Survey of Western Art-Medieval and Renaissance Semester of Notes
Survey of Western Art-Medieval and Renaissance Semester of Notes ART H 202
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Art History 202 Notes 18 Early Christian Art II CLASS NOTE 1 Sarcophagus of J unius Bacchus A Junius Bacchus of the highest rank lived in p8 died on etc Inscription sets Junius up as upper class government of cial in Rome B Visual shows how Junius believed in classical aspect Realism drapery revealing the body etc Cult of Bacchus A Christians saw themselves as direct inheritors of Jewish Religion B Jews had series of prophets who promised the Messiah Bring ppl out of troubles and miseries C Kept inverting the typical social cultural hierarchies of his day Jewish ppl in Christian view didn t ful ll the job bc they were not good enough D Christian you simply have to believe in God and you re in regardless of your origin class etc PROBLEM Message of prophets enabled to understand the god Messiah Jewish that converted to Christianity argued how other commoners were able to nd god We learned about god through long history in Jewish religion what about them E Eucharist fundamental Christian ceremony along with baptism Eucharist is incorporation with Christ I Christianity is body based religion II Christ being a Jewish teacher himself celebrated Passover right before he gets arrested and cruci ed III Christ breaks the bread and says this is my body which is broken for you eat this and remember this is me takes the wine this is my blood which I shed for you drink and remember this IV People believed this symbol strongly incorporation V Separate weed from the wheat and send it to hell VI Cutting the wheat making the bread and the wine so that Bacchus can get incorporated with the Christ F Christ holds a scroll sign of being a teacher philosopher Seated Jesus A Moment in 300 s when Christians did look at statues B Holding the scroll relates with ancient Pagan images of philosophers NOT as pagan Gods Apollo A Antecedent of Christ god of light god of sun B Apollo is differentiated with others by youth C FULLY CLOTHED amp BECOME CULT FIGURE Early pose of prayer arms up and out A Jonah on beach naked pose typically used in ancient pagan art for sleeping and dreaming CODES OF ANCIENT ROMAN WORLD Christ as Sol sun B C Sun god loved by emperors because they Wanted to be portrayed as strong sun Constantine changes from believing sun god to Christ Christ not as Good shepherd Wise teacher but rather like king emperor Imperial Sun Cult gets morphed together With Christ as time passes by 7 Constantine restructures St Peters A B Arguably 1 Christian s big Church Not based on Roman temple due to small place Where religious rites were taken place outside Christians turn to Roman Basilica big civic buildings used for law courts functions tended to have apses entered from side Christians cut off one of apses so that you can have journey towards the Christ Art History 202 114 Class Note Byzantine Art Byzantine medieval of the West from Late Antiquity Ravenna Byzantine Capital Purple Imperial color Byzantine saw themselves as completely Roman A B C Ostrogoths Visgoths invade Romans and take Rome Spain France etc East Roman Empire does not fall only the west Byzantine re conquers West part Emperor on rearing Horse Justinian A Crowned by angels w Christ B Figures with hat barbarians C Similar aspect seen on arch of Constantine gure of victory winged gure signify angels in Christianity rearing horse Turkish architecture based on Hagia Sophia Hagia Sophia Church of holy wisdom gt11 FQWFUUQPU Focuses on dome of heaven One big dome with two half dome and apse within a Square Circle symbol of god Square next symbolism Related somewhat to St Peters longitudinal focus like Basilica Mold of wall masses curved walls Light streams in Gallery on second oor Colored marbles Richness of earth below and heaven like above from the light connection with Pantheon of Roman Art Pantheon circular wall with dome on top Hagia Sophia square wall with dome on top pendentives transfer weight to hidden bold piers and at the same time allow to put openings on walls to let light in Christian altar both table and tomb Eucharist table Christ said he passed his body and blood kind of a tomb that represents sacri ce of Christ San Vitale in Ravenna A B C Centralized with hemispherical galleries like pedals of ower At ceiling 4 angels holding up a lamb with halo Christ symbolized which hovers right above the altar Current living Emperor Justinian and Theodora on side Justinian holding box with bread Christ s body hand breaking off frame tip toes Theodora Hold cup the wine the blood Women depicted in church shows major role she played in J ustinian s rule Christ at apse mosaic enthroned on globe dressed in imperial gold and purple yet young Has Halo with cross in it Christ Shown as philosopher carries a scroll old fashioned at that time so hints a historical reference Bishop Ecclecius hands a model to angel who will pass to Christ Christ reaches out with his right hand to give elaborate leese San vitale keeps hands under robe Body shown under robe Roman characteristic Saint Appolinaris A Apse Mosaic Santa Appolinaris under the cross Moses and Elijah hovering around cross with hand of god coming down Christians balanced fear of depicting god through images god himself is rarely depicted instead only by hand or nger to show God s presence B Trans guration Christ as cross hovering in space C Christ shepherding the sheep even if it is a cross Stiff sheep focusing on St Appolinaris being a mediator unlike early Christian sense of hierarchy on who speaks to god MEDIEVAL CHARACTERISTICS North Africa Saint Catherine A Holy spot where god rst spoke to prophet B Monasticism exempt Christians found cities too corrupt y go to deserts and live as hermits alone Brought up bands of admirers people were in uenced problem to centralize church 9 bring those ppl to community called monastery Retired from the world but live in community under a written rule Trans guration of Jesus A Christ in white robe in a oval space called mandola almond shape ways to separate Christ B Text book stress the worldly atten out aspect of Byzantine but Christ is here more present than Christ as a cross Also his hands visible under robe naturalistic Byzantine still considers itself as Rome at some level Icon small painting on wooden panel for devotion Virgin and Child A Very small 2 by 1 and 17 ft B Virgin enthroned like a queen Theotokos mother of Christ Virgin in Christian art C A baby already holds a little scroll and reaches out hand blessing command illustrate mystery of Christianity D Frontal gures Virgin looks off to the side power to see others Angels not E Angles looking at hand of god portrayed as ancient gures turning motion Their garments white brushed with quick strokes whereas others are at lled color Trying to distinct saints with angels increasing devotion to the Iconoclasm didn t get to areas of Mt Sinai so Christian arts were preserved there Rise of Arab power Persian power collapse 0u j Byzantine Empire shrinks Byzantine court god is punishing them for their idolatrous worship 8W Christian art prohibits production of Discrete of body of Christ P V take up space 2 cultural revival of early Byzantine images Legal presentation Christ as Pantokrator Christ as Pantokrator ruler of world A Looking up into the dome B Christ looks like world ruler unlike Christ as good shepherd C Watching all we do from the opening of heaven dome of heaven Christ suffering on cruci xion h4 ultimate ruler Increase on humanity of Christ Lamentation 1160s A Byzantine saints in rigid mode below B Sense of sorrow emotional approach C Eyes little open p sign of resurrection Art History 202 126 Class note Ottonian Art Carolingian Empire fell apart soon after death of Charlemagne broke into 3 kingdoms Eastern one became most powerful serious contender of restoring Frankish Empire under 3 ottos Origin of modern Germany Otto the 3rd determined as Charlemagne to revive Roman Empire Crowned by Pope dies in age of 21 and renovatio collapse Church of cial taking power St Bernward design church w two apses 0 looking at ruins of Roman building and try to recreate Doors with relief of Genesis and life of Christ St Michaels Hildsheim A Start with birth at top Fall Cane First murder B Birth of Christ starts at bottom and goes up C Temptation and fall of humanity God shown in human form Exploration of human sin emotion D Small gestures temptations extreme powerful rhetorical art E Adam entering building Sign of civilization we are civilized today because we were expelled from Garden of Eden Religious Art 1 Stimulates your memory gestures expressions 2 Stimulate powers of re ection help Christians not fall in the same sin 3 Called bible of the illiterate majority illiterate helped them remember the story told Door of Santa Savina Rome A Bronze casting very dif cult dangerous expensive process Major way of demonstrating wealth Don t know who made the doors only patrons Patrons more important than artists during this time period Bernward Column with scenes of Christ Hildesheim A Spiral narratives Ancient Imperial Roman Triumphal columns B Focuses on signi cant gestures EX Christ healing the blind C Angels holding roundils come from Roman Art victory angels holding tablet Angels holding roundils like wreath Similar in conceptual way Cruci x commissioned by Archbishop Gero for Cologne Cathedral A Gero very powerful man Cruci x donation to church Cathedral church of bishop B 6ft actual size Painted blood Clear presence Pulling of muscles closing eyes i W powerful representation p Empathetic religion related with Christ and God with your heart Characteristics of Ottonian Art C Close to byzantine work Otto III enthroned folio 24 recto of the Gospel book of Otto III A Enthroned between two powers Backed by secular people who supports the emperor Other side by church Full support of churchGod Opening of the Gospel of Matthew A Swirling Vine motifs foliate motifs of banding Vines surrounded by borders Early Roman Art time of Augustus B Keltic interlace motif Figure With Vines coming out Abbes Uta OPTIONAL A Christian Art in the Middle Ages B Separation of Priest half Way to God product of this period Art History 202 21 Class Notes Romanesque Sculpture Romanesque sees the rises of Artists wanting to sign works and acclaim special status Bernardus Gelduinus Christ in Majesty relief in the ambulatory of Saint Sernin A Christ enthroned with angles and saints B High Relief gesture of Christ coming out of the relief Sign of power to get to break out of the frame often very telling C Artist sign works patrons satis ed with artist Cathedral of Modena 1110 A 4 reliefs aftermaths of the fall Wiligelmo amazing at expressing emotion angels kick Adam out Decoration straight out of Roman Sarcophagi pU1 Persistent impact of antiquity in Middle Ages B 0 like Hildesheim door bear back ground extreme expression church blessing gesture while eating apple blessing while committing rst sin Jk visualizes what God intended for good Adam turned it around C Eve s breast fairly large body linear p j Wiligelmo looking back to Roman period D Creation and Temptation of Eve St Foy Conques 10501120 Tympanum A Last Judge common subjects in Romanesque B Righteous on his right Damned on his left C Left side sinister side lesser side in Medieval Left and right from sacred point of view D Sense of high relief sense of body remains of ancient Rome explosion of monumental sculpture Kind of sculpture not fully stature in uence of iconoclasm E Knight hell 2 Hell 2 everyone has possibility of going in regardless of class Another example of Tympanum W last judge Romanesque sense of animalistic coming into another level in sense of relief Real interest in human psychology although not in naturalistic form Hand of demon instead of God Artist sense of salvation by carving his name under the feet of Christ Church of Bezale A Remind of Keltic interlace patterns Two cultural inherences coming together B Pentacost apostles sent out to evangelize the world C Panotii big eared ppl marvel of the east Book uses bezale to bring up the issue of Crusades D Christ not coming back to earth until all ppl hear Christ 39 problems w Muslims GX Byzantine pressured W W asks Pope for help X Westerners becoming Easterners inter marriage E p V Pope think to retake Jerusalem D sense of Panotii replaced back to humanism Christians right to do violence W name of religion Freestanding sculpture Reliquary of StFoy A Most of the reliquary were body parts sense of body parts B St Foy is full 3D freestanding gure Unusual maybe led people to sense her power something alive her powerful eyes similar to that of VenusAphrodite people think somehow it is really there p sense of fear Some fearing that people think objects as ancient Pagan Romans Not good for Christians Realistic eyes to give realism Cruci x and crosses in the back ideology that power is coming from Christ behind her Pro le on gem stones not see this as classical revival kind of conversion Christianizing pagan form to work to celebrate Christian shrine Obvious sign of wealth but also power of St Foy F Critical distinction between venerating the saint and worshipping the idol religion of demon pagan practice church of cial brought up investigation 2 reliquary close to the line of being in pagan worshipidolatry discipline of not letting sculpture too free F590 Story of image 1580s court trial in city of Venice Baby noticeably darker than mother servants who are North African Z husband wife in relationship w servant 2 family name shamed P takes her to court and sues FY wife husband has painting with African and looked at that painting during pregnancy Physicians recommend having painting showing beautiful people in your bedroom bc if you focus on them while having an affair you have higher chance of getting healthier and handsome child objects shoot rays back have some kind of power The story could be tied back to reliquary and Aphrodite People afraid Morgan Madonna optional A Christ in right on top of lap of Virgin B king of the world C Mother sapientiae throne of wisdom Christ is wisdom of God mother is seed of Wisdom Christ looks like as if he is in the womb of Virgin Altarpiece some kind of work of art that goes on or behind an altar backdraw as priest goes up to the altar Taken away soon as mass was over until Gothic period Benedetto Antelami Italy 11801190 life size marble A Different folds deep excavated folds cutting of marble to separate draperies very different from Morgan Madonna TD sense of moving space B In a niche binds with architecture have to do w power of images iconoclasm South Portal of Saint Pierre A Prophet longitudinally stretched to t to the portal B Interlace pattern Cloister of Saint Pierre A Historiated Capitals Bernard Unnatural distracting costly B Voussoirs holds one another and channel the weight to big piers Pd lintel is not the only portion holding entire weight opening for Tympanum Art History 202 127 Class Notes Romanesque Period Romanesque named for style of Art for the rst time Presence of small kingdoms under large kingdoms Pilgrimage lead to Santiago de Compostela Reasons Veneration of sacred relics version of modern tourism reason for travel A form of continuing dream of unity of Europe Century and a half after 1000 Explosion of monumental building Fortress town Europe encounters huge revival of urban life Society were split into 3 sides Nobles Monks Farmers BUT as urbanization go on Merchants and artisans More ow of money ambition to build big churches Rise of New Style smooth repetition of arcade interrupted by the piers unlike Early Christian Churches v Open gallery on the 2nd floor added with alternation of columns and piers tribunes RL No more wooden roofs anking towers massive facade westwork Choir and apse pointed towards the East ChristJerusalem Can go through aisle from different door and go around the apse w chapels People can do private praying wout disturbance St Foy Conques France A Major westwork w double towers B Romanesque style fully developed series of arcades de ne bay compartment of the church Central Bay gives a high nave with barrel vaults C Weight of stone vaults lessened by cross section dividing weight into the piers and buttresses more complex D Can go around the aisle w out disturbing the mass held at apse E Windows in the gallery indirect light from the gallery mystical dimness in the higher and narrower space F Very tall column of apse Saints become point of veneration as an example of human being to live as Christians Competition regarding who has the biggest church Pride of the city Give a lot to God and God give back to the city Saint Sernin Toulouse France c 1070 1120 A Huge facade and soaring tower B Similar to Conques but little bigger and higher competition C Compound piers rounded forms like columns stuck onto the piers Columns heighten the sense of compartments and verticality by soaring right to the capitals D Groin vaults E 4 aisles chapels on transept more complex F Exterior of radiating chapel beginning to have sculptural sense of forms of architecture complex apse G Sculptural quality interior extra vaults and walls and aisles help counteract massive barrel vault Gothic clearing away tribunes as room spaces to allow more light to come into church Romanesque art of 11th amp 12 century in Europe Complexity of space groin vaults Recurrent desire to re attain the glory of Rome Ruins of Roman Bath complex Complex amp compartmentalized Cluny biggest church at that time Flying buttresses More and more chapels POINTED ARCHES Helps provoke new reform of Benedictine law Cistercian under Bernard de Clairvaux Simpli ed no carving shorter in height no tribune and clerestory Against oversized size n decoration especially in monastic cloister Road to SIMPLIFICATION San Miniato al Monte France A Marble in cream White pilasters Very different from Romanesque style