Exam 2 Notes
Exam 2 Notes BY124
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Chapter 31 06152015 Kingdom Fungi Closely related to animals than plants 0 Formed mycorrhizae 0 Relationship between fungi and roots Eukaryotic cell 0 Differ from all other eukaryotes by 0 Nutritional mode 0 Structural organization 0 Growth and reproduction o Heterotrophs 0 Cannot make their own food Absorptive not ingestive o Fungus send out enzymes exoenzymes to break down food into nutrients and then absorb all the minerals and nutrients Some fungi are parasites 0 Living on other living things 0 Some have saprophytesare saprobes 0 Live off dead things 0 Have cell wall made of chitin Diseases such as 0 Athletes foot 0 Ringworm Symbiotic relationships mycorrhizae Fungus provides 0 Phosphorus 0 Water 0 Growth factors Fungi and insect relationship 0 Long trails of ants that carry leaves back to their nest 0 They cultivate a fungus onto the leaves 0 Carry the fungus and eat the fungus 0 Then clean it out and bring some more in Tiny ants lick the leaves to clean them before getting back to the nest Get rid of unwanted material and unwanted fungi Multicellular 0 Except single celled yeast Hyphae 0 Main unit of the fungus Hyphae come together to make Mycelium o Nitrogen gets recycled and helps break down nitrogen Two types of hyphae o Septate hypha Have septae o Coenocytic hypha Nuclei not separated by septae Fungus l haploid dominant Fungus stick Haustoria into your cells and take stuff out of them 0 They dry out the cell parasitic 0 That is why skin itches with athletes foot or ringworm Rhizoids look like roots Dikaryon 0 Two genetically different nuclei in the same organism Fungus grow out from the tips 0 Largest organism in the world is a fungus in Oregan Can reproduce sexually and asexually Asexually Spore producing structures mitosis Fall down and germinate to make new mycelium SexuaHy Fusion of two structures Plasmogomy 0 fusion of cytoplasm Karyogomy 0 fusion of nuclei 0 Only diploid state in fungus is the zygote Zygote undergoes meiosis to form spores They spread and germinate Make mycelium Mold like structure on oranges Single cellular creature Yeast reproduce by Budding process Chytrids Most primitive AquaUc Flagellated zoospores agella Chitin is the same as every other fungi Absorptive nutrition Ceonocytic hyphae Metabolic pathways similar to other fungi 0 May be causing frog deformities and frog disappearance Mycologystudy of fungi Zygomycetes Conjugation fungi o Rhizopus 0 Black bread mold Lots of preservatives in bread that cause fungi to grow quickly 0 Life cycle of Rhizopus l Asexual n Sporangium haploid El El El Make spores They fall on bread through air Germinate Sexual El El El El El El El and types come together and have haploid nuclei zygosporangium plasmogamy fusion of cytoplasm fuse with karyogamy stage where fungi can live for a long time form zygote send sporangium making spores by meiosis fall down and germinate 0 like to grow on cow pattiespoop o fungus come through the cow and sling the spores on the grass that the cow will eat and it will go back into the cow Glomeromycetes They are associated with mycorrhizae Ascomycetes Sac fungus Orange peel fungus Largest division of fungus 0 Many species 0 Diverse Mildews Morels n Sold in restaurants Truf e a Very expensive Part of the symbiotic relationship called LICHEN 0 Can be Green algae a Can photosynthesis and give fungus food Cyanobacteria Uchen 0 Slow growers o Sensitive to pollution If lichens are dying then you know that there is something in the atmosphere that is not good for us Ascocarp Green things are photosynthesizers Soredia asexual reproduction 0 Little piece of fungus and photosynthesizer 0 Fall down and grow into lichen Asexual o Takes place in conidiophore o Ascomycete mycelia produce pigmented haploid spores called CONIDIA 0 They disperse germinate and form new mycelia 0 Sexual O O O O O O Canidia mating types come together Plasmogamy Forms ascus Karyogamy Diploid zygote Meiosis so four haploid nuclei and eight ascospores Then the asci from the ascocarp are dispersed They germinate and form mycelia This fungus affects 0 Corn 0 Rye If you ingest corn smut you hallucinate It is in LSD n In Salem witch trials they ate a lot of rye and people may