Week 2 Homework Noted
Week 2 Homework Noted MUSC 80C - 01
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Music 80 C Week 2 Homework Notes Readings amp Listenings American Composers johanna Beyer pp1773758990 By Amy Beal DISCLAMER CONSIDER THIS ENTIRE INFORMA TION AS A PARAPHRASEQUOTE THIS IS WHERE I GOT THE INFO FROM httpsiteebrarycomIibucscreaderaction d0cID1 1 020320 Intro From Leipzig to the Bronx Iohanna Beyer was born in Leipzig Germany in 1888 and she died in NY in 1944 During WWI she made voyages back to Germany In 1938 she was diagnosed with Amyotrphic Lateral Sclerosis ALS She was at Kensico Cemetery in NY with the bodies of 104 other women who were taken in by the House of the Holy Comforter a free hospice like homequot She has 56 known compositions that fall under the following categories piano music music with text amp mixed instrumental music She remains a respected amp well known composer because of her contributions to the percussion ensemble repertoirequot amp for her composition of the Music of Spheres 1938 that was written for three electrical instruments or stringsquot known as the first piece of electronic music written by a womanquot 5 Music of the Spheres Never played amp recorded in Beyer s time It was recorded in 1977 by the Electrical Weasel Ensemblequot 5 This piece of music is played in the opening scene of Status Quo with a lions roar added to the piece Beyer wrote a prelude to be announced before the Music of the Spheres was played to give listeners an idea of what to imagine while hearing the piece She wanted them to keep in mind the encompassment of the entire world amp universe that the song is to take them on a journey of john CagePierre Boulez Letters on William s Mix DISCLAMER CONSIDER THIS ENTIRE INF ORMA TION AS A PARAPHRASE QUOTE THIS IS WHERE I GOT THE INFO FROM fileUserscontrerasDownIoadscageboulezletters williamsmix282 93233 20Zpdf fileUserscontrerasDownIoadscagebouIezIetters3843201pdf Letter 28 Cage to Boulez May 22 1951 Cage explains how he wrote Quartet then Six Melodies and also wrote 16 Dances for Merce Cage also goes into detail about a method he used to create the moves he used in the third part of his concerto He was inspired by a 3coin toss that the Chinese used in the IChing the ancient book of oracles 94 His method of writing music is based off his philosophical understanding of life He shows support for Boulez s work as well as he says I always take your music with me spreading the gospel 96 Letter 29 Boulez to Cage bw May 22 amp July 17 1951 Just a minute to say hello 97 Letter 32 Statements by Morton Feldman John Cage amp Christian Collected by John Cage 19519152 Morten Feldman Talks about his projections amp intersections John Cage talks about Music of Changes for Piano amp how it is mathematically structured the large measure lengths have the same relation within the whole that the small lengths have within a unit of itquot 105 Confusing right This is further explained in The Music of John Cagequot Letter 38 Cage to Boulez Summer 1952 Cage talks about how he made connections wit Louis amp Bebe Barron who helped him record a phonographic piece He used recording machines used by the Barrons Talks about how he allowss the engineers making the sounds total freedomquot in the creation process He does not dictate the every sound they create for him The letter goes on to fully describe pieces he is working on how they are structured amp composed etc along with all the computer information on how the sounds are made Letter 39 Boulez to Cage October 1 1952 Discusses his like for the Music of Changes Describes new tuning technology Talks about the future evolution of music where instruments can ai in the creation of a new sound system 42 Letter 43 Cage to Boulez Discusses William s Mixquot amp the way all the tracks are mixed amp the frequency at which they were recorded Again exemplifies how the two are very respectful amp supportive of each others music careers There is no competition George Guy has asked me to make music for a reading I would like to do it but I told him that you may have already made such music and in that case he should use yoursquot 143 In Defense of Satie by john Cage DISCLAMER CONSIDER THIS ENTIRE INF ORMA TION AS A PARAPHRASE QUOTE THIS IS WHERE I GOT THE INFO FROM fileUserscontrerasDownloadscage defenseofsatie202pdf This is a long lecture that Cage delivered during the Black Mountain College Satie Festival 1948 Talks about the style of contemporary art how it does not generally agreeing with popular opinion of what it should be Talks about how it may not always be liked but is appreciated for originality Talks about how music has a structure form and method He emphasizes the importance of originality the individual amp change over time Claims that music is analogous to human living Claims that Beethoven was wrong in his method of placing the importance of harmony and disregarding time amp length as the importance Claims that Webern amp Satie were correct with placing emphasis on time length as being most essential part of music He explains that this is because silence is a necessary part of sound and harmony has nothing to do with silence He calls this musical truth Lecture