Notes from 9-28 thru today (10-5)
Notes from 9-28 thru today (10-5) AVS 1500
Popular in Introduction to Animal Science
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarah Edwards on Monday October 5, 2015. The Bundle belongs to AVS 1500 at Clemson University taught by Heather Walker Dunn in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at Clemson University.
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No, they don't even have all of the organ systems in them. Kind of disappointed I bought these.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
10052015 September 28 2015 Ruminant Anatomy Book 1 Nervous system uses electrical systems chemical reactions sodium and potassium ratio 0 Overall you are neutral but you do have charges Ions molecules with a charge 0 Collateral Nerve only use when another nerve is damaged Plexus an intersection of nerves 2 Cardiovascular System 0 Systemic 0 From pump to ALL body parts and then back to pump 0 Pulmonary 0 From pump to lungs back to pump Coronary 0 Pump and all arteries and veins around the pump that makes the pump the pump 0 Shortest circulatory system in mammals o The larger the animal the larger the blood ow 3 Lymphatic Immune System 0 Excess uid is called lymph brought back to the heart ltered in lymph nodes 0 Afferent Anatomy is concerned it is going into a structure Efferent going out from a structure Clusters of lymph nodes throughout the body 4 Respiratory system Pg 96 and 97 Nasal Passages nose Pharynx throat Larynx voicebox Trachea windpipe Lungs When healthy they are the weight of dry sponge light and uffy pink in color Blood ows from heart into pulmonary circulation through alveoli where oxygen is exchanged Damaged lungs are heavy dirty and dark Some diseases damage lungs pneumonia 5 Urinary System Kidneys Filter blood and other nutrients get pressed out of kidney then what does not get absorbed back into kidney gets passed to ureters Ureters Simply just connectors Bladder Urethra Simpy just a connector 6 Digestive System Pg 129 0 Start in the mouth Esophagus food shoot collapsible muscle connecting mouth to stomach Small intestine Large intestine includes cecum colon and rectum Whatever is left over leaves body as fecal matter 0 Animal consumes food source it absorbs the nutrients which are converted into usable energy September 30 2015 Companion Animal Book 1 Urinary system 0 Micturition another term for urination 2 kidneys 2 ureters 1 bladder and urethra 2 Digestive System 0 Pg 127 amp 128 Pharynx to the stomach is connected by the esophagus Esophagus does not move secrete or absorb 0 Will collapse when not in use lleoccecal Junction joins the small and large intestine 3 Endocrine system 0 Production of hormones Function of glands 0 Production of enzymes for digestion Growth hormones spurts of hormones produced during puberty Primary organs 0 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 0 Blood brain barrier meninges is the barrier name Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid 0 Not uncommon to get a tumor on these glands o Thyroid glands produce hormones o Thyroid has lobes so if one is bad you can remove that lobe 0 Treatment for Thyroid problems requires quarantine Adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys 0 Makes hormones Cortisol helps us deal with stress If levels of Cortisol get too high it suppresses the immune system When you sleep your body restores its levels of Cortisol to be released throughout the day Pancreas Pg 128 Helps mammal species regulate blood sugar Produce insulin and glucogon Enzymes that are necessary for digestion o If there is a disease of the pancrease not a good outcome Ova riesTestis 0 Function based on communication from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland O O O O o TestoteronemalesEstrogen and progesteronefemaes hormones are not made until brain signals gonads for maturity o By product of activity from the adrenal glands makes some females have testosterone and males have some level of Estrogen 4 Reproductive System 0 Purpose to allow continuation of species 0 Length of gestation the shape of the uterus differences in the mammal system 0 Pg 157 and 159 0 Internal pressure during pregnancy causes increased urination 5 Muscular Sytem Two states 0 Contracted Actin thin lament Myosin Thick lament Binds to an active site on Actin Loaded with globular head to attach to Actin and slide a little bit 0 Relaxed Need ATP to bind to Actin to release the Myosin globular heads for relaxation 6 Nerves Cell body to the axon to the terminal end of the nerve Nerves can branch not necessarily just one single nerve lons Sodium and Potassium Signal causes a change in the membrane charge in the Axon Hillack 0 IF there is enough of a charge can start an action potential which is a change of charge at the Axon Hillack then the charge will change all the way down the Axon Get to the