have ingested conidia and acted very strangely causing them to believe they were possessed by the devil Truf es 0 Cost more than gold 0 Used in French cooking 0 Grow in the ground They convince animals to eat them to disperse their spores Animals good to nd the truf es are female pigs n Because truf es send out androstenol Androstenol is a male hormone n Females are attracted to the hormone so they are good at nding them They train dogs to nd the truf es and they do not eat them 0 Try to grow them commerciallycultivate them But they don t have avor 0 Taste is Cheesy garlic Ranch and bacon sometimes Basidiomycetes Most common fungi 0 Mushroom If you can eat it o Toadstools If you cant eat it 0 Shelf fungi Puffballs 0 They emit spores through spitting them out in a smoke like appearance 0 Maiden veil fungus Dictyphora Sexual o Mating types fuse o Plasmogamy o Basitidocarps Haploid nuclei in the gills lined with basidia o Karyogamy Back to diploid nuclei Meiosis o Basidium with four haploid nuclei each develop into basidiospore o Matures and basidiospore is ejected and dispersed by the wind 0 Germinates and grows into mycelium O Amenidia death angels o Toxin has no antidote o It will kill you Shuts down transcription and translation in your liver Deuromycota Not much is known about them Not sure about their life cycle Don t have a sexual phase Most of the time they are Ascomycota o If they nd a sexual phase Ethylene causes fungal spores to germinate Aspergillas Produces a atoxin 0 Very toxic O O Carcinogen Use this instead of bombs to kill people Kingdom Animalia Eukaryotic and multicellular More animal species than plant species No cell wall Heterotrophic 0 00000 Not photosynthetic lngest food Digest food inside body Get rid of waste Need oxygen breathing Have ways to obtain food Walking and running Structures to bring water into body Store glucose as glycogen Reproduction of most animals 0 O O O O Sperm and egg fuse Form diploid zygote Undergoes cell division Cleavage Cleave until we have a whole bunch of those cells Blastula on outside and the inside hallow area is called blastocoel Think of a balloon and take your hand to push balloon in to form a space Cells from outside go inside 0 Ectoderm Cells on outside 0 Endoderm Cells on inside 0 Some animals have third layer in the middle of endoderm and ectoderm called mesoderm Mesodermtripoblastic o Archenteron Becomes animals gut o Blastopore De nes different routes of animals 0 All animals have Hox genes 0 Regulatory genes 0 Important in development Chaono agellates o Precursor to most animals 0 Became individual chaono agellate Sponges are very different than all other animals Ediacaran During the Cambrian period 0 Have fossils of many invertebrates Over half of the invertebrates species was present during the Cambrian period 0 Predator prey o Hox genes 0 More oxygen Radial symmetry 0 Like a pie 0 Every cut is the same Round shape Everything is pretty much the same Bilateral symmetry 0 De nite right and left side 0 Fold in half Distinguish which side is the head and sensory organs 0 More Active Split between parazoa sponges and eumetazoa Sponges don t have tissues Radiata o Jelly sh Bilateria Everything else Diploblastic Two germ layers Ectoderm and endoderm Radial symmetry jelly sh Triploblastic Three germ layers Ectoderm endoderm mesoderm o Bilateral symmetry atworms Aceolomate No body cavity 0 Body covering from ectoderm Tissue led region from mesoderm 0 Wall of digestive cavity from endoderm 0 Human body is the body cavity but aceolmate does not have one Pseudocoelomate fake There is space between muscle layer of the mesoderm and the gut Not completely lined with mesoderm partially o to be true it must be completely lined with mesoderm Coelomate Animals with true coelom Have body cavity completely lined by tissue derived from mesoderm Protosome Mouth rst 0 That is what blastopore becomes Anus is going to come later Cleavage is spiral and determinate 0 Cells are on top of one another but not lined up Twisted a little 0 Determinate When rst cleavage is going to happen there Fate of protostome embryo is determined early I If you separate cells in a protostome embryo only one can become an embryo and the other dies 0 Can not have identical twin Coelom formed from