POWERPOINT LECTURE SLIDES
POWERPOINT LECTURE SLIDES ENTM 21000-001
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This 18 page Bundle was uploaded by Heidi Jones on Sunday March 20, 2016. The Bundle belongs to ENTM 21000-001 at Purdue University taught by Linda Mason in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Insect Behavior in Entomology at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 03/20/16
• Environment includes external cues and Behavior stimuli and internal cues (physiological state) a consequence of interactions of • Sense Organs includes such things as eyes, antennae, proprioreception (touch), humidity, an animal and its environment, Johnston’s organ (sound) mediated by sense organs and • Effector Organs includes muscles, effector organs, and dependent on endorcrine and exocrine glands the physiological state of the • Physiological State includes such things as the hormonal status (not), age (life stage), organism. gender, and if it has fed (or not) Behavior: response resulting from Sibling Species Complex interactions of an animal and its environment A group of closely related “biological” External stimuli Response species that happen to lack readily distinguishing morphological features. They are, however, reproductively isolated, with the isolating mechanism typically being some form of subtle communication Internal cue State Sibling species complexes are known for Firefly example among fireflies (visual cues), crickets, (auditory cues) and leaf-roller moths (chemical cues) 1 From: Lloyd, J. E. (1966). Univ. of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Misc. Pub. 130, 1-93 Proturis sp. BIAS • People are not insects!! • Insects may lack info available to people • Insects can detect signals we cannot – UV light A femalePhoturis sp. ready to devour a prey – Bat sonar male. These femmes fatales use flash – Sounds signals to lure in males of other species by – Chemicals / pheromones – Magnetic fields imitating their females' flash pattern. BIAS / Anthropomorphism Teleology • Endowing animals with human characteristics • Form of Anthropomorphism • Endows animals with purposive – Popular – Lack of evidence (goal directed) behavior • Purposive behavior requires: – Violates epistemic values – Knowledge of goal • NOT USEFUL – Capacity to use knowledge to direct behavior 2 David Blest – function of eyespots • How – proximate cause • “Frighten” insectivorous bird predators – Deal with structural, physiological, genetic, developmental • Bird “fear” owls – moth exploits this or • Why – ultimate cause • Conspicuousness, not eye mimicry – Ask why the animal evolved the • Sm. amount of evidence - deflection effect proximate mechanism to do certain things – What we see today is the result of ultimate cause grouse Deflective Io moth Eagle owl Behavior is inherited Innate behaviors In↓ividual with unique/valuable gene characteristic Physiological mechanisms → Behavior • Can be completed correctly the first Psychological mechanisms ↓ time Ultimate effects & functions ↑ ↓ • Dependent on genetically selected Developmental mechanism Solution of ecological problems ↑ ↓ NS/muscle architecture Genes code for change Gene carrying success survives • Degree of plasticity depends on the ↑ Contribution of genes to thos← genes behavior and the organism surviving to the next generation Fixed Action Pattern Fixed Action Pattern • = instincts, innate behaviors. • field crickets - • do not require learning – 2 day old adults chirp specific song – 1. fully functional on first performance – no prior knowledge - males reared in – 2. once initiated, run to completion isolation still sing – (compare to birds that must learn – 3. not modified by experience – 4. highly stereotyped - songs) – species specific aggressive and rivalry • -(little variation among individuals) songs 3 Fixed Action Pattern Fixed Action Pattern • Triggered by subset of total stimuli • Key Stimulus • Sand Wasps – Sign stimulus or releaser - Releaser is used for stimuli – no contact with previous generation that have evolved to facilitate communication between – complex nest burrowing behaviors. animals of the same species. Sign stimuli are features of an animal's environment to which it reacts in a particular • Caddis flies way ( fly orchid which looks like an insect ) – in isolation – Reliably associated with conditions/situations in which the – spin perfect cases FAP will be adaptive – Result from stimulus filtering mechanism – Less flexible than associative learning – Triggers