Pantheon r illustrated in Westwork of San Miniato compartments in Windows and floor B Columns classicizing as Well C Resemblance of Greek Temples 4 columns supporting triangular roof D Compound piers and groin vaults seen Bapistry of San Giovanni Florence France A Believed as Roman architecture centralized building big arch colored marbles arch cutting pilasters B Christ as Pantokrator judge of the World launch pad to Romanesque sculpture Art History 202 211 Class Notes Gothic Christian Jewish and Islamic Society Europe 1100 constant warfare actions as allies Identi ed with your regioncountry ex Kingdom of France Holy Roman Empire etc church intervene why kill each other Crusade unifying Italians dislike Germanic style Gothic Goths Barbarians Gothic Maps Jerusalem in center with Christ on top with 2 Angels anking him Abbey Church of Saint Denis northern suburbs of Paris A Murderedbeheaded z carrying his head as miracle after he died his relics considered as foundation of relic in France Golden altar Gothic arches light ll in Rib vaults bigger windows with stained glass pointed arch Opening of walls windows stained glass lux nova symbol of divine intervention unearthly richness both metaphorically and literally like Byzantine Mosaics E Window very expensive devotion to God F Suger fascinated with stones ruby sapphire sense of getting lost by looking into the translucent Stained glass mimic colored stones 50 Increased Internationalism in Europe Islamic Architect picked up pointed arch Exchange between different culture feature of a lot of Islamic architecture Chartres Cathedral Chartres France Tripartite portal Christ in middle Figural sculptures in archivolts jambs with sculptures spread of sculptures Sculptures xed to the column to de ne the column Architecture come into life Jamb statue woman gothic smile gures assimilated not just squeezed and stretched to t but to look like a column like uting column of Greek E Figures everywhere in Gothic architecture almost haunted by gures Some demonic but mainly saint Notre Dame our lady Notion of mercy grace love of God Virgin great intercessor bc she is gentle and feminine will come in Last Judgment and Christ will listen to her bc he is her son COP Gothic architecture more feminine than Romanesque Jesus was our mother Jesus encompasses all of human emotions judgment and empathy Cathedral of Lyon Laon 2 big western towers but fortress aspect gone NK open gallery Pointed arch rib vault Huge stained glass window More light 2 clerestory has come back Triforium a lot more light Compound piers connecting to each of the rib TUFUUQPUF Heavy competition to build higher cathedrals in France Chartres A Arches almost round B Buttress more light skeletal C Lancet Windows D Stained glass in each of the Bay Window E Architectural parts shooting up illusion as if the roof is oating Scholasticism try to reconcile Christian veneration With Greek philosophy to contact With Muslims in the east Gothic architecture innovating technology mathematical logic Stained glass Wall is not penetrated but light comes through God coming into Virgin creating Christ Without sexual intercourse also evoked image of heaven Virgin and Child stained glass A Mary as Gentle mother gentle intercessor of Christ J amb from Reims A Becoming independent sculpture B Pose and form St Theodore A Like Modern Knight B Warrior class civilized spear chains but not terrifying young handsome chivalry good Christian C Naturalistic proportion of person D Contraposto shifts the Wei ght hips out natural not stiff 0 motion High Gothic P Late Gothic Late gothic Rayonnant amp Flamboyant High Gothic Cathedral of Amiens A Radiating Chapel big and high ying buttress glass B More intercession going on in Tympanum saints praying to Christ for mercy Beau Dieu Trumeau Christ is handsome lovely Welcoming not just last judge affective piety mysticism D Tremendously high much brighter and lighter interior E More glass Windows in triforium F Rose Window Whole Wall becoming glass G Buttress perforated Reims Cathedral A 2 symmetrical powers huge sculpted portals B Stained glass instead of tympanum Whole building dissolving C Kings gallery each put into niche D Virgin on Trumeau no mantle S young Gothic princess some problem too alluring humanization not only a distant heavenly gure but also beautiful lady E 4 jamb statues Annunciation Angel on left Gothic Smile lovely sense of Welcome Visitation Roman like subtle expression contraposto pose hair style Gothic Renaissance Saint Chappelle A Both tiny and Big reliquary and Palace chapel for King Louis looks like miniaturized chapel B Interior painted canopy painted with gold dots like a sky C Gold and stained glass wall dissolving like sacred place of Hagia Sophia Virgin of Paris early 14th century A Taller Gothic S curve B Lead eye to child blessing gesture replaced with pulling drapery acting like a baby humanization Lincoln Cathedral A Interior Lower shorter version of Chartres B Hop scotching vault system sexpartite vault Chapel of Henry XII A Fan vaulting so complex that they begin to hang down Cologne Cathedral A Speaks to stability building stood under bombing of WWII B Gothic competitive spirit 150 ft tall Death of Virgin tympanum of left doorway South Transept Strasbourg Cathedral A Emotions of face B Christ little sculpture to bless her soul C Virgin showed as beautiful young body Equestrian Portrait statue in the east choir Bamberg Cathedral Germany A Huge 8ft tall has canopy above him but he is also getting loose horse looks as if it will begin to move B Knight saddle gure of powerauthority cavalier C Facial expression about to speak aware of viewer s presence engagement w spectator Sense that clergy should be separated physically from laity J choir Ekkehard and Uta statues in the west choir Naumburg Cathedral 124955 A Corpulent Middle Age Knight individualized feature B Wife younger seemingly striking elegant pulls cloak around her engagement w viewer C Rimness of paint seen a lot of sculptures painted physical barrier between nave and Krumau Madonna c 13901400 from Bohemia A Sense of elegance B Drapery has taken life of its own waterfall of folds follow their own decorative pattern but not reveal body of Madonna C Fingers press into esh tenderness Virgin With the Dead Christ from Rhineland Germany c 13001325 painted Wood A Alter ego of Krumau Madonna sometimes put in pairs P horri ed and shocked think about suffering of Christ affective piety B Blood gushing holes from Cruci xion seen sense of agony Christ cruci ed but alive A Used for private devotion pray over it kiss it cry over it part of Whole rise of culture of intense private devotion B Nuns sleep With cruci ed Christ Nuns married With Christ Wanted to frame What Christ Went through Castle of Love Knights jousting 1230 A Hurling big buckets of roses courtly love B 2 knights joust War practice Win the tournament C Gothic culture modern concept of love man betters himself to be Worthy of lady civilize himself not like Beowulf D Ultimate lady to dedicate Virgin Mary lady give you buce of roses Jean Pucelle studied in Italy interest in space private piety book A Cultural marginalia serious not serious comments sometimes practical B Belleville Breviary funky stuff around the margin C Naturalism Celtic interlace telling story evolve from Celtic interlace Art History 202 Class Notes 223 14th century Italian Art Italy city states Italians proud of past Rome ruins ancient culture greater than anything Gothic Romanesque etc Renaissance revival of classicism between pre modern and modern Phenomenon of altarpiece bigger more elaborate paintings Nicolas of Pisano start of Renaissance A pulpit with sculpted gures on bottom reliefs 2 complex B Pisa French and Italy mixed triumphal arch Annunciation and Nativity Nicolas Pisano 1260 A Imperious face wavy hear heavy folds looking into local antiquity sarcophagi B 1260 start of Renaissance 1 full standing heroic male nude since end of Roman era almost round C Figure not proportioned bc classical statues were still under the ground at the time i W sarcophagi used Lion on shoulder identi cation as Hercules D Fortitude common symbol but always visualized as woman ppl didn t expect male nude Casting him as perfect gure E Pisa proud of classical virtue alliance with Fredrick II P bury pieces into Florentine land 2 radical power of image Santa Croce A Italian Gothic B Very simple wooden roof paintings Early Basilica cheap Franciscans emphasizes poverty churches should not be richly made C 18 chapels private chapel private mass Cimabue cruci x A Suffering Christ Byzantine type of image brought back bashing that it is all emotional occurred Italians used to stick with the all triumphant cruci x St Francis Sisley pray to cruci xion rich but pious affective piety hears the painting talk to him to repair the broken church Believe God talked through image P6 Family Feud p live as poor Picked up statue of Jesus came to life shows his closeness to otherworld amp Christ Unusual relationship w nature loved nature animals his brothers and sisters helped further desire for naturalization in art Wanted to feel what Christ suffered underwent stigmata Christ cruci ed with wings appear k Becomes saint fast wounds in hands amp feet Renaissance start with Cimabue develop with Giotto Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Saints A Jewish prophets who foretold the coming of Messiah under Virgin B Christ more natural seating soft expression Madonna almost smiles C Foot sticking out come out to viewer s space D Ornament robe with gold but reduced it focused on lighting instead Giotto Madonna Enthroned A Throne taking up space proto perspectival way B Madonna and Christ more volume more space re ect ancient sculpture worldly ruler C Throne lets you see through it Saints behind it certain holy gures blocked shocking but shows exploration of humanization D Virgin s mouth slightly open Christ s mouth about to open F them it s the artists who make this happen images begin to come in life for Giotto Decoration of Arena Chapel A Last Judgment reminder at the threshold of the church B Offering of Arena chapel to angel bankers giving back to church A Heaven C Mocking of rooms interest in space Figures interacting in space reaching through door Interest in Roman art heavy drapery D Kiss of Judas Betrayal of Jesus Judas s lip plucks as if he hates Christ Christ looks in an impassive way Christ nearly disappeared by having Judas reaching out with yellow robe Color of cowardness A gure in purple out of frame proto cinematic Giotto pro psychology and narrative feature that were viewed impossible by painting E Lamentation over the dead Christ varied gestures and expressions build to climax with St John throwing his arm out 2 gures showing their back subtle way of including us imagine on unimaginable grief 2 stage t to both uneducated crowd as well as educated viewer Sienna Rival with Florence Siena Cathedral A Zebra stripes Islamic in uence Duccio di Buoninsegna Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints Painted on back as well Artistic competition with Giotto Prayer for salvation as well as proud statement by Duccio Innocent shyness subtle way of having image response to what people were doing in front of it COP Christ washing feet Duccio A Emotional representation of Peter cannot believing B Foot coming out from frame probably John looking at the viewer image talking back would you let Christ wash your feet Annunciation polyptych Simon Martini A Gold sparkle B Virgin in fear pulling her garment as she hears Angel C Open mouth of angel speaking Birth of Christ A Gold diminished B Contemporary view of upper middle class house C Where is the clear symbolism divine beginning to bring divine down to earth Domestication of Art History 202 122 Class Notes Art of Migration Period Fibula things that held your cloak on People focused on creating small things like jewelry and books Purse cover A Cloisonne work technique in which strips of metals are welded onto metal base sticking up into the air P enables to put precious stones glass pastes white paint to cover the space B Abstract designs human oriented form Eagles attacking a duck take anthromorphic form zR Keltic People Kelt gain Christianity Church in wilderness not in center of cities Christian monks go there to retire nd peace Cross with circle keltic cross circular nature of life Not 100 sure Cross and Carpet page A Basic impression near Eastern carpet semi abstract intricate design No gure on it Cross with circle B As zooming in forms are visible eyes beaks PC interlace work C Organic forms but emmersed in abstraction D Gospels 4 Evangelists Gospel writers told narrative of life of Christ Other Christian books are more theological E Making of small books form of meditation or devotion Semi abstract interlacing design work of contemplation and honoring of the textsGospels partly abstract partly vegetal partly animal 2 Circle sun god son of god Circle halo of Cross Christ Cairo Yota Page A Beginning of one of the Gospels B Keltic interlace take over visual form C Triform D Angels on side head of Evangelists Figures don t stand out like Greco Roman Art E Remarkable text let themselves get lost in the intrication of design F Altarpiece focus of devotion Kelts probably opened up the book on altar Franks came from northern Germanic areas 8 spread through most of whats now France and Spain down to Italy Ruled under Charlemagne became kind of world power for a brief time critical for attempt to re unify Europe and ideals of bringing back Ancient Rome Saint Matthew Coronation Gospel Portrait Unlinear opposite to keltic emphasis on lies Body parts visible under robe wearing Toga New awareness of history Neo Classical style Ancient scroll COP Saint Matthew Ebbo Gospels A Curvy wined lines B Linear energy that characterize Keltic art contrasting to early Roman art Cruci xion front cover of Lindau Gospels A Youthful living Christ more than theological point part of cultural revival choosing to go C D Covered With gold and stones splendor of manuscripts in Carolingian time back to Early Christian approach rather than showing despair of Christ Hyper 3D stones set in legs that come up from cover lets light come through them and come back out Angels like gures on triumphal arches revival of neo classical taste Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne A Aachen San Vitale Centrifugal plan 1 monumental stone building since Ravenna K Equestrian image of gure on horse image of ruler on horse cultural and political statement Ravenna last great Roman Capital Charlemagne Want to bring all back Recover artistic style of Ancient Rome Looking part of Roman Empire that still lives on Justinian Plan of St Gall A B C Theoretically miniature city Two apses altars dual focused p Does not look like Ancient Rome but spacious Like Early Christian basilica revival of ancient Rome Art History 202 112 Class Note Early Christian Art Statue of Emperor Constantine placed in APSE of Roman Basilica Shifts from devote of Sun God to Son of God Christ Actively encourages Christian Worship and Supports building Churches in outskirts of Rome EX Saint Peter s Church 0 Building Church on outskirts wout tearing down the Pagan Architecture Pragmatic move to not have conflict with Christian and Romans SYMBOLIC built church over tomb of Saint Peter 0 Church of St Peter does not look like Roman Temple not much room for congregation StPeter holds 34000 ppl Borrowed architecture from Roman Basilicas Took out one of the apses and make it an entrance Clearstory to let light in Long hall 0 Atrium to Ancient Romans courtyard of private apse Christians are borrowing terms from Christian monumental structures when Christianity was not very well accepted by the Roman States 0 Why did Christian turn basilica Why not enter from the side Ans 1 Christians wanted the apse to be straightforward to look directly towards it from the start 2 Christian took some aspect of Roman state which was persession triumphal arch Christian religion about peace Roman about triumph Triumph to Christianity Triumph over death Christ portrayed more like an emperor in Apse of Basilica of St Peters Great St Mary splendid guilt decoration and mosaics on ceilings and walls Down under the windows early Christian mosaics evident Christian Mosaic tell a sort of narrative Santa Costanza Mausoleum monumental tomb shrine for Constantine s daughter Was it originally seen as Christian church or imperial shrine Different from St Peters Church centrifugal dome structure image of HEAVEN Look at center from ambulatory to walk around without entering the shrine area Sarcophagus Roman characteristics seen Mosaics on ambulatory mostly patterns Exception vines surrounding Christ Is it Christian Or Roman Bacchus God of wine Christians using Roman symbols to make building seem more appropriate 0 Panthium in Rome converted into church Dedicated to all of Gods Christians like the idea that Romans saw the gods as one universal god 0 Circle a perfect form to later Christians Geometric from with no beginning and endEvokes eternity God has to be personally lovingly equally person to everybody circle makes sense since center of circle is equal distance to all of the points 0 Century after Constantine s death a not good one for Rome Beginning of 5th century capital moved to Ravenna bc useful for defensive since surrounded by swamps O Mausoleum of Galla Placidia tiny seem like Chapel Meant to be a small place where small amount of ppl to go like a shrine Small windows Brick Shape of a CROSS Interior is splendid Mosaic of Lawrence burned on a grill Starry sky with cross in the center Symbol of Christ s death glori ed with gold 0 Disemblance Christian images should be different show Christ as lamb innocent creature slaughtered for no reason white innocence upset ppl s expectation and start to think about the connotation EX Cross in the starry sky 0 Christ as a good shepherd not carrying sheep Sits almost in throne