splits in the mesoderm Deuterostome o Anus rst 0 That is what the blastopore forms Mouth comes second 0 We are this because when we gastrulate we form the anus rst Cleavage is radial and indeterminate o Indeterminate You are not going to restrict what cells in the ball come early I If I separate the 8 cells there will be 8 identical embryos n Cleavage planes are parallel or perpendicular to vertical axis 0 Can have identical twins Coelom forms from mesodermal outpocketings of the archenteron Segmentation o Earthworm o Humans are segmented o Spine o Abdominalcavity 0 Heart Animals came from Colonial Flagellate Sponges are very different than everyone else Molecular people Divided sponges up into two groups Everything else is eumetozoa Most are bilateral Deuterostomia Choradates 0 Us Echinodermata o Star sh Protosomes o insects secrete their exoskeletons 0 when they grow they split open their exoskeleton and form a new one o insectsheds o are arthropods Nematoda Worms also shed and secrete their exoskeletons SUBKINGDOM PARAZOA o Phylum Porifera 0 Means to bear pores Sponges Sessile animals n Lack true tissues Different because they have no cell developmental Ussues Cells are specialized Multicellular Appearance has not changed much u Sponge fossils look similar from now and the past Living in water a Most live in ocen I Some in fresh water No digestive system nervous system circulatory system a Digestive done in cell Asymmetric symmetry Basic structure of sponge n Epidermis Outermost layer 0 Shows the pores name porifera means pores n Mesophyl Gelatinous matrix 0 Wall consists of two layers separated by this n Spongocoel Middle layer 0 Cavity in the middle 0 Water passes through there after the pores n Osculum 0 Opening on top a Two types of cells Choanocytes and Amoebocytes Choanocytes 0 Beat agella to create a current that draws water through pores and out of the osculum 0 Relationship to choano agellate Amoebocytes 0 Make spicules skeletal bers Transport nutrients to other cells Classifies sponges on what spicules are made of Made of protein called spongin and calcium carbonate cilica Reproduce asexually n Budding They reproduce and form identically Can reproduce sexually Hermaphrodites n Capable of producing sperm and eggs I Don t self fertilize so they can have more genetic diversity 0 Prevent self fertilization by releasing sperm from larva o Larva can move Swims to another sponge Taken in by pores and fertilizes eggs Gasillia n Swim and crawl Subkingdom Eumetazoa Phylum Cnidana Coelenterates No mesoderm No head 0 Radial symmetry 0 No nervous system 0 Have gastrovascular cavity 0 Act like digestive area Hydrostatic skeleton One opening 0 Mouthanus Tentacles that surround the opening 0 Exist in 2 distinct forms 0 No alteration of generationsdiploid o Haploid stays haploid Polyp stage 0 Mouth up Medusa o Mouth down 0 Mobile 0 Extracellular digestion Little triggers 0 When creator touches something it sends out a red thing with toxin on it to attach to the animal 0 Thousands of cells line the tentacles Example jelly sh Classes of Phylum Cindiara Hydrazoa o Hydras Man of wars 0 Marine freshwater o Asexual reproduction budding Reproductive polyp let of medusa Meiosis Release sperm and egg into water n Fertilize and diploid zygote 2n Forms larva planula Swims off and nds a place to settle Developing polyp Polyp matures and portion of a colony of polyps grow 0 Polyp stage often colonia Scyphozoa o JeHy sh 0 Marine water 0 Polyp stage absentreduced 0 Free swimming Cubozoa 0 000000 0 Box jellies Sea wasps Marine water Boxshaped medusa Complex eyes Deadly venom Very toxic enough toxin to kill 60 people Turtles not affected by toxin Anthozoa 0 0000000 00 Sea anemones Most corals Sea fans Marine water Medusa stage is absent completely absent Most sessile Colonial Only occur as polyp Fish live with the coral Relationship with symbiotic algae Coral reefs that help buffer waves Phylum Ctenophora Comb jellies 0000 0 Have 8 rows of comb Largest animal that live by cilia Advanced digestive system Have glue like stuff on tentacles Trap prey Glow at night The Acolomates Do not have bodycavity between gut and outside wall 0 Bilateral O Phylum Platyhelminthes l worm like Class D Turbellaria 0 Flat worms 0 Marine Some fresh water 0 