on Nothing by john Cage DISCLAMER CONSIDER THIS ENTIRE INFORMA TI ON AS A PARAPHRASEQ U0 TE THIS IS WHERE I GOT THE INFO FROM leUserscontrerasDownloads ohncageIectureonnothingpdf The format of the written piece has structural spacing with large gaps in between words phrases and punctuation It is a form of poetry in which the spaces may be symbolic of silence which he emphasized to be the quintessence of music 1 have nothing to say and I am saying it and that is poetry as I need itquot 109 A famous analogy he uses is It is like a glass of milk We need the glass and we need the milkquot 110 The first part is his continued rambling on about nothing The second part is about structure The third part is about the material in the structure Closer to the ending the information repeats page after page illustrating what he is talking about slowly as the talk goes on slowly we have the feeling we are getting nowhere quot In its entirety the diction and syntax mirrors what Cage is saying Check it out here pp109128 The Music of john Cage by jamie Pritchette DISCLAMER CONSIDER THIS ENTIRE INFORMA TI ON AS A PARAPHRASEQ UO TE THIS IS WHERE I GOT THE INFO FROM httpsecommonsucsceduaccesscontentgroupaed0c09bd1c04aeSaa 7 7 d0fe4af4fd51ReadingscageCageImaginatyLandscape1 TheMusicofohn C agePri tch ett PDF Rhythmic structure Musical structures based on the relationships of lengths of time the basis of Cage s music 1939 onwards 13 What caused Cage to focus on rhythmic structure 1 He was working on writing pieces for dancers who had unorganized counts amp wanted to match their counts with his music 2 The percussion sounds he was working with ruled out any musical structures based on harmony or melodyquot 14 Clear structural method by Cage is evident in his Imaginary Landscape No1 1939 MicroMacroism Rhythmic Structure 2level hierarchy of structural rhythm 14 An example of this is Cage s First Construction in Metal 1939 a There are 16 units with 16 measures for a total of 256 measuresquot 15 b The 16 units are divided into 5 large sections of 64 48 32 48 amp 64 measures 15 c Each unit of 16 measures is divided into 5 phrases with lengths of 4 3 2 3 amp 4 respectivelyquot 15 d This single number series controls both the lengths of phrases by how many measures there are per phrase and controls the lengths by the phase group units Concert Works The Three Constructions which Cage wrote are in uenced greatly by his definition of what construction is Construction music as the organization of soundquot William s Mix 1952 Titled after Paul Williams who helped fund the Proj ectSoundquot quotProject for Music for Magnetic Tapequot 90 Types of sounds included in the piece city sounds country sounds electronic sounds manually produced sounds windproduced sounds amp small sounds requiring amplificationquot 90 These sounds are further categorized by the predictability or unpredictability of their frequency timbre amp amplitude 90 Cage made attack amp decay charts which served as a score for splicingquot A Review of ArtsSciences Alloys Iannis Xenkis by Larry Polansky DISCLAMER CONSIDER THIS ENTIRE INFORMA TI ON AS A PARAPHRASEQ U0 TE THIS IS WHERE I GOT THE INFO FROM httpaumdartmoutheduIarIypublishedarticlesxenakisrevIeonardopdf Iannis Xenakis Composer amp theorist Author of Formalized Music Musique Architecture amp Art Sciences Alloys ArtSciencesAlloys Talks about the marriage of music amp science particularly by mathematicsquot 385 Thesis is in defense of Doctorat d Etat quot This book is an investigation of global morphology a search for deep forms that motivates human though process amp concrete manifestations art science technology architecture amp even the evolution of perception of biological forms The Art of Noises Futurist Manifesto By Luigi Russolo DISCLAMER CONSIDER THIS ENTIRE INFORMA TI ON AS A PARAPHRASEQ U0 TE THIS IS WHERE I GOT THE INFO FROM httpsecommonsucsceduaccesscontentgroupaed0c09bd1c04ae5aa 7 7 d0fe4af4fd51ReadingsRussoIoRussolo TheArtofNoisesFuturist Manifestopr Luigi Russolo 1865 1947 A prominent painter in the Italian Futurist Movementquot His Art of Noises 1913 was a letter to his friend the Futurist composer Francesco Balilla Pratellaquot A year after this letter Russolo introduced hi intonoromoriquot 10 Russolo s music no longer exists amp his intonomori were destroyed in a fire during WWII 10 Ancient life was all silence quot Talks about how the evolution of musicquot 1 1 We must break out of this limited circle of sounds amp conquer the infinite variety of noisesoundquot we want to give pitched to these diverse noises regulating them harmonically amp rhythmicallyquot 12 6 Families of Noises that the Futurist Orchestra will soon realize mechanically 1 roars thunderings explosions hissing roars bangs booms 2 whistling hissing puffing 3 whispers murmurings mumbling muttering gurgling 4 screeching creeking rustling humming crackling rubbing 5 noises obtained by beating on metals woods skins stones pottery etc 6 Voices of animals amp people shouts screams sheiks wails hoots howls death rattles sobsquot Acousmatics By Pierre Schae one DISCLAMER CONSIDER THIS ENTIRE INFORMA TI ON AS A PARAPHRASEQ U0 TE THIS IS WHERE I GOT THE INFO FROM httpsecommonsucsceduaccesscontentgroupaed0c09b