amongst them Holds golden cross dressed in splendid golden robe with purple Imperial purple Young unbearded Roman interest in spacing and light and shade which is not seen in Byzantine O Mosaic distinct Christian art form Romans made Mosaics on floor using pieces of stones and arranged them Christians embraced and developed and used it up rather than floor Used little pieces of glass which was translucent and let light go through Durable much more expensive sense of splendid full of light Re ected light life of its own Material body but de materialized through light still gurative art but really distinguishes itself about another world world full of light Santa Appolinaris Nuovo Chapel of Emperor Theodoric Ostrogoth from Germany 0 Statue like images march down on top of the column along the nave 0 Scenes of life of Christ on top of statues Miracle of loaves and shes Mosaic about Christ 0 Completely Purple robe Hierarchical presentation in middle facing us with arms out 0 Narrative style taking 2nd stage showing Christ as son of God by borrowing Roman code Christ less and less Good Shepherd 0 Art completely about the gure less background Some of feet posture like hovering in the air Illuminated book Pgs Colored in imperial purple writing in silver Glitter in rich darkness Codex rather than long scrolls Each pgs individual like book Foliopage Abraham sees Rebecca as ance for Isaac Woman w breast import from Pagan Rome nymphs in ancient Rome were deity of springs Belief that nature is full of divine power Ivory carve Late Antique style Ivory expensive exotic material from Africa Used for Small carving box Cruci ed Christ Judas portrayed dead but Christ seems vivacious on the cross Christ is GOD Woman s arm visible under heavy Robe Roman tradition of the sculptures Woman sacri cing at an alter Last stand of Pagan religion on art Feet sticking out over the frame like stepping out to the viewer in uenced Renaissance artists Art History 202 17 Class Note 1 Constantine keeps Rome capital but makes East Capital Constantinople A Rome had 2 capitals 2 Making of visual art was prohibited within Jewish People A B Synagogue painted from bottom to top 2 Roman In uence Romans were in general relatively tolerant Jewish synagogue existing in Rome as long as people followed the imperial code 3 Christianity s Religious Dilemma Can we portray the god 4 Christianity as a Problem to Rome A Christians refused Roman Religion 5 Baptist Room A 7 F559 Had a bath tub cof n like place where it is lled with water People went in there to enter Christianity DEATH amp RESURRECTION Wash away the Sin Hidden from Public until becomes an of cial religion Iconography Christ as a Good Shepherd Two people Adam amp Eve Adam and Eve has innocence in beginning but Sin comes into the world God s perfect world broken Christ comes into repair the world Christ Carrying a Sheep portrayed in Pagean Form 6 Cubicula Latin word for room hollowed out underground for burialceremony A B C Christians believed in Burial as body bc when you come back to life you come back with your body BurningCremation was unacceptable Christians had to bury outside the town walls of Rome Catacombs are decorated rooms very similar to Roman vault paintings 1 Small gures and colors similar 11 Christianity version forms a shape of Cross III Christians believe that through the power of god Christ resurrected from being cruci ed and buried for 3 days Christians read Jewish Bible in early times I Jonah does not listen to God s order and Jonah heads to opposite direction God brings in a Storm Jonah convinces the ship crew to throw him overboard Jonah is eaten by a sea monster Jonah is spitted out in the beach 3 days later 11 People converting into Christianity come from many backgrounds polytheistic etc so Jonah becomes important because he pre shadows the Christ 111 Jonah portrayed naked Early Christians adapting Roman Art Legacy IV Adam and Eve Eat the apple suddenly realize they re naked psychological and emotional shame represented 7 Sarcophagus esh eater A B C Junius Bassus converts to Christianity and carves Christian stories instead of Greek Adam and Eve carved like Roman sculptures Eve almost as Venus Their faces facing the opposite symbol of inharmony Size of Sarcophagus illustrate the Ancient Pagean Art Bacchus God of wine I Spiritual intoxication II III IV Death and Rebirth Seasons through portrayal of Grape Vine People converting to Christianity understand Christ through their background Figures foreshadowing Christ Wine Christ s Sacri ce and Resurrection Christ makes a point that God brings harvest Wheat Separation of Wheat from Weed Art History 202 36 Class Notes Northern Italian Art Altarpiece A Narrative Altarpiece B Sparkling with gold more like Van Eyck Masaccio the Expulsion of Adam and Even from Garden of Eden A Humanized pays for sexual sin body tended to be shown as unideal but Masaccio return to idealism B Eve covering private parts ancient sculpture understanding of Greek Roman Sculpture viewed as educated artist intellectual status important Saint Peter Healing with his Shadow A Deep in the picture out to viewer s space not left to right B Peter and other disciples come out of the church confronted by people who had been crippled Peter walks by as his shadows passes the poor people they are miraculously healed Like watching a lm amp new desire of paint shadow Holy Trinity Masaccio A Vision of private chapel in virtual reality B Linear Perspective you approach the painting as if it extends the wall illusion C Revival of antiquity barrel vault straight out from Roman architecture D God the father holding his son with doveholy spirit holy trinity Mary looks out at viewer see my son E Skeleton text in Italian not Latin reminder of death F Mr Lindsay in reality ears pressed Fra Angelico San Macro Altarpiece A Altarpiece with one point linear perspective B Archaic painting of cruci xion C Alberti attacks golden background the powerful background cause the gures to sink back sacri cing the history of thousand years gold background like a painted cloth D Cosmos looks at the viewer and points to the Virgin proto cinematic left the work in a moment before icon E Deep landscape with garden gold background gone Masaccio of virtual reality F Vanishing point at womb of Virgin unlike Masaccio apparent realism q Mathematical calculation to direct you to certain point of painting Visual artists manual labor not as important Andrea Mantegna Dead Christ A Foreshortening shifted for religious point feel that you are right there at Christ s feet Mary Magdalene the viewer put in position of saint Ghiberti David Donatello A Looks like a girl Slight teenage thin guys before Michelangelo from biblical texts no one thought he could match Goliath David beloved one young beautiful adorable wins because he is the servant of God Donatello looks at classical statue of Donatello With thin sight build David Donatello Gattemalata A Statue on column pagan statue Sandro Botticelli Birth of Venus A First life size female nude since antiquity B Private for Medici Villa C Figure like ancient nymph brought back in life D Venus in form of Aphrodite and other ancient statue But she s also a chaste Venus appropriate for romantic love and beauty as Well as faithfulness and prudence E Dynamic hair ex of golden paint all through hair PetrarchLaura blonde ideal of beauty Was Woman With owing gold Painting based on knowledge of ancient but you also have modern sense of beauty Chest painting of manWoman s chest painting of Womanman s chest Theoretically people had not seen the nude of other gender before marriage This concept of nude is making its Way back to representation Looking at beautiful gures helped you to create beautiful offspring Art History 202 311 Class Notes High Renaissance Leonardo Da Vinci Sear vision of microcosm Nature plant human being Painter historian philosopher architect Look at something spiritual through science Madonna and Child with Saint Anne A B Altarpiece never nished Preparatory art sketch and change Last Supper Santa Maria delle Grazie Milan 149598 FUUQPUF F Experiment with painting to produce rich effect result terrible mess Symbolic perspective vanishing point at Christ s head Traditional gold halo gone Christ in middle of window gives his aura of light 4 groups of 3 4 elements 3 holy trinity Not just narrative Who s Judas makes you keep looking at the work Judas grasping bag reaching out towards bread Light strucks allof the apostles face except for Judas Metaphor Andrea de Castano Last Supper A B C Not much reaction in gures One person on our side of the table Judas Veining on marble over Judas had gone wild Mona Lisa Leonardo Da Vinci 150309 A B C Quality of Pictorial subtleness Dirty dirt not corrosive material afraid of damaging the painting But can t see any line Sfumato smoky quality of non linearity Atmospheric perspective dissolve into light Genre unlike Giovanna Tornabuoni by Domenico Ghirlandaio where the gure is portrayed sideways without eye contact courtly aristocratic Incredibly dressed hair quaffed Da Vinci 34 view from Roger Van der Weyden does not make eye contact Mona Lisa sees towards us eye contact little smile recognition No jewelry intimate portraiture Break with the tradition Art History Final Review Distinction with Roman and Classical say classical Flying Buttresses 0 g stained glass Stained glass dissolving of walls lux nova October Duc de Berry se interest in landscape as a subject matter Scenes of everyday life re ecting the use of the book Monasticism for an ordinary people Shadows interest in naturalism Castle Loof Michelangelo Ceiling of Sistine Chapel 150812 A Body echoing one another bringing of the divine to earth Humanism School of Athens A Plato and Aristotle Humanism Chapel of Henry VII A Fan vaults decorative not structural by English B Perpendicular Style started unlike previous horizontal style Groin vault vs Rib vault Jan Van Eyck Ghent Altarpiece A Polyptych popular Georgio Vasari Father of Art History wrote rst extensive biographies on artists Talked about rebirth myth of dark period of Medieval comes from Vasari Wrote about artists such as Cimabue He tended to incorporate artist s emotion with artworks parables not necessarily true stories Started the name Gothic No need to point out differences between artists Know difference between oil tempera fresco Affective piety having an active relationship with an image Idea that image has a power in that it can interact with you Active relationship with the god through the image St Francis To have virtual reality divine in worldly Usuruy lending money with loan considered immoral Q donate altarpiece Purgatory work off sin to go to Heaven Affect art friendlier images Medici creating private chapel amp Flamboyant vs Rayonnant A Rayonnant Stained Glass nearly dissolving into the walls B Flamboyant Gothic to the extreme hyper decorative church Cruci x Cimabue A Contrapposto B Emphasize his pain suffering Christ C Full Gold Halo D Mary and John the Evangelist Mourners Thematic Essay Adam and Eve Madonna and Child Lamentation Body Adam and Eve 39 facial expression Michelagelo Creation of Adam Humanistic Very Romantic harmony of the body because nothing has gone Wrong Relation much different in expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden Art History 202 311 Art History High Renaissance Rome Pope Julius II remarkable patron of art Claims to be the most powerful man in the world Excommunicated Italians and French and raises his army to ght them which is unheard of a pope Replace Rome in an epic scale He lets Raphael portray him this way A As old worried melancholic pensive B Taken name after Julius Caesar I am going to rebuild Rome as a world capital as a resurgent Christian Religion New Saint Peters Rome A immense church like public bath from caracara immense scale and centrality Square and Circle used B As if Roman Pantheon set on top of Roman Imperial vaulted structure Stanza della Segnatura A Wall of law and theology philosophy and portraiture everything comes together to serve God School of Athens Plato and Aristotle Like Ancient bath complex also like a new church that Bramante is designing Plato light points up philosophy about the soul Aristotle feet rm on the ground hand out in front of him politics Michelangelo brooding making a claim how artist is intellectual not manual FUUQPUF Michelangelo ceiling of Sistine Chapel Vatican City Rome Italy Like nothing before in Italian ceiling painting Dark blue with golden stars Giotto s arena chapel 14056 Had to take account curve of ceiling High acid colors used to be able to see from the floor under dim light God s great act of Creation to Sin Sides old testament prophets with sibyls of Greco Roman Myth Michelangelo able to win over the patronpope Message is simple style counts gt 3quot1 391U0P Sibyls Female sears of Greek and Roman Pagan religions similar to Jewish Libyan Sibyl A Twisty imperative of art making complex meaningful prophesying the coming of the Christ B Looking at the Christian altar visualization of how Siblyan prophesy is ful lling Christ adore the Messiah Expulsion of Adam and Eve Michelangelo ceiling of Sistine Chapel A Masaccio portrayal of Expulsion of Adam and Eve Heaviness Psychology Massive Drapery Serious intense expression Creation of Adam Michleangelo ceiling of Sistine Chapel A Two hands reaching spark of life hands almost touch coming from inventiveness from Leonardo Raphael Michelangelo A Joining of Old and New B Now We value the art but we don t decorate our architecture like Sistine Chapel Art History 202 34 Class Notes Fifteenth Century Northern Art October Limbourg Brothers A Peasants rise of landscape B Traces of footprints people going away from the scene narrative landscape becoming the scene C Shadows Self Portrait Van Eyck A Writing in frame B Very precise beard eyeballs Ghent Altarpiece A Polyptych hinged to have folding wings B Sculpture painted painting is the ultimate art C Moments of everyday life in great detail Still life D Oil paint E Adam and Eve like sculpture but come in life not idealized surreal F Crown like new form of stained glass in perspective give you feeling of depth of stone Capture all of effect of light sense of surface and depth Deposition Roger Van der Weyden A Figures squashed tightly where did the sense of space go B Box similar to northern sculptures gurated in the box sculpture still considered most sacred form of art in north keeping it like sculpture by using power of paint C Tears liquid translucent 3 sense of image as living thing Annunciation A New development of special illusionism B Wide eye stare of the man seeing the annunciation C Contemporary interior to 1420 30s divine in mundane D Joseph carpenter Konrad Witz Miraculous Draught of Fish A Reflection to show light and shadow B Landscape C Christ not casting reflection shadow as if he is pasted on the painting tension with Giotto s forcing the divine with the mundane rule Art History 202 Notes 18 Early Christian Art II Ravenna 1 A crumbling Empire A 380 Theodosius I Christianity as state religion B 391 ban against pagan worship C 394 Olympic Games symbol of classical world and values abolished D 404 Honorius moves the caital of his crumbling empire from Milan to Ravenna 2 Mosaics for a Martyr A B Cruciform cross shaped Mausoleum of Galla Placidia small cruciform structure with barrel vaulted arms and a tower at the crossing I Once thought to be Galla Placidia s tomb Successful fusion of the 2 basic Late Antique plans I Longitudinal used for Basilican churches II Central used primarily for baptisteries and mausoleums III Basilican plan with a vaulted or domed crossing 3 Christ as Good Shepherd A B C Mosaics Jesus sits among his ock haloed and robed in gold and purple 3D bulk and cast shadows Greco Roman illusionistic devices 1 Originally small beach pebbles set unaltered from their natural form and color 2 Tesserae tiny cut stone gave more flexibility 3 Color was placed not blended bright hard glittering texture in simpli ed pattern 4 Theodoric s palace church PCP 3 aisled basilica 9th century relics of saint Apollinaris were transferred Sant Apollinare Nuovo Nimbus Halo Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes I Jesus beardless imperial dress of purple n gold cross inscribed halo II Presence of almighty and power III Told the story with least number of ppl IV No precise background blue sky instead rock n bushes heavenly gold color 5 A city not of this world A Eastern Roman Empire stylistic change more rapid B Saints Onesiphoras and porphyries I Figures and architecture lost almost all substance II Formality of poses and priestly demeanor of the Thessalonki gures golden background became prominent features of Byzantine art III Saint George Dome naturalistic images of the pagan floor mosaic under the feet and of this world to oating images of celestial world high above the Christian s wondering gaze Luxury Arts Illuminated Manuscripts 1 2 The rst illustrated bibles A B Vienna Genesis pgs with ne calfskin dyed w rich purple Greek txt in silver I Illustration presents two episodes of the story within a single frame Rebecca and Eliezer at the well I Seminude female personi cation of a spring source of th well water reminder of the persistence of classical motifs and stylistic modes in Early Christian art Jesus Before Pilate A B C Rossano Gospels earliest preserved illuminated book that contains illustrations of the new testament Rosano artist harmonized the colors with the purple background Christ before Pilate Pilate asks the Jews to choose between Jesus and Barabbas Haloed Christ Ivory Carving 1 Christ s passion in ivory A B C Ivory carving luxury art much admired in the Early Christian period Suicide of Judas and Cruci xion of Christ Christ is not hung from the cross he is displayed on it a divine being with open eyes who has conquered death Muscular Artist who fashioned the ivory box helped establish the iconographical types for medieval narratives