Few terrestrial Predators and scavengers Cilia as locomotive 0 Move pretty well Planeria the worms most people know about 0 No circulatory system 0 No respiratory system Gastrovascular cavity 0 increasing surface area 0 one opening mouth and anus Beginning to start seeing system that deals with regulating water 0 Water moves into the body 0 Protanephridia kidney like and Flameoelli cells Cilia brings water through tubes and release water so the animal does not explode Have reproductive organs Nerve pores 0 Come together in front of the creature called ganglia Collection of nerve cells Process information Doesn t have a brain Eyespots 0 Look cross eyed 0 Don t form images 0 Photoreceptors to detect light Ephriditic pass sperm to one another Undergo regeneration 0 Cut it in half and it regenerates Capable of learning 0 Teach them to run a maze 0 Or nd food 0 Will remember where food is If you don t feed them they digest their own body 0 They get smaller and smaller and go away a Monogenea Predators They are bright to tell others to leave it alone Marine and freshwater parasites lnfect external surgaces of she Ciliated larva o lnfects host a Trematoda Parasides Mostly vertabrates Have several hosts 0 Human host Lays eggs in human intestines Live in blood vessels near intestines Get into water Get into snails by ciliated larva ln snail it comes back out as motile larva and then they go into human feet and back into blood vessels 0 Fish host People eat sh and get back into humans and the human cycle starts again Male and female on same organism Schistosome 0 Disease common in tropics 0 Spread by schimose Ringworm o Proglottids 0 Behind head 0 Have many reproductive structures on them 0 Herdaphrinites 0 Have sperm and egg Hooks and sucker Scolex Pseudoceolo Is a body cavity 0 Not completely lined with meso o Phylum Rotifera Small microscopic Complete digestive system a From the mouth to anus n Called alimentary cana Distinct mouth and distinct anus Jaws inastax a Break up food Cell constant animals a Every member of species have same number of cells when they reach maturity n One embryonic development is complete they can no longer use mitosis Females Mitosis is for repair a Mostly have parthenogenesis Virgin growth Lay eggs and can develop without having a sperm fertilize it Will be all females but when time gets bad they can reproduce to make males Asexual reproduction o Phylum Nematoda Round worms Have longitudinal muscle but no circular muscles n Whip like movement No circulatory system Decompose things Parasitic Cause problems with crops Cause human disease a Trichinella spirullus Most commonwell known ones Causestdchonoses From uncooked pork Digestive system release cysts from muscle part and get into intestine and muscles of humans 0 Causes muscle damage 0 They can control your genes in your muscles and can send out growth factors to cause the blood vessels to grow into them animals that act like viruses In Ascaris 0 Lives in intestinal tract 0 Eggs get into feces Don t want vegetables good then eggs get in it o Borough through intestinal wall goes to heart then lungs o Damages alveoli in lungs n Filaria Causes elephantia 0 gets into lymphatic system uid in tissues causing problems The Coelomates Lophophorates 0 Have lophophores as feed device Ectoprocts a Sea mat Brachiopods n Lampshell Phylum Nemertea o Ribbon worms 0 Have true digestive tract O 0000 00 Closed circulatory system Some can be a 100ft long Live in seaocean Predators Have something that shoots out and spears their prey Have almost all systems of the body Circulatory Digestive Reproductive Coelomates Have terminate cleavage Form mesoderm differently Phylum Mollusca O 0000 0 Second largest off all animal phyla in terms of species Live on land in oceans and in freshwater Soft body Covered by a shell Flat muscular foot all mollusks have Used in movement Visceral mass all mollusks have Containing most of the internal organs Mantle all mollusks have Fold of tissue that drapes over the visceral mass This is where the guard that makes the shell 0 Most mollusks have Radula Belt of teeth Used to scrape up food 0 Opened circulatory system most mollusks Have one long vessel down their body Blood circulate into sinuses big spaces the uid baths all of the cells