d1 c04aeSaa 7 7 d0fe4af4fd51ReadingsSchaefferSchaefferAcousmaticsPDF Pierre Schaeffer 1910 1995 Theorist of musical listening amp postwar French intellectualquot Considered acousmatic listening to be reduced listeningquot made possible by the radio and recordings that contained sonorous objects a new domain of sound Inspired by the philosophy of Edmund Husseri amp his quotphenomenologyquot Phenomenology disregards the traditional philosophical disjunction between quotsubjectquot amp quotobjectquot quotappearancequot amp reality amp instead attempts simply to describe the contents of experience without reference to its source or subjective modequot 76 Acoustic amp Acousmatic Acousmatics a noise that one heats without seeing what causes itquot 77 Acoustics starts with signal amp transforms to sound Acousmatic listening requires Pure listening identifying the sonorous sources without seeing the objects that make the sounds Listening to effects focus on listening to the sonorous sounds with having a goal of only to hear them better Variations in listening listening to repetition of physical signals allows us to notice the difference in variations Variations in the signal making different recordings of the same sonorous event On the Sonorous Objectquot What if It s Not the sonorous object is not the instrument that was played it is the sound that the instrument makes the sonorous object is not the magnetic tape what is on the tape is the magnetic trace of a signal a sonorous support a few centimeters of magnetic tape can contain anumber of different sonorous objects the sonorous object is not a state of mind Karlheinz Stockhausen Notes of Kon takle in Stockenhausen Life amp Work By Karl Worner DISCLAMER CONSIDER THIS ENTIRE INFORMA TION AS A PARAPHRASEQUOTE THIS IS WHERE I GOT THE INFO FROM httpsecommonsucsceduaccesscon tentgroupaed0c09bd1 c04ae5aa 7 7 d0fe4af4fd51ReadingsStockhausenStockhausenKon taktepdf the electric part was realized in the electronic music studio in Germany the electronic music is heard through loudspeakers at the same time the percussionist amp pianist are playingquot Music of the Spheres 1 938 by ohanna Beyer Listen to it here httpswwwyoutubecomwatchv REVFN7A6 4 Iohanna Beyer was a German American composer who was very mysterious Most of her works were only known posthumously This recording was actually made in 1977 The piece was only composed by Beyer in her time the only reason it is considered the first piece of composed electronic music is because on the cover of the score she wrote for electronic instruments or stringsquot William 5 Mix 1 9521 953 by john Cage Listen to it here httpswwwyoutubecomwatch v9ql40phbt7k httpssoundcloudcomtomerbesetswilliamsmix John Cage born 1912 died 1992 He was an American composer music theorist writer and artistquot Critics have lauded him as one of the most in uential American composers of the 20th centuryquot He was also instrumental in the development of modern dance mostly through his association with choreographer Merce Cunningham who was also Cage39s romantic partner for most of their livesquot William s Mix was recorded by Louis amp Bebe Barron the creators of the soundtrack Etude Aux Chemins De Fer Railroad Study 1 948 by Pierre Schae 39er Listen to it here httpswwwyoutube com wa tch vN9qu8u6bA Pierre Schaeffer was born in 1910 amp died in 1995 He was a was a French composer writer broadcaster engineer musicologist and acousticianquot Etude Aux Chemins De Fer is made of the recorded sounds of trains at the station Thanks Wiki httpsenwikipediaOraWikiPierre Schaeffer httpeardemuacukIearningobiectetudeauxchemindefer Kontakte by Katheinz Stockhausen Listen to it here httpswwwy0utubecomwa tch vch V1226 6fk Stockhausen was born in 1928 amp died in 2007 He was a German composer widely acknowledged by critics as one of the most important but also controversialquot Wiki quotThe title of the work refers both to contacts between instrumental and electronic sound groups and to contacts between selfsufficient strongly characterized moments In the case of fourchannel loudspeaker reproduction it also refers to contacts between various forms of spatial movementquot Stockhausen 1964 105 Wiki Thanks Wiki httpsenwikipediaorgWikiKarlheinz Stockhausen For Magnetic Tape I by Christian Wolff Listen to it here httpswwwy0utubecomwatch vGchCuer U Wolf is a GermanAmerican composer who was born in 1934 Bohor 1 962 by Iannis Xenakis Listen to it here httpswwwy0utubec0mwatch vw08Lea UK94 Xenakis was a GreekFrench composer music theorist and architect engineerquot who was born in 1922 and died in 2001 Xenakis pioneered the use of mathematical models in music such as applications of set theory stochastic processes and game theory and was also an important in uence on the development of electronic and computer musicquot Thanks Wiki httpsenwikipediaorgwikiIannisXenakis Risveglio di una Citta 1913 by Luigi Russolo Listen to it here httpswwwy0utubecomwa tch vIC3KMbSkYNI Russolo was an Italian Futurist painter composer builder of experimental musical instruments and the author of the manifesto The Art of Noises 1913 He was born in 1885 amp died in 1947
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