of Christ s life Ivory Carving in Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages A Greco Roman world admired ivory both for its beauty and bc of its exotic origin B Only highly skilled artisans capable of working in ivory tusks were hard and irregular in shape C Late antiquity ivory used for book covers boxes and chests diptychs pair of hinged tablets w wax layer on the inner sides for writing letters and other documents For ceremonial and of cial purpose marriage death etc Enduring Pagan Gods A Ivory plaque exhibits the endurance of pagan themes and patrons and of the classical style regardless of the rise of Constantine and ban of all religions but Christianity B Woman sacri cing at an altar right leaf of the Diptych of the Nicomachi and the Symmachi marriage or passing within a decade of two prominent male members of the two families I Processional friezes fo the Greek Parthenon and the Roman Ara pacis exempli ed favor of aesthetic ideals of the classical past C Great senatorial magnates of Rome who resisted the Christianity probably deliberately sustained the classical tradition D Rise of classical art to dominance in the Renaissance 2 sign of an end of the medieval world Conclusion on P 242 Gardner 1 volume Old testament popular since it was thought to be the pre gurations of the new testament Late Antique style suited to focus on spiritual world rather than natural world Art History 202 114 Reading Note Carolingian Art Charles the Great crowned by Pope Leo III at St Peter s Basilica in Rome United Europe and laid claim to revive glory of ancient Rome His era Carolingian period Equestrian statue of Theodoric and bronze statue of Justinian reminders of ancient Rome s glory and Christian emperors during the Middle Ages Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne or Charles the Bald from Metz France nith century Bronze originally gilt 9 12 high Louvre Paris Gardner I p310 A Emperor portrayed overly large that he not the horse is the center of attention B Sits rigidly uptight quiet dignity replaced the torsion of marcus Aurelius s body and bold gesture of his right arm C Wearing imperial robe rather than general s cloak although his sheathed sword visible D Imperial crown left hand holds globe symbol of dominion E Portrait proclaimed the renovation o fthe Roman Empire s power and trappings Charlemagne and his successors scholars place very high value on book They were admirer of learning arts classical culture Caroline miniscule compact easily written version of Latin script Coronation Gospels text written in gold letters on purple vellum Saint Matthew folio 15 recto o fthe Coronation Gospels Gardner I p311 Northumbrian painter deft illusionistic brushwork de ne massive drapery folds Color and modulation of light and shade used instead of line to create shapes Cross legged chair lectern saint s toga familiar Roman accessories Landscape background is classicizing frame lled with kind of acanthus leaves found in Roman 99 temple capitals and friezes Saint Matthew folio 18 verso of the Ebbo Gospels Gardner I p311 A May be an interpretation of an author portrait very similar to thte one of Coronation Gospels master used as a model Resembles in pose and brushwork technique B Replaced classical calm and solidity of Coronation Gospel w frenzy energy frail saint almost leaps under its impulse Matthew writes in frantic haste C Hair stands on end eyes wide open folds of drapery writhe and vibrate landscape behind him rears up alive D Even page s leaf border in motion E Matthew s face hands inkhorn pen book are focus of composition contrasts with St Matthew of Coronation Gospel w its even stress that no part of composition catch attention F Translation of classical prototype to new Carolingian vernacular merge of classical illusionism and North s linear tradition Utrecht Psalter book of pslams Artists illustrated each psalm w pen and ink drawing stretching across the entire width of the page Pslam 44 detail of foko 25 recto of the Utrecht Psalter Gardner I p312 A Plight of the oppressed Israelites B Where the Text says we are counted as sheep for slaughter artist drew in sheeps C Where the text says our soul is bowed down to the dust our belly cleaveth unto the earth the faithful grovel on the ground before a temple D Where the text says Awake why sleepest thouh O Lord depict the Lord anked by 6 pleading angles reclining in a canopied bed overlooking the slaughter below E Vivid animation similar to Saint Matthew of Ebbo Gospels and Utrecht Psalter F Earth heaves up around the gures tense bodies shoulders hunched heads thrust upward G Rapid sketchy techniques nervous vitality as Evangelists in Ebbo Gospels H Designed to evoke earlier artworks and to appear ancient Taste for sumptuously wrought and portable objects shown previously in the art of the early medieval warrior lords persisted under Charlemagne and his successors book covers made of gold and jewelsivory or pearls Gold and gems glori ed the Word of God but also evoked heavenly Jerusalem Cruci xion frong cover of the Lindau Gospels from Saint Gall Gardner 1 P 313 A Youthful Christ in Early Christian tradition is shown nailed to the cross surrounded by pearls and jewels B Statuesque open eyed gure rendered in repousse hammered or pressed relief reminds of unsuffering Christ of 5th century ivory casket from Italy C 4 angels personi cation of moon and sun above and crouching gures of Virgin Mary and St John vivacity and nervous energy of Utrecht Psalter gures D Highlights the stylistic diversity of early medieval art in Europe Yet translated gural style of Mediterranean prevails w classical tastes and imperial aspirations of Frankish emperors of Rome Architecture Charlemagne encouraged use of Roman building technique to reestablish the imperial past Innovations made in reinterpretation of earlier Christian sources fundamental to the subsequent development of northern European architecture Restored Plan of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne Gardner 1 P 313 A Resembles San Vitale B Aachen plan is simpler apse like extensions reaching from central octagon omitted may lack subtle sophistication of Byzantine building but gains geometric clarity C Two cylindrical towers w spiral staircases 1 step toward the great dual tower facades of churches in West from 10th century to present Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne Aachen Gardner 1 P313 A Floating quality of San Vitale converted into massive geometric form B Transition from Complex and subtle Byzantine prototype to building expressing robust strength and clear structural articulation foreshadow of Romansque C Palatine Chapel royal chapel Torhalle gate house Lorsch Germany Gardner 1 P 314 A Built as freestanding structure in the atrium of the monatic church distant relative to Arch of Constantine B Second story windows and anking towers follows more closely the esign of Roman city gates C Close copies of Composite capitals and framing of arcuated passageways by engaged columns inspired by Roman architecture D Decorative treatment of at wall surfaces w colored inlays of cream and pink stones imitates Roman opus reticulatum method of facing concrete walls w lozenge shaped bricks of stones to achieve netlike ornamental surface pattern E Columns supporting decorative stringcourse instead of full entablature 2nd level has no parallel in F G classical architecture Zig zag of ornamental moldings opus reticulatum of heXagons and triangles that form star shapes Steeply pitched timber roof indicates as northern building Monastery school of early Middle Ages as well as self suf cient communities and production centers Chematic plan for a monastery at Saint Gall Switzerland ca 819 Gardner I P 315 A B C Ideal plan Schematic plan for a Benedictine community arrangement of all buildings of a monastic community and was intended as a guid I the rebuilding of the Saint Gall monastery Fundamental purpose to separate the monks from the laity or nonclergy who also inhabited the community Church with cloister central core of community not unlike the Eaerly Christian atrium but situated to the side of church rather than in front of its main portal Cloister Reserved for monks alone provided peace and quiet necessary for contemplation regarded as earthly paradise removed from world at large Essential buildings around cloister dormitory refectory kitchen etc Other structures built around this central core of church and cloister Laid out using a module standard unit of two and a half feet systematic building up of plan parallels with Carolingian invention of division of books into chapters and subchapters Carolingian basilica followed Early Christian basilica but some modi ed the basilica plan to much more complex form Monastery at Saint Gall cont d Gardner I P 315 A B F Essentially a traditional basilica Addition of second apse on west end of building perhaps to accommodate additional altars and relics remained a feature of characteristic regional element of German churches until the 11th century Presence of transept Various parts of building related t one another by a geometric scheme that ties them together into a tight and cohesive unit Early Christian builders didn t care much about proportional relationships only of liturgical needs Equalizing width of nave and transept form a square where they cross used as unit of measurement for remainder of church plan Towers framing the end of church feature of many Carolingian basilicas towers enable to identify church from far distance Westwork of the abbey church Corvey Germany Gardner I P316 A B C D Westwork towers that were incorporated in the fabric of west end of the building creating a uni ed monumental facade Upper most parts 12th century additions distinguishable by the differing masonry technique 2nd oor two story chapel w an aisle and a gallery on 3 sides Chapel opned onto the nave and from it Emperor and his entourage could watch nd participate in the service below Westworks sometimes served as churches within churches housing a second altar for special celebration on major feast days Boy s choir stationed in westwork chapel participated from above in the services conducted in the church s nave Art History 202 Notes on Early Christian Art 1 Roman Empire Diverse Population A 3rd amp 4th century people started to reject the emperors polytheism in favor of monotheism Late Antique sculptures painting mosaics and buildings of the Jewish and Christian art produced under Roman Rule formed the foundation of the art and architecture of the middle Ages Dura Europos present day Syria A Called Europs by the Greeks Dura by the Romans B Pompeii of the desert C Included Shrines of polytheistic religions of the Mediterranean and Near East but also worship places for the monotheistic creeds of Judaism and Christinaity although neither was approved religion Synagogue Paintings A Extensive cycle of mural paintings depicting biblical themes B Paintings seem to defy the Bible s Second Commandment prohibiting the making of graven images C Jews of the Roman Empire did not worship idols as did their pagan contemporaries biblical stories appeared on the painted walls of synagogues and probably also in painted manuscripts no illustrated Bible of this period survives D God however never appears in the Dura paintings except as a hand emerging from the top of the framed panels E Dura murals are mostly devoid of action artist tell the stories through stylized gestures gures with expressionless features and lack both volume and shadow tend to stand in frontal rows This Late Antique style is characteristic of much pagan art during the 3 and 4th centuries F Dura painting of Samuel anointing David I Painter drew attention to Samuel by depicting him larger than all the rest 11 David is distinguished by the purple toga color associated with Roman Emperor Baptism in Old House A Wout the approval of the state Christian communities remained small and often attracted the most impoverished of the society Found the romise of afterlife appealing B Romans hated the Christians bc of 1 alien beliefs that god had been incarnated in the body of a man and the death and resurrection made possible the salvation and redemption of all 2 Christains refused to pay even token homage to the Roman State s of cial gods Catacombs and Funerary Art A Early Christian Art earliest preserved works with Christian subjects not the art of Christians at the time of Jesus 3rd and 4th centuries and found in catacombs B Christians had to be buried outside a city s walls on private property C After Christianity received of cial approval churches rose on the land above the catacombs so that pious could worship at the grave sites of some of the earliest Christian martyrs Painting A Jonah as a popoular gure in Early Christian painting and sculpture especially in funeral contexts B Honored as a pre guration a prophetic forerunner of Christ Jewish subjects in Christian Art A Many of rst Christians were converted Jews 10 11 12 13 B Old Testament as pre gurations of new Testament Christ and his Sheep A Orants praying gures make up a cross section of the Christian family seeking a heavenly afterlife B In the Christian motif sheep on Christ s shoulders is one of the lost sheep he has retrieved symbolizing a sinner who has strayed and been rescued C Prior to 4th century artist invariably represented Christ either as Good Shepherd of as a teacher Eventually with beard of a mature adult supplanting the yhouthful imagery of ost Early Christian portrayals of Christ Sculpture A Cof ns for the Faithful I Marble sarcophagi was favored by Christians who rejected cremation II Roman workshops often produced sarcophagi before knowing who would purchase them they added the portraits at the time of burial This underscores the universal appeal of the themes chosen III In the early centuries of Christianity baptism was usually delayed almost to the moment of death because it cleansed the Christian of all sin Constantine was one of the baptized A Convert s Sarcophagus A Junius Bassus Pagan converted to Christianity B Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus I New Testament ll the 10 niches Christ appearing in the center II Scene of Christ s heavenly triumph is situated above that of his earthly triumph III Cruci xion does not appear An Idol of Christ A Monumental sculpture became increasingly uncommon in the 4th century B Justin Martyr accused the pagans of worshipping statues as gods C Christians tended to suspect the freestanding statue linking with the fake gods of the pagans D Greco Roman experience still existed and converts of pagans still retained some of their classical values E Christ seated from Civita Latina attains hair like Apollo like youth and wears Roman tunic toga and sandals and holds an unopened scroll in his left hand F Monumental sculpture of Christian character was not signi cant in the history of art until the 12th century Architecture and Mosaics A Constantine convinced that the Christian god had guided him to victory over maxentius protected and advanced Christianity throughout the empire Also a rst major patron of Christian architecture B New Rome in the East Constantinople C Elaborate basilicas memorials and mausoleums built in Constantinople Bethlehem Jerusalem 14 Basilica to Church 15 A Classical temple could have been adapted only with great dif culty as a building that could accommodate large numbers of ppl in it but Roman basilica was ideally suited as a place for congregation B Had a wide nave w anking aisles and an apse at the end Inside an Early Church A Unlike pagan temples Old Saint Peter s was not adorned with lavish exterior sculptures C D 16 The A Had brick exterior walls Inside contained frescoes and mosaics marble columns grandiose chandeliers and gold and silver vessels on jeweled altar cloths for use in the Mass A huge marble baldacchino supported by four spiral colums marked the spot of Saint Peter s tomb Central Plan Central plan building s parts are of equal or almost equal dimensions around the center I Costanza in Rome built in the mid fourth century Possibly the mausoleum for Constantina the emperor Constantine s daughter II Interior design of the Roman buildings was modi ed to accommodate an ambulatory 17 Mosaic vineyard A B C 18 Abr A B Santa Costanza mosaic program also included pagan subjects along with old and new testament themes Christian thought of the wine of the Eucharist and blood of Christ when they saw the imagery of the Santa Costanza Christ as Sol Invictus Earliest known mosaic of explicitly Christian content aham and Lot Old Testament Themes are the focus of the extensive 5th century mosaic cycle in the nave of the basilican church of Saint Maria Maggiore in Rome Parting of Lot and Abraham I Lot leads his family and followers to the right toward the city of Sodom with his two daughters instrument of the evil evil choice II Abraham heads for Canaan with gure of the yet unborn Isaac the instrument of good standing before him good III Simpli ed motion characteristic of Late Antique narrative art of both pagan and Christian subject matter has great power to communicate without ambiguity IV Another century had to pass before Western Christian mosaicists portrayed gures entirely as at images rather than as plastic bodies nally rejecting the norms of classical art in favor of a style better suited for a focus on the spiritual instead of the natural world Art History 202 Notes 17 Late Empire Chapter 7 1 A civilization in Transition A By the time of Marcus Aurelius Roman power was beginning to erode B Marcus s son Commodus who succeeded his father was assassinated The Severans 193 235CE A An African rules the empire I African born general named Septimius Severus was master of the Roman world II His of cial portrait depict of his father Antonine III Severan family portrait the emperor s hair is gray revealed his advancing age Face of his son Geta was erased IV Caracalla after succeeded his father had his brother