Polyplaceophora Chitons 0 Maine 0 Shell with eight plates 0 Not segmented Food locomotive Radula No head Gastropoda Snails and slugs 0 Marine freshwater terrestrial Has head Slug has no shell Snail has shell Nudibranch o Predator Torsion o Twisting of their visceral mass 0 Twist 180 degrees as the larva is growing 0 Crunch its stuff in the abdomen and it has one of each body part One kidney One intestine Snails come up to breathe are pulmonase snails 0 Use to be land snails but returned to water 0 Do not have gills Bivalvia Clams mussels scallops oysters Marine and freshwater Flattened shell with two valves Head reduced Paired gills No radula Move by squirting water Cephalopoda Squid octopus cuttle sh chambered nautiluses Chambered nautiluses are the only one with shells Closed circulatory system like humans have Largest invertebrates is in this group 0 Giant squid Squid has internal skeleton 0 Used as bait for deep sea shing 0 Have ink sacks Have large eyes Phylum Annelida Segmented Closed circulatory system Oligochaeta 0 Earth worm o Hermaphroditic Polychaeta o Parapodialocomotive 0 Live in tubes in the ocean 0 Break off tip of their body which contain sperm It breaks and sperm and egg meet Come back into water and form tube Huradina o Leeches o Parasitic 0 Have suckers to hold onto prey 0 Sharp mouth part Used to slice skin 0 Then put in hirudin Keeps blood from clotting while it sucks your blood Phylum tardigrades Water bear Microscopic Phylum Arthrododa Jointed foot Largest phylum over a million species Walking swimming mouth parts accessory reproductive structures that cast sperm from male to female Exoskeleton keeps them from drying out hook muscles to bone Segmented Open circulatory system Gills if living in water Tracheal system if living on land series of tubes that are in body air comes in through the tube and leaves Distinct male and distinct female SUBPHYLUMS l Cheliceriformes o Horseshoe crabs Don t come out of water unless they are mating 0 Spiders Arachnids o Scorpions OOOOOO Ticks Mites Body having one or two main parts Six pairs of appendages Mostly terrestrial or marine Have chelicera My apoda O OO Millipedes 1000 legs 2 pairs of legs per segment herbivores orange secretion to get you to leave them alone not dangerous CenUpedes 1 pair of legs per segment carnivores Distinct head bearing antennae Chewing mouthparts Terrestrial Hexapoda O Insects No chelicera Have mandibles 0000 O lnvaded about every category Came to be around the same time as owering plants Compound eyes like ies much better at detecting movement than the human eye is Detect lights as it is ashing Thorax is where legs are Internalfertilization Metamorphoses n Caterpillar undergo complete metamorphoses n Grasshopper undergoes incomplete metamorphoses Springtails Body divided into head thorax and abdomen Have antennae Three pairs of legs and usually two pairs of wings Terrestrial Crustacean O 0 00000 Crabs Lobsters Internalfertilization Leg places sperm into female Cray shcraw sh Shrimps Body of two or three parts cephalothorax and abdomen Have antennae Chewing mouthparts 0 three or more pairs of legs 0 marine and freshwater o Barnacles stand on their head stick onto bottom of boat strongest glues that we know is what barnacles make The Deuterostomes Phylum Echinodermata Have water vascular system involved in feeding in locomotion in respiration and in sensory perception Class Asteroidea O 0000 O 0 Sea stars Starshaped body Multiple arms Mouth directed Tubefeet I that s how they move Swing tube feet and grab something then pull Overview 0 Early Cambrian period 530 million years ago Vertebrates O 0 Rose from one type of animal Get their name from vertebrae 0 Series of bones that make up the backbone o o Phylum Chordata Chordates o Belong to clade Deuterostomia o Comprise all vertebrates Notochord 0 Flexible longitudinal chord between the slitsclefts and nerve cord Dorsal hollow nerve cord 0 Develop as folding in of ectoderm 0 Become the animal s brain and spinal chord Pharyngeal slits or clefts Openings near pharynx of the animal Use them for suspension feeding devices Used for respiration As adult become part of face ear head and neck and don t use them as gas exchange or suspension feeding devices humans Muscular postanal tail