innate releasing mechanism Fly/Bee Orchid Story Fixed Action Pattern Vs. ♂ Digger Wasps Control • Releaser-Examples – Cricket chirp • Stimulates mate finding – Firefly flash • Stimulates signaling response – Pheromone- • Stimulate moths to start search behavior • Simulate bees to attack predator Fixed Action Pattern FAP / Reflex Control • Sign stimulus-Examples 100 – Bat Noises Graded • Stimulate avoidance by moths Response (reflex) – Light guides on orchids Magnitude (%) All or none • Stimulate landing by pollinators Fixed action pattern – Cucurbitacins- • Stimulate corn rootworms to ingest 00 x substrate Relative Stimulus Intensity 4 Sign stimulus Learning • supernormal releaser –exaggerated sign stimulus a change in behavior resulting • exaggerated responses result from experience Example Apple maggot flies attracted to apple 10 X red ball more attractive Rewarding Work for Butterflies Why Learning Butterflies learn faster when a flower is rewarding than when it is not, and females have the edge • Instincts over males when it comes to speed of learning – Behavior is consistent – Independent of rearing environment with rewards. – Mistakes are very costly They learned to associate flower color, not only – Environment is predictable, uniform with the presence of nectar, but also with the • Learning absence of nectar. – Behavior is flexible – Environment is unpredictable – Mistakes are cheap Learning Learning 1. Habituation • Habituation 2. Associative learning • Repeated exposure to stimulus 3. Latent learning (delayed reward) 4. Instrumental learning (Trial and error) • Response lessens with exposure • Not due to muscle fatigue 5. Insight learning (tool use) 5 Habituation Habituation • Mosquito larvae • Cockroach – See shadow, – Shock legs when lowered • go to bottom • Keeps legs raised – After several stimuli – Prolonged conditioning • Keeps legs raised in absence of shock • response lessens • larvae remain at Where does learning occur? surface Headless cockroach learns as well as one with a head Therefore: Learning can occur at level of ganglia Associative Learning Fast Learning Bumblebees Reap Greater Nectar Rewards Conditioning (Pavlov’s dogs) Bees were challenged to overcome their natural Honey bees color, pattern/food preference for ‘blue’ flowers, and to learn that the ‘yellow’ flowers were more rewarding. The team found that the colonies which learned colors quickly, harvest 66%more nectar from real flowers Associative Learning- Taste Aversion Associative Learning- Taste Aversion Warning Coloration Milkweed bug Milkweed bug Fed sunflower seed Fed milkweed seed Palatable Toxic Mantid Mantid Eats Eats Accepts more prey Regurgitates Refuses prey Monarch Milkweed bug 1 Latent (Associative) Learning Associative-no immediate rewards • Sand wasps Instrumental learning (trial and error) Insight Learning (tool use) An ant (Oecophylla smaragdina) • Orchids produce wasp Wasp pheromone • nest construction pheromone • Larvae spin silk • Attracts males • Adults hold larvae • Make several mating • Larval silk holds leaves together attempts- pollinate • Males learn location of orchids • Avoid http://www.naturia.per.sg/buloh/inverts/weaver_ants.htm Spider mimic bio.kuleuven.be/ento/photogallery 2 Learning Learning 1. Habituation • a change in behavior resulting 2. Associative learning result from experience 3. Latent learning (delayed reward) 4. Instrumental learning (trial and error) • Implies 5. Insight learning (tool use) – Change in internal state – Command of behavior • Change in nervous system – Activity – Structure Honey Bee Learning Memory- three components As bees age and learn Learning area of brain increases size • Acquisition – Receptor input – CNS integration • Storage – Change in activity or structure of NS • Retrieval (recall) – Pattern of neural activity regenerated Memory- Drosophila Memory- Drosophila • Assay • Shibire gene – Active at 20 C – Train to avoid odor • Neurotransmitter released – Measure avoidance response – Inactive at 30 C • Low temperature • Neurotransmitter blocked – Brain active – Flies can recall • Raising temperature inactivates brain area for learning • High temperature – Brain inactive – Flies cannot recall http://www.cshl.org/public/releases/tully052301.html 3 Memory- Drosophila Light receptors and vision High temperature during training Light receptors Brain signaling inactive Memory is still acquired and stored Simple eyes Flies cannot recall •Ocelli Subsequently reduce temperature Flies avoid odor •Stemmata Compound