terminal end changes occur Body is electrically charged refers to the movement of Sodium and Potassium down the Axon membrane When message get to Terminal end there is a selective door where Calcium Ca can move into the neuron Neuron releases a molecule called acetylcholine ACh Produced by the nerve cell When Ca enters causes the vesicles to move toward the terminal end of the neuron Vescicle ACh touches membrane it will leave the cell moves into the gap between Neuron and If something is inside the cell either it was made by the cell or brought into the cell October 2 2015 1 Cells Can be anything blood cell nerve cell Can be round shaped like a nerve cell muscle cell Concentration of molecules inside cell is different than concentration in cell at rest At REST the cell is negatively charged on the inside and positively charged on the outside 0 K moved out as Na moves in Charge changes in a nerve cell like dominos falling down Bipolar membrane 0 Hydrophilic heads Hydrophobic tails o Semipermeable membrane Neuron and Skeletal Muscle o ACh is made by nucleous in the neuron 0 When an action potential moves down the channel causes such change in the neuron that it opens up channels speci cally for Ca More Ca intracellular inside than intercellular outside When the Ca moves in the ACh moves to the outside membrane and a hole forms only for ACh to move outside the neuron ACh is now in the space between neuron and muscle membrane Binds to a receptor on the skeletal muscle membrane and creates a channel for Na to come into the cell When Na moves into the cell the charge of the cell membrane changes its now positive on the inside and negative on the outside Remember when Na moves in K always moves out Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Structure inside the cell that stores Ca TTubule Dips down into muscle causes a change in the membrane When an action potential goes into the Ttubule it dips down close to the sarcoplasmic reticulum which then releases Ca On actin there are two proteins located Tropomyosin protein where myosin in going to bind Troponin has a receptor on the surface for Ca Ca is released from sarcoplasmic reticulum binds to receptor on surface of Tryponin when Ca hits that receptor Tryponin rolls out of the way changes the structure of the protein and when it moves it exposes a location on tropomyosin for myosin to bind Myosin binds to Actin through tropomyosin To undo this action we have to have ATP Removes Ca from tryponin tryponin moves back over myosin gets knocked out of the way Acetylcholinesterase AChe causes ACh to come off of the receptor at the surface of the receptor muscle and the ACh then gets recycled Synaptic Cleft the space between the neuron and the skeletal muscle o NeuromuscularJunction the end of the neuron the synaptic cleft and the surface if the muscle 2 Immunology function and study of the immune system 0 These 2 systems work together 0 Acquired you were born with Macrophages immune cells Not speci c When you re a newborn not the greatest immune system 0 Adaptive is created or developed in each mammalian species Can be speci c Two branches Humoral n Circulates all over Cellular Cell to cell contact October 52015 1 White blood cells leukocytes lymphocytes Bcells o matured in bone marrow o activatedplasma cells can be activated anywhere when it encounters an antigen its considered activated o produce proteins antibodies secreted throughout entire species through bloodstream humoral Tcells o matured in the thymus activatedeffector cells helper T killer T cytotoxic direct cellcell activation cellular Cancer that affects the bone marrow has an effect on immune system The younger you are the better your ability to ght off disease antigen foreign substance germ microbe something that doesn t belong in the body 0 will bind to other molecules in the body the body has to gure out what to do with it called nonself some called self Antibody AKA immunoglobulin lg o 5 different classes MADGE OOOOO lgM n the rst antibody produced from an activated B cell lgA n Primarily found highest level in bodily secretions mucus tears breast milk I Never circulates always bound to a Bcell n The most abundant and the one lg that has the ability to cross the barrier so That when a female is pregnant the offspring can receive some sort of immune system a most common with allergies High amount indicates an allergic reaction 0 Each cell can produce approx 2000 antibodies per second for 25 days Some memory cells can last a lifetime some can last only a few years Tetanus shots have short memory Secondary exposure to an outside foreigner has a bigger faster longer response once released reach foreign antigens antibodies don t kill but tag foreign antigen for destruction a lot of antibodies can stick tag to where there is a lot of foreign antigens ie a mass tumor
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