o 0000 Notochord all creatures except echi 000 o o SubPhylum Cephalochordata La ncelets o Named for blade like shape Marine suspension feeders Have chordate body plan as adults Can swim feeble swimmers Buried in mud frequently Segmental muscles go into tail and up to the back of the animal 0 Are blocks of mesoderm called Somites o o SubPhylum Urochorata Tunicates o Closely related to other chordates than lancelets Sea squirts common name As embryo it looks like land slit Larvae has all four of chordi characteristics As adult it only has the pharyngeal splits 0 Have fewer hox genes Brain has same genes as those slits 0 Genes associated in heart and thyroid are in all chordates 0 Genes associated with nerve impulses are unique to vertabrates o o Craniates chordates that have a head Have two clustersof Hox genes Neural crest 0 Collection of cells near the dorsal margins of the closing neural tube in an embryo 0 Give rise to variety of structures Some bones Skull Face Different types of neurons Sensory capsule of eyes Aquatic craniates o Slits become gills o o Nervous system comes from ectoderm o o lnducUon Neurological process 0 0 Group of creatures of craniates Hag sh 0 Skull made of cartilage not bone 0 No jaw o No vertebrate Pseudo vertebrates 0 Use to be considered belong to agnatha Gnatha means jaw Agnatha means no jaw 0 Row of slime glands make buckets of slime 0 They wander and hope they can eat up Cant grab anything because they have no jaw 0 They go into anus of sh and eat esh of sh while they are inside of it shers hate hag sh because the hag sh have already eaten the inside of the sh 0 o Vertebrates Are craniates 0 Have head Have a backbone Second gene duplication involving the Dlx family of transcription factors 0 Vertebrae enclosing spinal cord 0 Elaborate skull o Fin rays in aquatic forms 0 o Phylum Petromyzontida Lampreys 0 Only vertebrate parasites Jawless 0 Feed by clamping their mouth onto living sh 0 Eats the blood and esh Marine and freshwater o o Fossils of Early Vertebrates Conodonts 0 Dental elements were rst mineralized structures Teeth like 0 Armored sh 0 Jawless Gnathostomes o Jawed vertebrates 000 O Sharks Ray nned shes Lobe nned shes Amphibians Reptiles including birds Jaws may have arose from the skeletal rods in the gill splits Duplication of Hox genes Enlarged forebrain Enhanced smell and vision Lateral line system in aquatic gnathostomes Sensitive to vibrations Placoderms 0 0000000 Predators Jaws Fins Fishes means different groups of sh Ethology study of sh Cartilaginous sh chondrichthyes Have cartilage not bone 0 O O Sharks Have dorsal ns Pectoral ns Pelvic ns Swift swimmers Largest sharks are suspension feeders not a predator to humans Eat krill Short digestive tract Spiral valve Increase the digestive surface area Acute senses Sight Smell Ability to detect electrical elds from nearby animals Don t have swimmer bladder Have to continuously swim Cant go to certain depths of water Don t Osmoregulate Keep really high amounts of urea in their esh They have water coming in and don t lose it to sea water Pathogenesispathomorphogenesis Keeping child traits as adults Sharks do this o Externalfertilization Females release eggs Males swim over and fertilize egg n Shark eggs fertilized internally but embryo develops in different ways Oviparous 0 Eggs hatch outside the mother s body Ovoviviparous o Embryo develops within the uterus o Nourished by the egg yolk o Viviparous o Embryo develops within the uterus o Nourished through a yolk sac placenta from the mother s blood Cloaca 0 Common opening for the excretory reproductive and digestive tract 0 o Ray n sh Osteichthyans o Bony sh 0 Bone endoskeleton Subclass Actinopterygii n Gills protected by operculum o Brings water over gills a Air sac swim bladder Controls their buoyancy n Lateral line system a Oviparious most I Some have internal fertilization and birthing a Fish have 2 chambered hearts 0 Fish send blood to gills to get oxygen In Devonian age of shes I Have scales to protect them 0 Lobe n sh Sarcopterygii o Muscular pelvic and dorsal ns Coelacanth is a type of lobe n sh 0 Tetrapods came from these shes 0 Lung sh Thought they were extinct 1938 someone caught one Lives in very deep part of the ocean 0 Come to shallow part to breed during