eyes Ocelli Stemmata May form image Laterally located but usually not on head of larvae Function?? (S and S2) Orientation in Occur in clusters flying insects Light intensity Photoperiod Outlines of objects Track movements www.cirrusimage.com/Mantids/mantis_attack_6.jpg www.byteland.org/bioluminus/ony_stemmata_late UV light Compound Eyes Color Vision: UV Structural units- ommatidia 6 to over 25,000 Protocerebrum devoted to processing signals Normal light UV Fluorescence 1 Optic flow Optic flow The movement of patterns across the visual receptors Judging Distance Insects use for: Far objects move slower • Determining distances to objects Near objects move faster Size of objects is irrelevant • Adjusting flight speed Optic flow Optic flow Collision avoidance Landing Speed slows when space Object enlarges on approach narrows Optic flow increases as insect nears landing Keep optic flow rate constant, insect slows, stops at landing site Adaptations for flight Insect olfactory receptors Compound eyes directed at all angles Location- not confined to mouth Ovipositor/sexual organs Mouthparts Antennae Legs www.sbs.auckland.ac.nz 2 Insect olfactory receptors Insect olfactory receptors Location- on appendages Predatory insects taste prey with legs Taste does not require ingestion Butterflies tap on plant leaves Receptors on tarsi Insect olfactory receptors Insect ovipositor “tastes” plant Blowfly mouthpart chemoreceptors One sensory hair- 5 receptors Responses: 2, salt 1 water 1 sweet 1 bitter Blowfly mouthpart - chemoreceptors Chemoreceptors So many chemicals… …so few receptors Starved flies stimulated by low sugar concentration Satiated flies require higher sugar concentration 3 Cross fiber patterning Chemoreceptors Receptors are qualitatively different Cross fiber patterning Chemical is associated with pattern Group of qualitatively different receptors Chemicals distinguished by “pattern” of Odor R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 A + + ++ 0 0 + 0 receptor responses B ++ +++ ++ 0 ++ - ++ Labelled line C 0 - + 0 0 0 +++ D ++ - - 0 - + - Receptor specific to single chemical E 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pheromones F ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ - G 0 + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ H - 0 - +++ 0 - + Labelled line- Pheromones- Example Labelled line Disparlure Useful for predictable signals Produced by female gypsy moth Communication Male thousands of disparlure receptors Intense selection pressure Strong response to disparlure Little response to other chemicals Necessary for sparse populations Only a few molecules are necessary for stimulus Detection occurs at long distance (over 1 Km) Temperature Control Equilibrium Regulated by No equivalent of semi-circular canals Distance from ground External hairs important in bees Exposure to sunlight Patches between • head and thorax Wing movements can increase temperature • thorax and abdomen • Weight on head disorients bees Bees regulate hive temperature by air movement 4 Proprioreception (touch) Sound Hairs on cuticle sensitive to touch and air Tympanal organs movement Thin stretch of cuticle Sensors between joints- chordotonal Sensitive to vibration sensilla Nerve detects vibration Position of appendages Important for feedback in movements Sound- Detection in moths Sound Communication Evolutionary arms race Pattern of sound pulses more important Moths detect at 40 m than frequency Bats detect at 5 m Cryptic species may differ by songs Avoidance Erratic flight Upward loop + power dive Advertisement Unpalatable moths “talk back” Circadian Rhythm Circadian Rhythm-Examples From Latin (about a day) Moths become active just after dark Internal clocks Butterflies are diurnal May be reset by light Cockroaches are nocturnal Keep time independent of light Fireflies are crepuscular and nocturnal Clock output can suppress or stimulate behaviors 5 Circadian Rhythm- Circadian Rhythm- importance Gated- once in a lifetime Communication- synchronize time Pheromone release coincides with male activity eclosion Reiterative (periodic) behaviors Cricket chirping coincides with activity Defense- predator avoidance Feeding Moths at night avoid birds Mating Feeding- availability of prey/food Distasteful butterflies visually find food during day Mosquitoes active when prey (bird) is roosting www.nature-shetland.co.uk /www.naturescapes.net Circadian Rhythm- Characteristics Circadian Rhythm- Input 1) Not exactly 24 hours Cryptochromes drift absent external