murdered and his memory damned The Nonclassical style takes root A Arch Septimius Severus gives no sense of rushing motion It has a stately stillness I Frontality and the oating gures were new to of cial Roman Art in Antonine and Severan times but both appeared long before in the private art of freed slaves II This new non naturalistic more abstract style is called the Late Antique Style Caracalla s Gigantic baths A Made of brick faced concrete and covered by enormous vaults springing from thick walls up to 140 ft high covered an area of almost 50 acres B Caladrium was a circular chamber so large that It seated hundreds of spectators to see Italian Opera C Had exercise courts giant swimming pool D 1600 bathers at time The soldier Emperors Aurelian defensive wall circuit for the capital a military necessity and a poignant commentary on the decay of Roman power Imperial soul portraits A Great quantities of coins were produced so that the troops could be paid with money stamped with the current emperor s portrait B Emotional content illustrated EX DTrajan Decius C Trebonianus Gallus Greek ideal of the inharmoniously proportioned body portrayed an image of brute force an image well suited to the era of the soldier emperors Barbanians and Mithras A By the 3 century burial of the dead had become so widespread B Chaotic scene of battle between Romans and one of the northern foes C Figures spread with no illusion of space behind them 2 shows the increasing dissatisfaction Late Roman artists felt with the classical style Philosophers and students A Wise Oman motif was used not only to portray the deceased but also Christ anked by his apostles A critique of the pantheon A Decline in respect for classical art also can be seen in architecture B Ignored classical styles 10 Diocletian and the Tetrachy A Artistss did not try to capture their individual appearance and personalities but sought to 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 instead to represent the nature of the tetrachy itself portray four equal partners in power 1 Right arms embrace one another 11 Emotionless faces III Idealism naturalism individualism and personality now old Diocletians fortress palace A Colonnaded court leading to the entrance to the imperial residence B Motif emphasize the design s central axis but symbolically became the gable of glori cation C Emperors huge domed tomb became popular and still is today Constantine A Constantinople was dedicated on May 11 330 B Baptized on deathbed in 337 C This period mark the beginning of the Middle Ages to many scholars D Constantinian Art is a mirror of this transtition from the classical to the medieval world he was patron of the city s rst churches including saint Peter s A new arch with old reliefs A Sculptors refashioned the second century reliefs to honor Constantine by recutting the heads of the earlier emperors with the features of the new ruler Also added labels to the old reliefs such as Fundator uietus bringer of peace and liberator Urbis liberator of the city on the arch 1 Serve as evidence of decline in creativity and technical skill in the waning years of the pagan roman empire B The approach to pictorial narrative was once characterized as a decline of form but was consistent with a new set of values compositions rigid formality determined by the rank of those portrayed Constantine s colossus A Constantine s victory brought an end to tetrarchic tradition as well as with the style of soldier emperors eternally youthful head of state Rome s new Basilica A Basilica Nova was the ideal solution to the problem of basilica design with its spacious well lit interior and economical re resistant concrete frame BUT the traditional basilica remained the norm for centuries Constantine in Germany A Triumphal arch semicircular apse Two faces of Constantine A Constantine right after his father s death 2 adopted the imagery of the tetrarchs thus seems to be older than the true age B At the defeat of MaXentius Constantine s portrait looks clean shaven and his actual 30 years of age Classical and Medieval A Dressed in armor wearing an ornate helmet carrying a shield bearing an emblem of Roman state Holds a cross crowned by an orb B Chi X rho P and iota I the initial letters of Christ s name in Greek C The coin like Constantinian art in general belongs to the classical and to the medieval world Art History 202 Notes 121 Romanesque Architecture Romanesque Roman like term to describe artistic phenomenon designates history and culture of western Europe between about 1050 and 1200 Christian millennium year relief that it did not brought end to the world Construction of churches became almost an obsession Pilgrims important resource of funding for monasteries that possessed relics of Venerated saints pilgrimages were primary economic and conceptual catalyst for the art and architecture of Romanesque period Widespread use of stone Vaults in 11th and 12th centuries churches inspired the term Romanesque but it was highly Varied and not always Vaulted Some retained wooden roofs of early Christian predecessors but almost all Romanesque buildings manifest new widely shared method of architectural thinking of logic of design and construction Relic bones and parts associated with holy gures thought to heal body and soul Pilgrimage act of repentance or as a last resort in their search for a cure for some physical disability Popularity of pilgrimages additional chapels longer and wider naVes and aisles transepts and ambulatories with Regional Diversity Saint Etienne Vi gnory France 0 Gardner 1 P 329 A Northern style of French Romanesque architecture large sawn blocks of stones to construct the walls but roofed with timber B Three story wooden roofed churches kinship with Ottonian era C Second story not true tribune but rather screen w alternationg piers and columns opening onto Very tall anking aisles D Ambulatory around the choir and 3 semicircular chapels openings onto it radiating chapels probably housed church s relics which faithful could View wout entering into choir with main altar E Introduction of stone sculpture into Romanesque ecclesaiastical architecture con ned to relief decoration of capitals of ambulatory and false tribunes where abstract and Vegetal ornament lions and other quadrupeds are the exclusive motifs F Romanesque sculptures appeared in Romanesque churches constructed w ashlar masonry two traditions closely allied Saint Philibert Tournus France Gardner 1 p330 A Example of southern tradition edi ces with brick or small bricklike blocks of stones and naVes and aisles covered with Vaults B Originally had a re prone timber roof like Saint Etienne masonry Vaults replaced wooden roof around 1060 C Cylindrical piers support barrel Vaults that run perpendicular to naVe s axis one in each bay separated by tranverse arches made possible the opening of clerestory windows at the ends of the Vaults providing ample illumination to the neaVe D Aisles almost as tall as naVes and covered by groin Vaults that help buttress the barrel Vaults Saint Sernin Toulouse France Gardner 1 P332 A Additional space for curious pilgrims worshippers and liturgical processions alike increased length of naves doubled the side aisles added a transept ambulatory and radiating chapels B Exterior two towers of western facade never completed and prominent crossing tower is largely Gothic and later C Extremely regular and geometrically precise crossing square anked by massive piers and marked off by heavy arches served as module for the entire church highly re ned realization of an idea rst seen in Carolingian architecture D Has tribunes over the inner aisle and opening onto the nave housed over ow crowds but also role in buttressing the continuous semicircular cutstone barrel vault that covers the nave E Groin vaults in the tribunes as well as in the ground oor aisles absorbed the pressure exerted by the barrel vault along the nave F Compound piers piers w columns or pilasters attached to their rectangular cores G Engaged columns rise from the bottom of the compound piers to the vault s springing lowest stone of an arch and continue across the nave as transverse arches nave seems to be composed of numerous identical vertical volumes of space placed one behind another creating orderly procession H Segmentation of nave also reflected in exterior walls where buttresses frame each bay rationally integrated scheme with repeated unites decorated and separated by moldings long future in later church architecture in the west crisply rational and Berno s successors Cluniak monks became famous for scholarship music and art elaborate monastic churches at Cluny Third Abbey Church Cluny France Gardner 1 P 333 A Largest church in Europe at the time B Innovative and in uential design Barrel vaulted nave four aisles radiating chapels three story nave elevation andn slightly pointed nave vaults C Long and tall nave epitomized the grandiose scale of new stone vaulted Romanesque church and was a symbol of power and prestige of Cluniac Order Many medieval monks especially of Cluniac Order construction of beautiful churches and the dedication of luxurious reliquaries were equated with piety although 1 of founding principle of monasticism rejection of worldly pleasures in favor of a life of contemplation White monks emphasized productive manual labor and their systematic farming techniques stimulated the agricultural transformation of Europe more than 500 Cistercian monasteries formed within a half century Cistercian s rejection of worldly extravagance and their emphasis on poverty labor and prayer are re ected in the austerity of their churches Abbey Church of Notre Dame Fontenay France 1139 1147 Gardner 1 P334 A Square east end wout an ambulatory of chapels B Walls devoid of ornament and column capitals are plain C Nave has single story elevation with neither clerestory nor gallery but light comes in through the large windows in the at east wall and bc the aisle bays have transverse barrel vaults like those in the Tournus nave D Pointed arches were used both in nave arcade and in barrel vault forward looking structural device permit later architect to increase height of nave dramatically 2 pointed arches transfer the thrust of the vaults more directly downward to the piers and require less buttressing on the sides Art History 202 Notes 119 Ottonian Art Charlemagne dies Ux con ict among songs p y empire divides ux confusion and Viking invasion Eastern part of Former empire consolidate under rule of new Saxon line of German emperor OTTONIANS p remained free from Viking depredations 0t preserved and enriched the culture and tradition of Carolingian period Christian churches recovered in 10th century by in uence of great monastic reform encouraged and sanctioned by Ottonians By early 11th century death of last of Ottoman line Henry II pagan marauders e Christianized and settled monastic reform successful Ottonian built basilican churches w towering spires and imposing westworks followed course of Carolingian predecessors Nave of the church of Saint Cyriakus Gernrode Germnay 961 973 Gardner 1 p 317 A Best preserved 10th century ottonian basilica B Centerpiece of a convent that Margrave Gero military governor founded on site in 961 C Enriched form of early Christian Basilica transept at the east w a square choir in front of the apse D Nave incorporates a gallery between the ground oor arcade and clerestory one of the 1 in the west E Alternate support system heavy square piers alternating w columns divide nave into vertical units and mitigating the tunnel like horizontality of Early Christian basilica verticalization Bishop Bernward of Hildesheim Germany one of great patrons of Ottoman art and architecture Builder of the abbey church of Saint Michael at Hildesheim Saint Michael s Hildesheim Germany 1001 1031 Gardnerl p318 A Double transept plan tower groupings and a westwork Two transepts create eastern and western centers of gravity Nave simply connecting them B Lateral entrances almost complete loss of the traditional basilican orientation toward the east C Modular approach 3 crossing squares long and one square wide Emphasized visually by placing heavy piers at the corners of each square p piers alternate w pairs of columns as wall supports in a design similar to Ottonian church at Gernrode Doors with relief panels commissioned by Bishop Bernward for Saint Michael s Gardner 1 P 319 A More than 16ft tall B Each was cast in a single piece w gural sculpture a technological tour de force of lost wax casting C 16 individual panels of the door may be compared to covers of Carolingian and Ottoman sculpture of small scale art D Door situated at entrance of church from cloister only monks could pass thru them E Left door highlights from biblical book of Genesis beginning w creation of Adam ending w murder of Adam and Eve s son Abel by his brother Cain F Right door recounts life of Christ starting with Annunciation and ending with appearance to Mary Magdalene of Christ after the Resurrection G Together doors tell story of Original Sin and ultimate redemption showing expulsion from Garden of Eden and path back to paradise through the Christian church H Old testament juxtaposed with New testament Ex fall of adam and eve with cruci xion on other door Eve nursing Cain is opposite Mary with Christ Child in her lap Composition of many of scenes on doors derives from Carolingian manuscript illumination style of gure has expressive strength that reminds Utrecht Psalter A Ex 4th panel from top on the left door God jabs his nger W force of his whole body towards Adam and Eve Adam pointing to Eve Eve pointing to serpent illustration of gestures and attitudes of rage accusation guilt and fear Sculptor presented story w simplicity yet great emotional impact as well as air for anecdotal detail Adam and Eve struggling to point w one arm while attempting to shield their bodies from sight with other newfound embarrassment at their nakedness and unconvincing denials of wrongdoing Lend credence to ottonian empire s claim to be heirs of Charlemagne s renovatio imperii Romani Column with reliefs illustrating the life of Christ Gardner 1 p 320 A B C D Lend credence to Ottonian Empire s claim to be the heirs to Charlamagne s renovatio imperii Tell story of Jesus in 24 scenes baptism told on church s doors Modeled after Column of Trajan in Rome Ottonian narrative unfolds from right to left instead of from left to right entry into Jerusalem missing episodes from story Romani Cruci x commissioned by Archbishop Gero for Cologne Cathedral Gardner 1 P321 A B C Revival of interest in monumental sculpture Both statue and reliquary shrine for sacred relics Crack developed in wood of Gero s cruci x but miraculously healed tales of miracles attached to sacred Christian objects Dramatically different conception of savior from cover of Lindau Gospels where youthful Christ is illustrated Bearded Christ of Cologne cruci x more akin to Byzantine representation of suffering Jesus but emotional power of Ottoman work is greater still Depicted Christ as an all too human martyr Blood streaks down from orehead eyelids closed painful face Christ body sags under own weight muscles stretched to limit Halo behind his head foretell hi subsequent Resurrection but worshiper can sense his pain Most powerful characterization of intense agony of the early middle ages Abbess Uta dedicating her codex to the Virgin Gardner 1 P 322 A B C D Inscription with dedicatory image Virgin Mother of God happy bc of the divine Child receive E Illustrates important role women could play both in religious life and a patrons of the arts during the early middle Ages Depicts Virgin Mary w Christ at her lapin central medallion Virgo Virginum Virgin of Virgins Mary model for Uta and Niedermunster s nuns the votive offerings of your Uta of ready service Uta full length gure presenting new book to Virgin Uta7s head touch the Virgin s medallion but not penetrate it illustrates interplay between but also separation of divine and human realms Annunciation to the Shepherds folio in the Lectionary of Henry 11 Gardner 1 P323 A Framed panel incorporates much that was at heart of classical tradition including rocky landscape setting with grazing animals common also in early Christian Art Golden background betrays knowledge of Byzantine book illumination and mosaic decoration however Angel looms immense above terri ed and startled shepherds lling golden sky bends on the a erce and menacing glance His hands gesture of authority and instruction Emphasis on power and majesty of God s authority Similar to electric force of God7s violent pointing in Hildesheim doors Otto III move court with its Byzantine rituals to Rome set up theoretically symbol and trappings of Roman imperialism Otto III enthroned folio 24 recto of the Gospel Book of Otto III Gardner 1 P324 A Emperor enthroned holding scepter and cross inscribed orb that represents his universal authority conforming to a Christian imperial iconographic tradition that went back to Constantine Clergy and barons both aligned in his support Stylistically remote from Byzantine at but still has clear political resemblance to Justinianic mosaic in San Vitale Non Romans Franks Anglo SaXons Vikings usually left small scale art but of costlymaterials expert worksmanship and sophisticated design Monasteries permanent centers of artistic culture in early Middle Ages there master painters illuminated liturgical books abstract and animal interlace forms of the natives forms fused with Christian iconography Charlemagne revival of interst in classical style and monumental architecture Romanesque Period denied imperial spirit but not the notion of Western Christendom Art History 202 112 Notes Art of the Migration Period EUROPE AFTER THE FALL OF ROME Early Medieval Art in the West 4001400 dying Roman Empire s adoption of Christianity as its of cial religion and the rebirth of interest in classical antiquity as the Dark Ages 1 Art of the early middle Ages to the half