively to reach valid conclusion 0 Ask appropriate questions ldea Generation Function 0 Search for many alternatives or solutions to problem 0 Make highquality statements to group 0 Take vacation form problem to revitalize group Evaluation Function 0 Examine pros and cons of potential solutions 0 Evaluate opinions and assumptions of others 0 Test solutions to see if meet preestablished criteria Personalsensitivity Function Shows concern for both group task and feelings of others Listen to minority arguments and opinions Prescriptive Approach Invites group memebers to perform certain behaviors in speci c order to achieve goal Offers speci c suggestions for structuring group s problem solving agenda Provides group roadmap to achieve consensus Offers recommendations for sequencing communication in group Notes Girl was rapped She almost got hit by a taxi She threw a glass bottle at the car The taxi driver tried to run her over Witness said that she was going to say that he did it The traveled to the hospital and made sure she had her portfolio and that a guy didn t see her The guy that is accused of raping her is her teacher she is a grad student 0 He opens a glass of wine She said they started kissing He wouldn t stophe said that she wouldn t stop She said that he grabbed her by her neck and raped her He clams that she wanted it rough She asked quotWhy did he have to hurt me worshiped himquot She didn t want to be touched The detective took her home she kept on acting weak OOOOOO Mayra might have had sex with two guys last night 0 There s two samples semen her teddy bear Mayra apparently chose to drink and have sex Justin is going out with Mayra 0 Last time he had sex was three days ago 0 She was wearing a quotblack lace thingquot 0 They found semen on the teddy it was clothes on the teddy 0 Justin says that she talks about him all the time Mayra s roommate 0 She s dating the teacher 0 She says that Mayra is lying Meeting with the guy 0 He has a 16yearold daughter 0 Jenny Mayra s roommate is 25 and is a grad student 0 She apparently hung around after and he went over her portfolio 0 She took a shower afterward and he said you can t stay here Mayra hasn t told a true story yet The lawyer accused Elliot of sexually harassing her and then brought in his personal life Mayra had all the symptoms of PTSD o Whens he tried to touch her she inched like she was waiting for another attack Mayra got hate emails The emails came form a computer in the library Ron is leaving town with Jenny into a hotel Sophie Ron s daughter was in the city library this morning 0 She says that she was working on a science project o It seems like he was coaching her 0 He was manipulating Mayra tried to commit suicide with sleeping pills She was found in her bathroom Mayra knew she was coming she made sure her tub was over owing 0 She tried to commit suicide because she said that she didn t want to be in court with him because the jury wouldn t be on her side Mayra said she didn t remember if the police of cer touched her or not 0 The lawyer asked Ron if he regrets anything 0 He says just inviting her over 0 WE ARE THE jURY O Apnl22014 Using Problem Solving Techniques Chapter 11 Origins of Prescriptive ProblemSolving Strategies 0 1 What is dif culty or concern 0 2 Where is it located and how is it de ned 0 3 What are the possible solutions to felt dif culty 0 4 What are logical reasons that support solution 0 5 What additional testing and observation need to be done to con rm solution Re ective Thinking a series of logical rational steps based on the scienti c method of de ning analyzing and solving a problem 0 Standard Agenda structuring group problem solving Balancing Group Structure 0 Structure 0 Interaction Group with No Structure 0 Task more time to deliberate interaction is inef cient and off task Prematurely focus on solutions rather than analyzing issues Jump at rst solution recommended Jump form one idea to the next without seeing big picture Prone to domination by outspoken member 0 Unable to manage con ict Balance Between Structure and Interaction Structure 0 Agendas o Problemsolving steps 0 Procures 0 Rules 0 Interaction o Giveandtake discussion 0 Reaction to members contributions 0 Talk 0 Feedback Groups Need Interaction Deliberation improves group performance 0 Sharing information improves group performance 0 Understanding the value individual contributions improves performance Step 1 Identify and De ne the Problem 0 What is the speci c problem o What obstacles are interfering with the goal 0 What is the question clear 0 What terms concepts or ideas need to be de ned 0 Who is harmed by the problem 0 When do the armful effects of the problem occur IsIs Not Analysis IsIs Not Analysis technique is a way to ensure that a group is in fact investigating a problem and not just a symptom of the problem 0 Is 0 What is the area of problem 0 What are symptoms 0 When is problem occurring 0 Who is affected by problem o Is not 0 What is not area of problem 0 What are not symptoms 0 When is problem not observed 0 Where does problem not occur 0 Who is not affected by problem Pareto Chart 0 Bar graph that show data which describes Cause Source Frequency of problem lournaist s Six Questions Who What When Where Why How Using these questions can help a group quickly structure how a problem is de ned OOOO o Pareto Charts a bar graph that shows data that describes he cause source or frequency of a problem Step 2 Analyze the Problem What is the history of the problem