certain times of the year Fins evolved into limbs and feet of tetrapods o o Tetrapods Have four limbs o Evolved from lobe n sh Feet with digits Neck o Allows separate movement of head Fusion of pelvic girdle to backbone Absence of gills have lungs Ears o Detect airborne sounds o Hshapod 0 Both sh and tetrapod characteristics Fins gills lungs scales Ribs to breathe air Fin skeleton Flat skull Eyes on top of skull o o Amphibians Class amphibian Picks up oxygen through the skin Stay moist 0 Because diffusion happens better on moist surfaces External reproduction 0 Leave eggs in water Order Urodela o Salamanders have tails Have gills Vampire salamanders a Bite female in neck and so she follows the male everywhere Largest salamander live in China and Japan a Have them in Atlanta Zoo Male puts down spormatophore packet of sperm a Female picks it up 0 Order Anura o Frogs Lack tails Has poison bright colors warning signs Blue jean frog a Native Americans used poison on tips of their arrows Only males call Carboniferous era 0 Order Apoda no legs 0 Caecilians Live in tropics Stay buried in soil Not much information about them 0 o Amniotes Group of tetrapods whose living member are 0 Reptiles Scales with keratin n Keeps them from drying out Better developed lungs and rib cage Have 2 atrium and 1 ventricle Males have penis a Place sperm inside female n lnternalfertilization Embryonic egg a Shell is leathery tougher n Extraembryonic membrane Chorion 0 Gas exchange 0 Amnbn o Keeps baby moist o Fluid Yolk sac holds yolk o Yolk nutrients for baby Allantois o Keeps nitrogenous waste 0 Keeps it away from baby so baby doesn t die from extra nitrogen Ectothermic I Cannot regulate their external temperature Types of reptiles n Tuatara Looks exactly like the fossils 0 Have a third eye on top of head 0 Helps with reproduction n Australian thorny devil lizards n Snakes Legless reptiles Many varieties of snakes 0 Four groups of poisonous snakes in Alabama Birmingham has rattle snakes a Big rattle snakes a Little rattle snakes Copper head snake a Most people get bitten by a Common in backyards n Blend in with leaves and vegetation Cotton mouth a Black bulky snake n Opens mouthinside looks white n Meanwill not back down a They will bite you Coral Snake n Doesn t have fangs n Triangular head cateyes Snake venom n Messes with nerves Some snakes kill by constricting n Pythons Birds Jurrasic quotAge of Birdsquot 0 O 0000 O OO Archosaurs Adaption to ight their modi cation Wings with keratin feathers Hallow bones No urinary bladder Females with one ovary Small gonads No teethlost them They do have the gene but it is a regulatory gene that was turned off Air sacs associated with lungs very ef cient when breathing They get oxygen when they breathe in and out Four chambered hearts Much better adapted to land than reptiles reptiles cant control their internal temperature Birds endothermic can control their internal temperature Predators vultures amazing ability to smell Artic turn best ability to migrate goes around the world Better brain development than reptiles area of brain has increased in birds Better instincts Elaborate courtships Males are more amboyant Colors for attracting females Archeaopteryx Wings and feathers Teeth Long tale with vertebrae Claw on wings 0 Birds that don t y Penguins Ratites O o o Mesozoic period age of reptiles drier era 0 o Mammals evolved from synapsids Evolved before the bird Cenozoic quotAge of Mammalsquot Hair did not evolve from scales 0 Feathers evolved from scales Sweat glands tooth differentiation Enlarged cerebral cortex well developed brain Goodlungs Highly developed nervous system Muscular diaphragm for breathing better Four chambered heart Hair made of keratin Mammary glands Endothermic regulate their own body temp o 3 groups of modern mammals Monotremes Marsupials Eutherians placental mammals Monotremes o Egglaying mammals platyplus and echidnas o Mammary glands evolved from sweat gland 0 Milk comes out of pores o Marsupials o Opossums Kangaroos and koalas o Embryo develops within a placenta in the mother s uterus o Marsupial born very early in development 0 Completes embryonic development while nursing in maternal pouch called marsupium o Convergent evolutionmade them similar to the placental animals eutherians