millennium from about 500 to 1000 A B Early medieval civilization in western Europe fusion of Christianity Greco Roman Heritage and cultures of the non Roman peoles north of the Alps Rise of the non Romans Barbarians replaced what had been the Roman Empire The Art of the Warrior Lords 1 Visigoths at one time controlled part of Italy and fromed a kingdom in what is today Southern France forced southward into Spain under pressure from the Franks 2 Ostrogoths moved from Pannonia to Italy Established kingdom there under Theodoric 3 Art and Status A B Art historians not know full range of art and architecture the non Romans produced Earlier scholars who viewed medieval art through a Renaissance lens rejected this period due to small scale utilitarian nature abstract ornament and rejection of classical idea that representation of organic nature as focus Pendants bracelets and belt buckles high degree of technical and stylistic sophistication at that time EX Beowulf Merovingian Fibulae A B Fibula decorative pin favored by the Romans Used to fasten the garments of men and women alike Made of bronze silver or gold decorated profusely with precious stones s Surface covered with decorative patterns adjusted carefully to the basic shape of the object they adorn describe and amplify its form and structure becoming an organic part of the object itself Zoomorphic elements integrated to abstract design almost unrecognizable Fish below center of each Fibula looped forms around the edges stylized with eagles heads w red garnets forming the eyes 4 A King s Final Voyage A Beowulf saga funeral of warrior lord Scyld rest in a ship set adrift in North Sea over owing with arms and armor and costly adornments B Treasure laden ship at Sutton Hoo gold belt buckle silver bowls silver plate w imperial stamp of Byzantine emperor Anastasius I 40 gold coins found C Two silver spoons inscribed Saulos and Paulos Allusion to Christianity Cloisonne A Purse cover B Cloisonne technique documented at least as early as the New Kingdom in Egypt favored by Medieval treasure givers C Metalworkers produced cloissone jewelry by soldering small metal strips or cloisons edge up metal background then lling the compartments w semiprecious stones pieces of colored glassor glass paste red to resemble sparkling jewels D 4 symmetrically arranged groups of gures make up the lower row The end groups consist of a man between two beasts Faces front and they appear in pro le I Venerable heritage in ancient world II Pictorial parallel to the epic sgas of the era in which heroes like Beowulf battle and conquer horri c monsters E Two center groups represent eagle attacking ducks gures t together like single dense abstract design 2 man animals motif F 3 geometric designs above the gure interlace pattern turning into animal patterns G Elaborate interlace pattern Art of the Islamic World But combination of interlace with animal gures was uncommon outide the realm of the early medieval warlords Metalcraft w vocabulary of interlace patterns and other motifs in animal form Art of Early Middle Ages in the West Colorful effects of jewelry designs imitated in painted decorations of manuscripts stone sculpture masonry of churches and in sculpture in wood especially important medium of Viking Art 5 Pirates of the North A Vikings destroyed Christian monastic community terror of western Europe B Colonize lands they occupied by conquest Irland England france Baltic Regions Russia 6 Burial in a Viking Ship A Great wooden ships with jewerlys for burial Animal Head post from the Viking Ship burial Oseberg P304 Gardner A Follow prow s gracefully curving lines epress dynamic energy B Head combines w roaring image of beast C Oseberg animal head powerfully epressive example of union of 2 fundamenetal motifs of the art of the warrior lords on northern frontier of former Roman Empire ANIMAL FORM and the INTERLACE PATTERN By 11th century much of Scandinavia become Christian but Viking artistic traditions persisted Wooden portal of he stave Church at Urnes Norway ca 1050 1070 A Animal forms interwine with exible palnt stalks and tendrils in spiraling rhythm B Effect of natural growth yet highly abstract C Urnes Style culmination of 3 centuries of Viking inventiveness 7 Medieval Books A Books played central role in medieval Christian Church development of large umber of specialized types for priets monks nuns laypersons B Primary sacred Text Bible Old tesetament Christian New Testament C Bible very expensive biblical books gathered in separate volumes I Pentateuch 0 contain 1 5 books of Old Tetament II Canon tables matching of corresponding passages of 4 Gospels III Psalters contained 150 pslams of King David IV Lectionary passages from the Gospels reordered to appear in sequence they were red during celebration of Mass throughout liturgical year V Breviaries contained texts required for daily recitation of monks VI Sacramentaries used by priests n incorporate prayers they recited during Mass VII Benedictionas contained bishop s blessings HIBERNO SAXON ART 1 432 St Patrick establish church in Ireland Christianization of Celts A Developed form of monastic organization different from church of Rome due to isolated location B Irish and Anglo Saxon missionaries journeyed through Europe establish great monasteries in Italy Switzerland Germany Low countries France Hiberno Saxon Books style art historians designate to denote the Irish English Islands where it was produced ourished within the monasteries of British Isles Distinctive Product illuminated manuscripts of Christian Church brought word of god to illiterate population Books scarce and housed in libraries and scriptoria writing studio of monasteriesmajor churches MOST important extant monuments of brilliant artistic culture Book of Durrow one of earliest hiberno Saxon illuminated manuscripts A Full pgs devoted neither to text nor to illustration but to pure embellishment B Carpet pages resembling textiles made up of decorative panels of abstract and zoomorphic form C Initial letter of important passage of sacred text enlarged and transformed into pattern This style has no precedent in classical art D Each of the 4 Gospels book has carpet page facing a page dedicated to the symbol of the Evangelist who wrote that Gospel framed by an elaborate interlace border served to highlight major divisions of text for liturgical use Man Symbol of Saint Matthew folio 21 verso of the Book of Durrow P306 Gardner I A B C Man winged schematic frontal head and two pro le feet only features of human Rest of body enveloped by abstract design cloak resemble cloisonn decoration of contemporary belt buckles brooches and purse ornaments Book of Durrow weds abstraction of early medieval personal adornment w Early Christian pictorial imagery Cross and Carpet page folio 26 verso of Lindisfarne Gospels P 307 Gardner I A B C Shows marriage between Christian imagery and animal interlace style of North Lindisfarne Gospels written for God and Saint Cuthbert Patterning and detail of Lindisfarne ornamental page more intricate and compact than those of the Book of Durrow Serpentine interlacement of animals devour each other curling over and return on their writhing elastic shapes Rhythm of expanding and contracting vivid effect of motion and change But held in check by the regularity of design and dominating motif of inscribed cross All important symbol of the imported religion stabilize the rhythm of serpentines heighten effect of motion Motifs in symmetry inversions reversas repetitions Color rich yet cool zoomorphic form intermingle with clusters and knots of line Adjusted shape and color to achieve smooth and perfectly even surface Saint Matthew folio 25 verso of the Lindisfarne Gospels P 307 Gardner I A B Exception of usual depiction that illuminator s concern was abstract design not Natural World Model one of the illustrated Gospel books a Christian Missionary brought from Italy to England C Author portraits faiiar feature of Greek and Latin books representation of eated philosophers or poets writing or reading abound in ancient art D Follow long tradition of Mediterranean manuscript illumination 1 Matthew composing his account of the life of Christ 2 Curtain sign of indoor as in classical art Evangelist s seat angled Meditrerranean model employing classical perspective 3 Painter labeled Matthew in Greek and Latin prestige of two classical language Former language of New Testament Latter the Church of Rome 4 Matthew accompanied by his symbol the winged man Figure behind curtain Moses holding Old Testament contrast to Matthew Common juxtaposition in medieval Christian art and thought U1 Lindisfarne illuminator conceived his subject in terms of line and color exclusively A In Hiberno Saxon manuscript drapery folds are series of sharp regularly spaced curving lines lled with at colors Linear idiom of northern art 2 vivid new vision of the Evangelist Book of Kells greatest achievement of Hiberno Saxon art to modern observers A most decorated of the Insular Gospel Books decorated either at Iona or closely related Irish monastery B Unprecedented number of illuminations Chi rho iota page folio 34 recto of the Book of Kells P308 Gardner I A Nativity of jesus in the Gospel of Saint Matthew 1 Initial letter of Christ in Greek XPI occupy nearly entire pg But 2 words autem and generatio appear at lower right Together read Now this is how the birth of Christ came about A corresponds to opening of Matthew s Gospel read on Christmas Day 2 Transformation of holy words into abstract design recall Celtic and Anglo Saxon metalwork 3 Cloisonne like interlace not purely abstract pattern however EX letter rho ends in a male head and animals are at its base to the left of h generatio Half gures of angggels appeeearrr to left of chim accompanying monogram as if Christ himself CLOSE OBSERVATION REVEAL HUMAN AND ANIMAL High Crosses erected between 8th and 10th centuries on exceptional in mass and scale compared to small and portable works of early Middle Ages Art Some on burial ground some unattached to any architectural fabric Imposing unity weight presence of BOTH building and Statue ARCHITECTURE and SCULPTURE combined High Cross of Muiredach Monasterboice Ireland P309 Gardner I A One of largest and nest Irish Crosses B Inscription on bottom of west face of shaft asks a prayer for a man named Muiredach identi ed as in uential Irish cleric who headed one of Ireland s oldest monastery Cross probably marked abbot s grave C Circle intersecting cross identify type as Celtic Early high crosses abstract designs especially the familiar interlace pattern Later crosses like Muiredach s have gured panels w scenes from life of Christ or fantastic animals or events from life of Celtic saint D Center of west side of Muiredach s cross depiction of Cruci ed Christ E On East side risen Christ stands as judge of the world the hope of the dead F Below Christ souls of dead being Weighed on scales theme that sculptors of 12th century church portals took up W extraordinary force the lintel below Tympanum s theme and composition recall Byzantine representations of the Theotokos as well as Romanesque Throne of Wisdom Mary s prominence on Chartres facade has no parallel in decoration of Romanesque church portals designers gave her central role in sculptural program a position she maintained in Gothic period She stood compassionately between the last judge and horrors of Hell interceding for all her faithful Worshipers in later 12th and 13th century sang hymns to Mary put her image everywhere soldiers carried into battle on banners etc Christian knight dedicated his life to her Severity of Romanesque themes stressing the last judgment yielded to gentleness of Gothic Art in which Mary is the kindly Queen of Heaven Christ Ascension tympanum of left portal Archivolts signs of zodiac and scenes of various labors of the months of the year symbol of cosmic and earthly worlds The Second Coming central tympanum Signs of 4 Evangelists 24 elders of the Apocalypse 12 Apostles appear around Christ or on lintel Second Coming last judgment theme still central importance but theme became symbol of salvation rather than damnation Old Testament kings and queen jamb statues Gardner I P 364 A Royal ancestors of Christ and support the new Testament gures above the doorways Wear 12th century clothes and medieval kings and queens of France symbols of secular as well as of biblical authority Figure stand rigidly upright w elbows held close against their hips Linear folds of garments inherited from Romanesque style and elongated proportions generally echo vertical lines of columns behind them First signs of new naturalism stand out from the plane of the wall 3D volumes so gures move into space of observers Kindly face instead of Romanesque style Personalization of appearance began that was transformed rst into idealized portraits of the perfect Christian and nally by 1400 into the portraiture of speci c individuals sculptors of Royal Portal statues initiated an era of artistic concern w personality and individuality West facade of Laon Cathedrral Laon France Gardner I p 365 Interior of laon Cathedral Gardner I P 365 A Provides a comprehensive picture of French church architecture of the second half of the 12th century Combined Romanesque features with rib vault resting on pointed arches essential element of Early Gothic architecture Romanesque features nave bays w large seXpartite rib vaults anked by two small groin vaulted squares in each aisle Vaulting system and vaulted gallery above the aisles are derived from Norman Romanesque churches such as Saint Etienne at Caen enjoyed great prestige in northern France throughout 12th century Triforium band of arcades below the clerestory new feature found in Laon interior Triforium occupies space corresponding to the exterior strip of wall covered by the sloping timber roof above the galleries Insertion of triforium into Romanesque 3 story nave wall elevation growing desire to breakup and eliminate all continuous wall surfaces New horizontal on produced the characteristic 4 story Early Gothic interior elevation nave arcade vaulted gallery triforium and clerestory with single lancets Alternate support system of Caen and other Romanesque churches employed In nave arcade compound piers alternate with simple piers In the gallery and triforium bundles of 3 and 5 shafts alternate in framing the aisle bays Laon designer moved away from the compartmentalized effect of Romanesque interiors which tends to make visitors pause as they advance from unit to unit Gothic architects aimed to create a uni ed interior space that sweeps uninterruptedly from west to east H Level crowns of successive nave vaults made possible by pointed arches enhance this longitudinal continuity West facade signals more departure from Romanesque style Deeper penetration of the wall mass in the later building rather than typical gothic style of huge central rose window deep porches in front of the doorways and open structure of the towers Operating principle reduce sheer mass and replace with intricately framed voids Paris intellectual capital of Gothic Europe Gothic art and architecture shared with Scholasticism an insistence on systematic design and procedure both sought stable coherent consistent and structurally intelligible solutions Nave elevations of four French Gothic Cathederals Gardner 1 P 366 A Compares Laon nave elevation with those of another 4 story Early Gothic Cathedral and two three story high Gothic cathedrals Notre Dame Paris France Gardner 1 P 366 A B C Replaced large Merovingian basilica Choir and transept completed by 1182 Nave by 1225 Facade not untili 125060 complicated history Stained glass oculi opened up the wall below the clerestory lancets PW were now lled by windows further reducing the masonry area Flying buttresses exterior arches that spring from lower roofs over the aisles and ambulatory and counter the outward thrust of the nave vaults Have been employed as early as 1150 in smaller churches but at Notre Dame they circle a great urban cathedral Internal quadrant arches beneath aisle roofs at Durham similar function precedent of exposed Gothic ying buttresses Combination of precisely positioned ying buttresses and rib vaults w pointed arches towering naves w huge windows lled w stained glass two of the four stories Recovering burned churches during Middle Ages required money Money raised from collections and public contributions not always voluntary and construction took long years Revolts occurred for heavier tax burden stormed bishop s residence and drove him into exile for 4 years Art History Notes 128 Gothic Architecture and Sculpture II Plan of Chartres Cathedral Chartres France as rebuilt after 1194 Gardner I P 369 Interior of Chartres Cathedral Chartres France begun 1194 Gardner I P 369 E F First High Gothic building Crypt housed most precious relic the mantle of the Virgin Rectangular nave bays replaced square bays w seXpartite vaults and alternate support system rectangular unit in the nave anked by a single square in each side rather than two 2 High Gothic norm Change in vault design abandonment of alternate support system uni cation of interior High Gothic architect aligned identical units so that viewers saw them in too rapid a sequence to perceive them as individual volumes of space nave became vast continuous hall Flying buttresses made possible to eliminate the tribune above the aisle New High Gothic tripartite nave election arcade triforium clerestory w enlarged windows Stained glass not meant to illuminate the interior but to transform natural light into Suger s mystical l1lX nova Light God glass replacing the wall Virgin and Child and angels window in the choir of Chartres Gardner I P 370 A Virgin Mary enthroned w Christ Child in her lap at center Mary represented as beautiful young rather worldly Queen of Heaven Haloed crowned and accompanied by dove of the Holy Spirit Frontal composition traditional Highlights greater severity and aloofness of