How serious is the problem What are the causes of problem What are the effects of the problem What are the symptoms of the problem Analyze the Problem What methods are in place What are the limitations How much freedom does the group have What obstacles interfere with the goal Can the problem be subdivided Lewin s Force Field Analysis Force eld analysis a group needs to have a clear statement of its goal which can be stated in terms of what the group wants more of or less of 0 Ex quotWe need more money more time or less interface form othersquot Step 1 Identify the goal Step 2 On the right side list all of the restraining forces Step 3 On the left side of the chart list all of the driving forces Step 4 Increase the driving forces decrease the restraining forces increase driving forces and decrease restraining forces Force eld Analysis Chart Vii K 39 1 Him I quot 11 39W 39 V c I39m 3 39 L39lufua 5 Z rtnap flanm I ttl Q 4 it J39i39IiH F 7 39IJEUI39EEI r i t 7 j l L 7 g I Elma15 1 i v n Fl r Lamar I39Dt Inna Causeandeffect Fish Bone Diagram 0 Cause and effect diagramfishbone diagram 0 Looks like sh when completed 0 Think of effect to be analyzed 0 Draw straight line on paper or ipchart Angling out form long line draw lines to represent possible causes Propair awjib lhilariiaitirii in i39 ln IZZILII but jil39ilil IL iiiE E llflf F39E39ple Hangf E39Fi t ni Machines F39EIIEI lilitaljm mi I liii g L 1 Pmitim ual39 Hmdhgi m a Amalgam warm L gt1 d m 1 t r i l 7 7 a M l n l t a 3 1 V THE WES PM Maths cufharitlling Weighm f 1339 i 1 J Trumanma because H n t ma til nf lL 39niaiE39fll39IEI muttaw lining a amalgam PIE mmm Ii Tan Ial39iilEi in 1 I39TFMF39E39 m E Mammalian tting L V EEPE39CHIHE I u Miscellaneous be EWEIE IEE EF I Hia39i fi j l l Resin resinde a ll r i eremze EliSE13 A J 39 if 239 F39l39l E 995 High 5 r envigmiiltg 1 1 quot F I I q L t i Eganquot 39iI39llImmE Materials l l L A if lIanmI Ell 1 7 Mallgrim Ai l39gltl my a r Marry Filmcli r rm39gr Dilu ing I ifa 3 3 Phase PROMOD Technique Problem analysis individual analysis Information exchange share analysis with the group Problem resolution individually identify a solution Group integration to reach consensus work collaboratively to develop the best solution PROMOD Step One Individual Problem Analysis Members summary of the problem Members identify strategies that analyze problems Members identify possible solutions Members individually rank the solutions PROMOD Step Two Group Information Exchange Members share written information Members review their analysis Members compare the rankings PROMOD Step three Individual Problem Resolution Members revise their analysis and rankings Members privately make a nal decision Members individually rerank their list of solutions Paflelihn Eli ilIIlliziiJ39tIn ufthe EIIEIEE EE 39lLIshee the drumi Plumber calLT drums iaii39li ra a d PROMOD Step Four collaborative Group Integration 0 Members share their revised diessions Members discuss the results and seek a consensus Members make a decision either by consensus majority vote or group ranking How to Establish Criteria 0 Criteria standard or goals for an acceptable solution 0 What outcome are we trying to accomplish How will we know when we have completed our task 0 Which criteria are most important 0 Which create is less important Generate Several Possible Solution 0 List possible solutions in tentative hypothetical terms 0 Take time to de ne and analyze issues Creatively generate solutions and measure the solutions against the issues Select Best Possible Solution 0 What is advantage of each solution 0 Are there disadvantages What would be longterm and shortterm effects 0 Would a solution reay solve problem 0 Does solution conform to group s criteria 0 Should group modify criteria Tools for Evaluating Best Possible Solution Analyze pros and cons o Create Tchart with pros on one side and cons of the other 0 Sienty write down risksbene ts 0 Share with group 0 Average rankings 0 Rank order and discuss solutions after pros and cons Test and Implement Solution 0 Action Chart a grid that lists the tasks that need to be done and identi es who will be responsible for each task Flowchart a stepbystep diagram of multistep process 0 How can group get approval and support for proposed solution 0 What speci c steps are necessary to implement solution 0 How can group evaluate success Applying Re ective Thinking Take time to re ect on group producers and interaction 0 Did the group clearly identify problem 0 Did group phrase problem as a question Did the group start suggesting solutions before the problem with symptoms IdealSolution Format Idealsolution Format groups answer questions designed to help them identify ideal solutions 1 Do all members agree on problem 2 What would be ideal solution 3 What conditions could be changed to reach ideal solution 4 Of all possible solutions available which is ideal SingleQuestion Format Singlequestion format poses a series of questions designed to guide the group toward the best solution 1 What questions does the group need to answer in order to accomplish its purpose 2 What sub questions must be answered before the group can answer the single question it has formulated 3 Does the group have sufficient information to answer the subquestions con dently 4 What are the most reasonable answers to the subquestions 5 Assuming that the answers to the subquestions are correct what is the best solution to the problem
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