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Week 8 and 9 Notes

by: Madison Sundberg

Week 8 and 9 Notes History 225

Madison Sundberg
GPA 3.34

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Notes for the week before and the week following Spring Break. I hope everybody had a great week off! Only a few weeks left! Hang in there!
U.S. History
Dr. Steven Reich
75 ?




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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Madison Sundberg on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Bundle belongs to History 225 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Steven Reich in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 03/20/16
Progressivism The Response of Progressives  Populist movement disintegrated by the end of the 1800s o The ideas don’t disappear  Progressives began to reform some of the concerns the populists platformed  What is the proper role of government in the economy?  1890s-1920 Concerns Regarding Living Condition  Back-Of-The Yards o Children played in garbage dumps  Children were not eating nutritional diets  Bubbly Creek was considered to be an “open sewer”  Mary McDowell wanted reform in conditions of the workplace in order to better the conditions of the home  McDowell was part of the social housekeeping era o Felt like a mother to the nation  Threatened by urbanization and immigration What is Progressivism?  Dominates local, state, and federal levels o Teddy Roosevelt o Woodrow Wilson  Leading questions of the Progressive Era o Industrial relations o Women in public affairs o Social welfare o Immigration o United States’ place in the world  Minimalist laissez faire government could not control/regulate the expanding economy Attitudes of the Progressive Response  Optimism  Social Cohesion over social Darwinism o Common bonds o Denied the idea of “survival of the fittest” o Its the government’s duty to confront social issues  Activists roles for the state  Reformists—not reactionists or radicals Social Housekeeping  Women are very active during this time  Creation of government agencies and commissions that oversee social welfare of the children of the country  People are poor because of a socioeconomic situation, not because they are morally incapable of being well-to-do  Reforms needed to be made to send children to school not to the factory  If husbands are working in such poor and dangerous conditions, how will they be able to provide for their family when something inevitably happens? Chapter 18 GML (Foner) Farms and Cities th  First decade of 20 century the economy’s output rose by 10%  Farms and cities grew together  Expansion of urban areas were stimulated by growth of farms Immigrants  Jewish  Mexicans  Italians  Lived in clustered, close-knit neighborhoods  Foreign language newspapers began to be printed  Churches played a huge role in the community Socialism  Supported by American Federation of Labor  Did well in diverse communities Labor and Civil Liberties  Right to strike  IWW battled for civil liberties Chapter 16 GML (Foner) The Transforming West  Highly influenced by capitalism  Fertile and mineral rich land  Landlords, mining, and railroad companies utilized Mexican migrant workers and contracted Chinese laborers Farming  Farming the plains was difficult for many reasons o Poisonous snakes o Blizzards o Droughts  Most of the troubling work was generally considered work of the women  Women fed, clothed, and cleaned for the family and grew crops for eating and tended animals  Men and boys grew cash crops Cowboys and the Corporate West  Cattle ranching began to boom after the Civil War  It was difficult to graze cattle in the Great Plains  Ranches were situated along railroads The Plains Indians  Warring between tribes—Cheyenne, Comanche, Crow, Kiowa, and Sioux occurred over land, horses, and presence of whites  President Ulysses S. Grant announced a “peace policy”  Mounted hunting of buffalo led to the near extinction of the animal  The army slowly broke down each tribe’s power and pushed them off tribal lands  Army tried to transfer the Indians to reservations Chapter 17 GML (Foner) Immigration and Nativism  Despite the depression, 3.5 people entered the U.S. during the 1890s  Immigrants searched for jobs in the North and Midwestern capitalist hubs  Immigration Restriction League—started by Boston professionals o Called for reduction of immigrants o Banned illiterates from entering the U.S. o Adopted by Congress in 1897 but vetoed by President Cleveland  Different states experimented with different ways to prevent granting people citizenship  Chinese immigrants had it especially hard, both political parties disliked the Chinese o Congress wanted to “preserve the health” of white citizens by barring Chinese prostitute from the country o Page Law kept out the wives and daughters of men arriving in the country as well as the wives and daughters of men who were already in the country working (usually on the railroads) o In 1882, Congress temporarily banned all Chinese immigrants from entering the U.S. Imperialism and Expansionism  Late 1890s—push to become an imperial power  Built up army and navy  America was aware of itself becoming a world power  Most Americans were interested in expanding overseas trade and less about territorial expansion Spanish-American War  Lasted 4 months  Fewer than 400 American combat deaths Open Door Policy  Demanded that European powers open up the recently divided China and allow America equal opportunities to trade  Referred to movement of goods and money—not people Works Cited Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty!: An American History. Seagull 4th ed. Vol. 2. New York: W.W. Norton, 2014. Print.


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