the Byzantine image but also light re ecting image vs light ltering stained glass Gothic and Byzantine builders used light to transform material into spiritual but in opposite ways Rose window and lancets north transept Chartres Cathedral Gardner I P 371 A B Royal motifs of yellow castles on a red ground and yellow eurs de lis three petaled iris owers on a blue ground ll 8 narrow windoews in the rose s lower spandrels Enthroned Virgin and Child appear in roundel at center of the rose which resembles a gem studded book cover or cloisonn brooch 4 Doves and 8 angels around her 12 Square panels Old Testament kings David and Solomon Isaiah narrative scenes in stained glass Rose and lancets change in hue and intensity w the hours turning solid architecture Q oating vision of celestial heavens Subtraction of all super uous material bulk just short of destabilizing the structure Saints Martin Jerome and Gregory jamb statues Gardner I P 373 A B C The saints communicate quietly like waiting dignitaries Turn slightly toward and away from each other breaking rigid lines that x the gures immovably Drapery folds not stiff and shallow vertical accents Individualized features of face clothed in period s liturgical costumes comparison of the gures as persons Personality makes real difference Saint Theodore jamb statue Porch of the Martyrs Gardner I P 373 A B Ideal Christian knight and clothed him in cloak and chain mail armor of Gothic Crusaders Handsome long haired youth His head turned to left and his hip on to the right revolution Classical Greek Statuary Second Classical Virgin and Child Notre Dame Paris France early 14th century Gardner 1 P 378 A Mary as worldly queen decked out in royal garments and wearing heavy gem encrusted crown Christ child equally richly attired prince Tender anecdotal characterization further humanization of the portrayal of religious gures in Gothic sculpture Gothic S curve arti cial form a decorative device that produced desired effect of elegance but had nothing to do W body structure Ornamental line w exible fabric complex tracery of Late Gothic Style in architecture West facade of Saint Maclou Rouen France ca 15001514 Gardner I P 379 Rayonant architecture P F Flamboyant style 5 portals bend outward in an arc Ornate gables crown the doorway pierced through and lled with wiry ickering Flamboyant tracery made up of curves and counter curves that form brittle decorative webs and mask the building s structure Transparency of the pinnacles over the doorways central rose window and ying buttresses way back from the facade visible Overlapping of all features pierced as they are confuses structural lines W complexity of views 2 hallmark of amboyant style bewildering Aerial view of the forti ed town of Carcassonne France Gardner 1 P 380 A B C D Visigothic walls dating from 6th century Battlements low parapets with crenellations composed of alternating solid merlons and open crenels protected guards patrolling the stone ring surrounding the town Forti ed castle with massive attached keep secure place for last refuge Carsonne PS once familiar sight in Gothic France a tightly contained complex of castle cathedral and town within towered walls Hall of the cloth guild Bruges Netherlands begun 1230 Gardner I P 380 A B C Forceful reminder of the important role of artisans and merchants in Gothic Europe monumental meeting hall and warehouses for guilds Design combines features of military watch towers w crenellations and church lancet windows w crowning oculi Lofty towers common feature of late medieval guild and town halls and intended to compete for attention and prestige w the towers of city cathedrals House of Jacques Coeur Bourges France 14431451 Gardner 1 P 381 A B C Style of change from Romanesque 0r Broad facade tall central section w a very steep pyramidal roof spire capped tower w Flamboyant tracery a large pointed arch stained glass window and two doorways Pair of false windows w life size relief sculptures of a male and a female servant looking down upon passerby in the street Both a splendid example of Late Gothic Architecture and a monumental symbol of the period s new secular spirit expression of the triumph of city culture capital accumulation desire for worldly convenience and proud display Gothic architecture depended on local preference Aerial view of Salisbury Cathedral Salisbury Gardner 1 P 387 Interior of Salisbury Cathedral Salisbury Gardner 1 P 387 Embodies essential characteristics of Gothic Architecture Facade has lancet windows blind arcades w pointed arches and statuary but striking contrast to A B French designs English facade is squat screen in front of nave soaring height of French Delicate alabaster and Purbeck marble gables buttresses and pinnacles English manner Ogee arches Late Gothic Art form Tombs compared With reliquaries shrine like frame and the church setting transform the deceased y kind of saintly relic Worthy of Veneration Giotto di Bondone Madonna Enthrhoned ca 1310 Gardner II P 408 A B C D Sculptural solidity and weight Madonna rests within her Gothic throne with stability of an ancient marble goddess Sturdy queenly mother bodily of this world even to the swelling of her bosom contrasting to Cimabue s slender Virgin Give illusion that gures could throw shadows Figure breaks away from the at ground to project and enclose her Interior of the Arena Chapel Padula Italy 1305 1306 Gardner II P 409 A B Entire building seems to have been designed to provide Giotto w as much at surface as possible Imitation marble veneer reminiscent of ancient Roman decoration alternates with the Virtues and Vices painted in grisaille to resemble sculpture Climatic event of cycle of human salvation Last Judgment covers most of the west wall above the chapel s entrance Blue azure sky symbolic of Heaven dotted with golden stars and medallions bearing images of Christ Mary and various prophets Color blue also used in background of narrative scenes unifying agent and renders scenes more realistic Reconciliation of constructing the illusion of a body and constructing the illusion of a space suf ciently ample to contain that body Giotto Di Bondone Lamentation Arena Chapel Padua Italy ca 1305 A B C Stately slow moving actors present their dramas convincingly and with great restraint Mary cradles her son s body Mary Magdalene looks solemnly at wounds Saitn John the Evangelist throws his arms back dramatically Ledge provides rm visual support for the gures and the steep slope indicates the picture s dramatic focal point at the lower left Figures are sculpturesque simple and weighty but this mass did not preclude motion and emotion Postures and gestures convey a broad spectrum of grief Combination of compositional complexity and emotional resonance not achieved before Arrangement of groups important ex gures seen from the back remote from Byzantine style emphasize foreground amp reinforce the sense of stagecraft as model of painting Stagelike settings made possible by innovation in perspective and lighting suited perfectly the dramatic narrative the Franciscans emphasized then as a principal method for educating the faithful in their religions Art History 202 Reading Note 122 Romanesque Sculpture and Metal Work Rainer of Huy baptism of Christ Gardner 1 P 347 A Bronze basin rests on the foreparts of a dozen oxen reference to the molten sea on twelve oxen cast in bronze for King Solomon s temple B Old Testament story thought to pre gure Christ s baptism oxen12 Apostles C Classicizing style gures softly rounded w idealized bodies and faces and heavy clinging draper D One gure shown in 34 view from rear popular motif in classical art E Some gure like Christ is naked classical spirit lived on both north and south of the Alps in Romanesque Art Avoidance of anything that might be construed as an idol was still the rule in keeping with the Second Commandment Ln freestanding statues of Christ Virgin Mary and saints were still rare e veneration of relics W demand of small scale images of holy images of family and saints began to be produced in great numbers Virgin and Child from the Auvergne France second half of 12th century Gardner 1 P 348 A Morgan Madonna named bc belonged to nancier and collector J Pierpont Morgan B Throne of Wisdom western European freestanding version of Byzantine Theotokos theme popular in icons and mosaics C Christ holds bible in left hand raises his right arm in blessing D Mother seated on wooden chair throne of wisdom bc her lap is Christ Child s throne E Like Byzantine art both mother and Child sit rigidly upright and are strictly frontal emotionless gures but intimate scale gesture of benediction once bright coloring of garments and soft modeling of Virgin s face makes it remote to Byzantine Head reliquary of Saint Alexander from Stavelot Abbey Gardner 1 P 349 A Made in 1145 for Abbot Wibald of Stavelot in Belgium to house the hallowed pope s relics B Idealized head resembles portraits of youthful Roman emperors such as Augustus and Constantine almost life size and was fashioned in beaten silver w bronze gilding for the hair C Jewels and enamel plaques around neck also on box on which the head is mounted D Reliquary rests on 4 bronze dragons mythical animals that populated Romanesque cloister capitals E Central plaque Pope Alexander 11 Saints Eventius and Theodolus ank him 9 plaques on other sides female allegorical gures Wisdom Piety and Humility among them F Reliquary based on Byzantine underscores multiple sources of Romanesque art as well as its stylistic diversity people journeyed extensively during Romanesque period Conclusion Death of last ottonian Emperor S monasteries became greatest patrons of art and architecture Immense churches w stone vaults didactic relief sculptures adorned church portals and cloisters relics of saints housed in gold and silver and enamel reliquaries Cistercians shunned elaborate chuches desgined to accommodated multitudes of pilgrims banned gural adornment in their sacred books 2 not everyone embraced new artistic trends Each region had characteristic style but revival of monumental architecture and sculpture was Europe wide Art History 202 Notes 122 Romanesque Sculpture Stone Sculpture Revived stone sculpture disappeared from art of western Europe during early Middle Ages inspiration came from abundant remains of ancient statues and reliefs Sculptural motifs and compositions often originated in Carolingian and Ottoman ivory carving metalwork and manuscript illumination But Roman sculptures also provided a powerful spur to the imaginations of Romanesque patrons and artists alike Cloister of Saint Pierre Moissac France ca1100 1115 Gardner 1 P34O A Cloister connotes being shut away from the world Vita Contemplativa B Large gural reliefs on piers as well as historiated capitals on the columns Pier relief Twelve Apostles and rst Cluniac abbot of Moissac Durandus who was buried in the cloister C 76 capitals variously decorated some abstract pattern many with biblical scenes or lives of saints others with fantastic monsters of all sorts basilisk grif ns lizards etc bestiaries very popular in Romanesque age D Monstrous forms reminder of chaos and deformity without God s order Medieval artists delighted in inventing composite beasts w multiple heads and other fantastic creations Church decided to display Christian symbols and stories throughout their churches by stone carving rather than painting or mosaic to reach the large illiterate audience into worship Bernardus Gelduinus Christ in Majesty Gardner 1 P 341 A Christ sits in mandorla right hand raised in blessing left hand resting on book inscribed with the words PaX vobis peace be unto you B Four Evangelists at corners C Polished marblehas gloss of both materials sharply incised lines and ornamentation of Christs aureole characteristic of pre Romanesque metalwork Carolingian or Ottonian work in metal or ivory book cover Facade of Modena Cathedral represents scenes from Genesis set against an architectural backdrop of a type common on Late Roman and Early Christian sarcophagi Wiligelmo creation and temptation of Adam and Eve Gardner 1 P 342 A Faithful entered Modena with reminder of Original Sin and suggestion that ony path to salvation is through Christian Church Thus Adam and Eve represented B Christ at far left framed by mandorla held up by angels variation on motif of Saint Sernin ambulatory relief C High relief carving some parts almost entirely round D Artist s name on another relief of facade indication of pride of Wiligelmo s patrons in obtaining the service of such an accomplished sculptor for the city s cathedral At Modena frieze recounts the beginning of the human race South portal of Saint Pierre Moissac France Gardner 1 P 342 A Vast tympanum depicts the Second Coming of Christ as King and Judge of the world in its last days B Christ at center reflecting a compositional rule followed since Early Christian times C Signs of 4 Evangelists ank him To one side of each pair signs attendant angel holding scrolls to record human deeds for judgment D Figures of crowned musician 24 Elders who accompany Christ as kings of this world and make music in his praise Each turns to face him as courtiers of a Romanesque monarch in attendance on their lord Two courses of wavy lines symbolizing clouds of Heaven divide the Elders into 3 tiers Figures elongated bodies of recording angels cross legged dancing pose of Saint Matthews angel and the jerky hinged movement of Elders heads distinctive style of nameless Moissac master 2 one of the variations that existed Zigzag and dovetail lines of draperies bandlike folds of torsos bending back of hands against body wide cheekbones common features of the distinctive style Animation of individual gures contrasts w stately monumentality of composition as a whole producing dynamic tension in tympanum Monumental Sculpture in stone revived but Pagan idol worship style such as freestanding form was rare Sculpture usually appeared in the area around rather than on the doors List of terms of portals p 343 Lions and Old Testament prophet Gardner 1 P 344 A B Jermiah or Isiah Displays the scroll where his prophetic vision is written His position below apparition of Christ as the apocalyptic Judge is yet another instance of pairing of Old and New Testament themes Also keeping with an iconographic tradition established in Early Christian times Prophet s gure tall and thin executes a cross legged step animation of body reveals passionate nature of the soul within Long serpentine locks of hair and beard frame arresting image of dreaming mystic He seems entranced by his vision of what is to come the light of ordinary day unseen by his wide eyes Lions church s ideal protectors Idea of placing fearsome images at the gateways to important places ancient origin from Mycenaean kings and Greek tradition and Etruscan tombs Gislebertus Last Judgmet west gympanum of Saint Lazare Gardner 1 P 344 A B C B1 Dramatic vision of Last Judgment announced by 4 trumpet blowing angels Christ enthroned in mandorla dispassionately presides over the separation of blessed from the damned Left obliging angel boosts one of blessed into heavenly system Below soul of dead line up to await their fate Two of men near the center of the lintel carry bags emblazoned with cross and shell symbol of pilgrims to Jerusalem and Santiago de Compostela ppl who made the dif cult journey would be judged favorably To their right 3 small gures beg an angel to intercede on their behalf angel responds by pointing to Judge above On the right side those who will be condemned to hell One poor sould is plucked from the earth by giant hands Tympanum Angels and devils contest at the scales trying to manipulate the balance for or against a soul Demons guffaw and roar their bodies gaunt lined bodies legs ending in sharp claws like loathsome insects Devil leaning from the dragon mouth of Hell drags souls in howling demon crams souls head rst into furnace above that Resources of Romanesque imagination heated by a fearful faith conjured up an appalling scene Composed explicit written warnings to reinforce the pictorial message Gislebertus name apparent wanted spectators to pray for his salvation on Judgment day Pride in individual accomplishment important factor increasing number of signatures in Romanesque times Ascension of Christ and Mission of the Apostles Gardner 1 P 345 Christ foretold that the 12 Apostles would receive the power of Holy Spirit and become the witnesses of the truth of the Gospels throughout the world Light rays emanating from Christ s hands instilling of Holy Spirit in the apostles at the Pentecost Apostles hold Gospel book to preach it to all nations Drapery line of Christ shoot out in rays zigzag rhythms spin into whorls conveying spiritual light and energy from Christ over and into the equally animated apostles Overall composition and detail treatment of gures contrast with Second Coming at Moissac diversity of Romanesque art Potrayals of yet to be converted legendary giant eared Panotii of India Pygmies other races characterized by dog s head pig s snout humanity still suffering awaits the salvation to come electri ed by promise of Christ Tympanum established God s omnipotence and presented the Church as road to salvation like the Autun Vezelay closely associated with the crusaders where crusades launched Mission of the Apostle theme ideal choice Crusade 0 kind of second mission of the apostles to convert the in del Crusades mass armed pilgrimages whose stated purpose was to wrest the Christian shrines of the Holy Land from Muslim Control Contributed signi cantly to the growth of trade and the rise of cities in the Romanesque era Central portal west facade Saint Trophime Arles France Gardner 1 P346 A B C D Subject matter strictly Christian and typically Romanesque Christ surrounded by the Four Western entrance to church has projecting portal resembling a Roman arch attached to the building s otherwise simple facade Frieze above the freestanding columns recalls the