environmental cues Blue light sensitive proteins Independent of eyes 2) Entrained by a Zeitgeber cyclical environmental cue Eyes often light dark transitions Serves as second input Cryptochrome gene expression knockout upsets 3) Cycles in the absence of a zeitgeber rhythm but light stimulation of eye can compensate 4) Temperature compensated- i.e. the periodicity remains stable under changing temperature conditions. Circannual Rhythms Reiterative Rhythms Rhythmic behaviors that have a yearly Rhythms that occur with regular repeated cycle periodicity in the life of an individual EX: Migration and Diapause Feeding behavior, locomotory cycles Diapausal female Typically circadian entomology.tfrec.wsu.edu 1 Kineses and Taxes – orientation behavior in insects Kineses Kinesis Kinesis – simplest type of locomotor Undirected movement response an insect can make Change in rate in response to intensity of Undirected movement stimulus Change in rate (speed or frequency) in Taxis response the intensity of stimulus Directed movement Orientation relative to/away from stimulus Requires only one receptor direction Kineses Two Major Groups of Kinesis Hydrokinesis: humidity / surface moisture Klinokinesis – frequency of turning Photokinesis: gradient of light depends on intensity of stimulus Stereokinesis: contact with surfaces Chemokinesis: chemical gradient Orthokinesis – speed of movement depends on intensity of stimulus Response to stimulus can be positive or negative Orthokinesis Orthokinesis – speed Less time spent in areas if movement is rapid (green) If woodlice are distributed over More time spent in area if movement is slow (red) More likely to be in red area than green area an area which has both humid and dry soils, they soon congregate in the humid areas – how do they do this? Research has shown it is non-directional. They do not seek out humid areas – but more active in drier areas. When in humid areas they are less active. 2 Klinokinesis – turning rate- frequency Orthokinesis of turning depends on intensity of stimulus Repellents increase rate of movement Faster rate of turning Slower rate of turning Attractants decrease rate of movement Decreases search area Increases search area Search intensity increasSearch intensity decreases klinokinesis (more rapid turning at higher Klinokinesis intensity of stimulus) near the thermal source. Attractants increase Repellents decrease The right two lines = outlines of frequency of turning a wax moth larva. frequency of turning Nematodes were released and allowed to disperse. More nematodes were swimming over the wax moth (due to metabolic heat conducting through the agar) than were swimming in slightly cooler areas. The agar above the wax moth was found to be only 0.3° above ambient with an electronic thermometer. Byers, J.A., & Poinar, G.O., Jr. Taxis (plural taxes) Common Taxes gravity - geotaxis Taxis Directed movement Burrowing caterpillars light - phototaxis Orientation relative to stimulus direction Moth escape response It requires input from a pair of sensory wind - anemotaxis receptors. Moths pheromone sound - phonotaxis crickets 3 Common Taxes Orientation temperature - thermotaxis May be positive or negative – with Fleas jump to heat source positive phototaxis the body is oriented so water currents - rheotaxis that both eyes are equally stimulated in Movement of water striders sun, moon, or stars - astrotaxis front. Bees polarized light During the lifetime the response may Moth flight orientation change First of three examples Yellow jackets Young caterpillars Unmated yellow jacket queens + photo and – geo to feed on foliage + photo in fall – leave nest Last instar Mated yellow jacket queens - photo taxis and + geo to burrow in soil - photo to seek dark places to overwinter Adult + photo taxis and- geo to leave soil Spruce budworm Posture Control 1 instar Locust maintain an even body keel partly - geotaxis with increase in barometric through visual reactions to inclination of pressure – develop strands of silk to disperse the horizon Flies sense angular acceleration and angular motion by rapid oscillations of the halteres 4 Transverse orientations Dorsal and Ventral Light Reactions Those in which the body is positioned at a fixed angle relative to the stimulus (common in dragonflies, moths, butterflies) Differ from phototaxis, where orientation Dragonflies and is parallel to light rays, in that the body is kept perpendicular to light rays. backswimmers 5
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