o Eutherians placental mammals o More complex placenta 0 Complete embryonic development in uterus o lnsectivores moles They eat insects Important that primates and we have evolved from the insectivores o 0 Order Primates This is what we belong to Have hands and feet 0 Five functional digits on each foot 0 Mobility of toe and foot 0 Opposable thumbs o Claws have been attened into nails Came around from insectivores Reduced snout Large brain increased size of cerebral cortex Two mammary glands One baby born at a time Short jaw Better vision with development of binocular vision 3D 0 Eyes have been moved to center of face 0 Color vision 0 Depth precision Have a cavice Have shoulder joint that allows free movement Can brachiate 0 Go to a branch swing and grab the next branch 2 groups of Living Primates o Prosimians before the eggs Lemurs Iorises and pottos Earliest ones 0 Anthropoids monkeys and apes Includes humans Old world monkeys Asia 0 Macaque o Limbs are not as long and slender 0 Some don t have tails baboons Small tails 0 Some live in trees others don t 0 Tough butt Not soft Bright colors 0 Nose are directed downward Nostrils are closer together 0 New world monkeys South America 0 Spider monkey Long limbs Arboreal live in trees Hang by their tales COO o Flattened noses Nostrils open on side Gibbon 0 Monkey Long slender arms Grasping part of hands No tail Spend a lot of time in trees Not monogamous Like to have children with one woman But have affairs on the side 00000 0 Orangutan 0 quotold man of the forestquot 0 go into trees at night make hammocks Gorillas 0 become 6 feet tall 0 knuckle walk Chimpanzees o kind souls of forest but aren t ght till the death 0 eat caterpillars and monkeys 0 can communicate with one another to work together Bonobos o closest relatives to humans 0 Turtles Box turtle 0 Cross road in spring time 0 Live to be a hundred years old Sea turtles o Endangered o Aquatic turtles Galapagos turtles o Largest turtles o o Alligators and Crocodiles Crocodilians 0 Late Triassic Alligators 0 Run fast Hit you with your tail and knock you down Protective of babies Love dogs eat dogs Don t have sex chromosomes Determined by the temperature that the egg is hatched Crocodiles o In Florida Swam across from Cuba 0 Like to hang out in nuclear power plants Because no one can bother them 0000 o 0 Human Evolution Homo sapiens this is us no one else is in the group 0 Hominoid great apes and us 0 Hominid or Hominin fossils that are our precursors Existed for 35 billion years Did not evolve from chimpanzees Humans differ from Great Apes o Upright posture 0 Walk on two legs This happened before we became intelligent 0 Larger brains capable of Language Symbolic thought CO OO O Artistic expression Manufacture and use complex tools Reduced jawbones and jaw muscles Shorter digestive tract Brain case became larger Making face at Arms became shorter Feet became atter with an arch Big toe moved back into like with all the other toes Lost ability to be opposable on our feet Skull became more balanced Kept baby head Australopithecus afarensis ancestor of humans fossil Lucy she was rstoldest n Walked upright on two feet Australopithecus africanus I Was a child a Prominent opening in skull monkey eating eagle crushed the skull ate the brain and killed the child Homo habilis n Handy man rst one to have evidence of using tools Homo erectus a Not the rst one to walk up right I Was curious a Controlled recooked food a First one that started warring with others Clubbing each other to death 0 Fighting Wars with ancestors Homo neanderthalensis El El Lived in cold climates Big 0 Things get bigger in colder climates First fossil found in Germany Think of as cavemen 0 Have paintings Better weapons Homo sapiens El El Us May have interbred with Homo neanderthalensis Shown in a recent fossil nding Came from all different parts of the world They all arose in Africa Destroyed erectus in all parts of the world but adapted to different parts of the world Lewis Leaky helped women progress on the eld and do eld work Shortened our pelvis Became more upright not long and tilted quotSquot shaped spine For weight distribution and balance Less of a size difference between males and females
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