sculptured fronts of Late Antique sarcophagi Figures in high relief classical statuary Evangelists 12 Apostles below him depicting last Judgment Saved and Damned in the ames of Hell at outermost parts of frieze Stand grave gures of saints draped in classical garb in jambs and front bays of portals Sculpotr gave pride of place to Saint Trophimus the 3rd gure from the left Depicton of stoning of Saint Stephen across the doorway only narrative relief on facade s lower part Quiet stances of saints of Saint Trophime contrast with the spinning twisting dancing gures of Autun and Vezlay Arles draperies modeled on ancient stone sculpture rather than medieval manuscripts and metalwork also less agitated and don t resemble deXterous linear play of earlier portals Statuesque treatment of the gures on the Arles jambs parallels in French Gothic act Bendetto Antelami King David Gardner 1 P 347 A B Seems con ned within his niche His elbows kept close to shi body Weight shift hall mark of classical statuary absent Conception of this prophet rooted in Greco Roman Art unfurled scroll free from its architectural setting classical approach to portray biblical gures in stone Art History 202 Notes 218 Renaissance II Duccio Di Buoninsegna Virgin and Child enthroned with Saints Gardner II P 412 A B C D E Sienese art in its supreme achievement Virgin enthroned in majesty maesta as Queen of Heaven Formality and symmetry Byzantine but relaxed strict frontality and rigidity of the gures individualized 4 saints softened the hard body outlines and drapery patterning Drapery falling and curving loosely feature of northern Gothic works Glistening and shimmering effects of textiles silks adapting the motifs and design patterns of exotic materials Duccio Di Buoninsegna Betrayal of Jesus Gardner II P 413 A B C Several episodes of event represented betrayal of Jesus by Juda s false kiss disciples eeing in terror Peter cutting off the ear of the high priest s servant Bodies not frontal range from light to dark draperies arranged convincingly Posture gesture facial expression 0 emotion differentiated among the anger of Peter malice of Judas timidity of eeing Apostles etc International Style brilliant colors lavish costumes intricate ornamentation and these involving splendid processions Simone Martini and Lippo Memmi Annunciation 1333 Gardner II P 414 A B C D E Elegant shapes and radiant color owing line weightless gures Complex etiquette of the European chivalric courts dictated the presentation gold of angel Gabriel s gown represents the celestial realm whence he bears his message Virgin deep blue golden hemmed mantle heraldic colors as Queen of Heaven Frame 2 way ow of transalpine in uence that fashioned the International Style Lippo drew 2 lateral saints w greater solidity and wout the linear elegance of Martini s central pa1r Pietro Lorenzetti The Birth of the Virgin from Altar of Saint Gardner II P 416 A Honoring Virgin Mary Painted the wooden architectural members wooden frame enhance pictorial illusion Careful inspection and recording of what lay directly before the artist s eye in the everyday world Washing the child waits news of delivery etc looks as if viewers were looking through the Palazzo Pubblico Sienna Italy 1288 1309 A B More symmetrical in its design than other buildings of its type and period Tall structure served as lookout over the city and has a bell tower for ringing signals of all sorts to the populace class struggle common threats threats from neighboring cities Machicolated galleries hot liquids or stones to be dumped on enemies below Ambrogio Lorenzetti Peaceful City detail from Effects of Good Gardner II P 417 A B C Urban and rural effects of good government depicted Panoramic view of Siena City traf c moves peacefully guild members ply their trades and crafts dancing metaphor of peaceful commonwewalth Rapidly growing knowledge of perspective Ambrogio Lorenzetti Peaceful Country detail from Effects of Good Gardner II P 418 C D Bird s eye View of Tuscan countryside villas castles plowed farmlands Allegorical gure of Security hovers unfurling scroll that promises safety to all who live under the rule of the law One of the rst appearances of landscape in western art since antiquity Combination of Giotto s analytical powers with Duccio s narrative talent Arnolfo Di Cambio and others Florence Cathedral Gardner II P 419 A TUFUUOPU Intended as most beautiful and honorable church in Tuscany reveals the competitiveness Florentines felt with such cities as Siena and Pisa Looks large that it seemed to cover all of Tuscany with its shade Old Tuscan fashion marble encrusted geometric designs Vast gulf separates from northern European counterparts Clings to the ground no aspiration to ight emphasis on horizontal elements Each of the parts clearly separated from each other capable of existing independently reminiscent of Romanesque but also Renaissance artists hoped to express structure in clear logical relationships to component part and produce self suf cient works appeal to more to the intellect than emotions Nave of Florence Cathedral Florence Italy begun 1296 Gardner II P 419 A B Nave bays twice as deep as those of Amiens wide arcade permits shallow aisles to become part of the central nave C interior of unmatched spaciousness Exterior horizontal elements capitals of piers prevent them from soaring into the vaults and emphasize their function as support Nave of Santa Maria Novella Florence Italy ca1246 1470 Gardner II P 420 A B Small oculi and marble striping along the ogival arches punctuate the nave Screen tramezzo placed originally but taken away to encourage greater lay participation in the Mass Orcagna tabernacle Or San Michele Florence Italy begun 1349 Gardner II P 421 A B Perceived as a kind of memorial to both the dead amp survivors of Black Death Recalls the polygonal piers and the slender spiral colonettes of the Florence Cathedral and campanile as well as Triangular pediment fenestration and pinnacles of a typical Italian Gothic facade Planar surface sparkle w gold lapis lazuli mosaic and nely cut marble all laid in geometric patterns called Cosmato work P gem encrusted scintillating shrine or reliquary more the work of a jeweler than an architect Christ Child playfully touches his mother s face interpretation of Gothic subjects in a light manner appropriate to the humanizing of religion and to the emotion requirements of private devotions Francesco Traini or Buonamico Buffalmacco Triumph of Death Gardner II P 422 A B C D E Captures horrors of death and forces viewer to confront their mortality black death Left young aristocrats horri ed with corpses ladies turnaway w delicate disgust gentleman holds his nose Hermits who have come to terms w their mortality exist peacefully in the background of fresco Naturalism and emotive power Who appear unprepared for death depicted as wealthy e warn against greed and lust Art History 202 Notes 220 Fifteenth Century Northern European Art Focus point piety and political power Limbourg Brothers January from Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc Gardner II P 427 A Depicts New Year s reception at court B Duke appears as magnanimous host head circled by re screen halo like C Richness of the setting augmented by lavish spread of food on the talbe and large tapestry on back wall D Scholars concluded most likely a representation of the Trojan War Limbourg Brothers October from Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc Gardner II P 427 A Focus on peasantry sower a harrower on horseback Washerwomen along with city dwellers B Growing artistic interest in naturalism close observation and depiction of reality careful architectural detail shadows cast by objects and ppl in the scene C Peasants don t look disgruntled atter duke s sense of himself as a compassionate master Claus Sluter Well of Moses Chartreuse de Champmol Dijon Gardner II P 429 A Moses David and 4 other prophets surround a base that once supported a Cruci xion group B Entire structure served as symbolic fountain of life w blood of Christ owing down over the Old Testament prophets washing away their sins and spilling to the well below everlasting life Figures realistically rendered observation of natural appearance Heavy draperies with voluminous folds characteristic of Sluter s style Complex surfaces seem naturalistic enhanced by differentiating textures Paint applied to further augment the naturalism of the gures promise of mU0 Melchior Broederlam outer wings of the Retable de Champol Gardner II P 430 A Annunciation and visitation on left panel Presenation and Flight into Egypt on right panel B Exterior panel unusual amalgam of different styles locales and religious symbolism C J uxtaposition of Romanesque and Gothic architecture Old testament rotunda vs New Testament Gothic porches D Attempt to render 3D on 2D surface yet his treatment of the gures haloes and at gold background recall medieval pictorial conventions Jan Van Eyck Ghent Altarpiece Saint Bavo Cathedral Ghent Gardner II P 431 A Two of the exterior panels depict the donors at the bottom husband and wife painted in illusionistically rendered niches B Annunciation scene appears on upper register w careful representation of a Flemish town outside the painted window of the center panel C Old testament prophets shown on uppermost arched panel along with sibyls classical mythological prophetesses whose writings the Christian church interpreted as prophecies of Christ Jan Van Eyck Ghent Altarpiece open Saint Bavo Cathedral Gardner II P 433 A Superbly colored painting of the medieval conception of humanity s Redemption B God the Father wearing the pope s triple tiara w worldly crown at his feet and deep scarlet mantle presides in majesty C Virgin as Queen of Heaven with crown of 12 stars upon her head D Adam and Eve appear at far panel E Entire altarpiece ampli es the central theme of salvation humans are sinful symbolized by Adam and Eve they will be saved because God in his in nite love will sacri ce his own son for this purpose Altarpiece celebrates the whole Christian cycle from the Fall to Redemption presenting the Church triumphant in heavenly Jerusalem Splendor of colors that de es reproduction speci city p revealed the beauty of most insigni cant object as if it were a work of piety as much as a work of art soft texture of hair glitter of gold in heavy brocades etc Rogier Van Der Weyden Deposition from Notre Dame hors les Gardner II P 434 A B E Rogier acknowledged the patrons of this painting by incorporating the crossbow the guild s symbol into the decorative spandrels in the corners Compression of gures and action onto a shallow stage to concentrate the observer s attention instead of creating a deep landscape setting Crisp drawing and precise modeling of forms E Lateral undulating movements bE compositional unity together with desolating anguish shared by many of the gures Emotional impact on the viewer immediate and direct resembles strati ed relief carving Rogier Van Der Weyden Last Judgment Altarpiece Hotel Dieu Gardner II P 436 A Served as treatment in hospital patients pray to patron saint as component of treatment b believed that God s displeasure brought horri c medical maladies Demonstrated Nicholas Rolin s devotion and generosity P warned the potential fate of ppl s souls if they turn from Christian Church Archangel with scales to weigh souls Saved ushered to Heaven Damend tumbled into res of Hell Use of both hierarchy and scale to emphasize relative importance of gures Christ as largest and naked souls are miniscule Drik Bouts Last Supper center panel of the Altarpiece of the Holy Gardner II P 437 Use of a single vanishing point all of the central room s orthogonals lines imagined to be behind and perpendicular to the picture plane that converge at a vanishing point lead to a single vanishing point in the center of the mantelpiece above Christ s head A C No focus on biblical narrative itself presented Christ in the role of priest performing a ritual from the liturgy of the Christian Church consecration of the Eucharistic wafer Contrast to other Last Supper depiction which often focused on Juda s betrayal or on Christ s comforting of John 4 servants portraits of confraternity s members responsible for commissioning the altarpiece Hugo Van Der Goes Portinari Altarpiece from Sant Egidio Gardner II P 438 A 50 Scene of solemn grandeur muting the high drama of the joyous occasion Adoration of the Shepherds Virgin Joseph and angels seem to brood on the suffering to come rather than to meditate on the Nativity miracle Powerful realism in attitudes of wonder piety and gaping curiosity 15 angels 15 Joys of Mary signi es ancestry of Christ Medieval pictorial devices revived to stress the meaning and signi cance of the depicted event ight to Egypt Annucnation arrival of the Magi Variation in scale of his gures M differentiate them by their importance to the central event re ect older tradition Characterizing human beings accordingly to their social level while showing their common humanity new direction Hans Memling Virgin With Saints and Angels Gardner II P 439 A Celebration of the Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine of Alexandria a number of virgin saints were believed to have entered into a special spiritual marriage With Christ Saint Catherine provided a model of devotion especially resonant With Women viewers Rich colors carefully depicted tapestries serenity of gures opulence Composition balanced and serene color sparking and luminous execution of highest technical quality Art History 202 Notes 22 Gothic Art III Paris intellectual center of Gothic Europe center of the production of ne books Villard de Honnecourt gures based on geometric shapes Gardner I 381 A Showed how both natural forms and buildings are based on simple geometric shapes B Geometry strong help in drawing gures C Geometry also played symbolic and practical role in Gothic art and architecture Trinity of God Christ Holy Spirit Circle eternity of God Moralized Bibles heavily illustrated paring of Old and New testaments w explanation of moral signi cance God as architect of the world folio 1 verso of a moralized Bible Gardner I P 382 A God as architect a compass Using same tools by mortal builders B Spherical sun and moon and uniformed matter earth Contrast to biblical account of Creation in which God create sun moon and stars after the earth had been formed Finest books belonged to Monarchy Saint Louis collector of books Blanche of Castile Louis IX and two monks dedication page Gardner I P 383 A Costly gold background and depicts Blanche and Louis enthroned beneath triple lobed arches and miniature cityscapes Monk and scribe underneath B Clergyman dictates a sacred text to his young apprentice C Page divided into 2 columns of 4 roundels each format of moralized bible Inspiration from Gothic stained glass windows D Picture very abbreviated view of monastic scriptorium E Uniform style despite division of labor Abraham and the three angels folio 7 verso of Psalter of Saint Louis Gardner I P 383 A Inspiration of Gothic stained glass windows glowing color Screenlike lightness and transparency B Painted gures aristocratic elegance as Rayonnant court style of architecture favored by royal Paris C Borders resemble glass partitioned by leading Gables pierced by rose windows with bar tracery standard Rayonnant architectural features D Abraham and 3 Angels Old testament as pre guration E Figure s delicate features and linear wavy strands of hair parallesl in Blanche of Castile s moralized Bible as well as Parisian stained glass Parisian Court Style Master Honore David anointed by Samuel and battle of David Gardner I P 384 A Two Old Testament scenes involving David David prepares to hurl his slingshot at giant Goliath David slays Goliath with his sword B Linear treatment of hair delicate hands and gestures elegant swaying postures typical Parisian painting C Figures with volume and play of light on the bodies D Figures overlapping the border pioneered naturalism in gure painting but did not embrace the classical notion that a painting should be an illusionistic window into a 3D world Jean Pucelle David before Saul foko 24 verso of the Belleville BrevaryGardner I P 384 Fully modeled gures in 3 D architectural settings Saul as weighty gure seated on a throne in 34 view depicted the receding coffers of the barrel vault over the young David s head State sets become commonplace in Italian painting Rendition of plants bird butter ies dragon y sh snail monkey 2 interest and close observation of natural world But text still dominates the gures fancy initial letters abstract patterns Pucelle s and assistant s name appear at end of book personal reputation guaranteed the quality of their work illuminators professional guild members Virgin of Jeanne d EvreuX from the abbey church of Saint Denis Gardner 1 P 385 A B C D Scenes of Christ s passion But no hint of grief Christ Child playfully reaches for his mother Elegant proportions Mary s swaying posture heavy drapery folds intimate human characterization of holy gures features of roughly contemporary Virgin of Paris Mary not only as Mother of Christ but also as Queen of Heaven originally had a crown scepter she holds is in the form of eur de lis French monarchy s oral emblem Also served as reliquary believed to have hair of mary The Castle of Love and knights jousting lid of a jewelry casket Gardner 1 P 386 A B C Related to Romance of the Rose by Guillaume de Lorris Love affair Gothic knights attempt to capture love s fortress by shooting owers from their bows and hurling baskets of roses over the walls from catapults Castle s defenders Cupid aiming his arrow at one of the knights Maiden cheering the knights Unicorn famous medieval allegory of female virtue Only virgin could attract the rare animal demonstrated her moral purity Religious themes may have monopolized artistic production for churches in Gothic age but secular themes gured prominently in private contexts Richard De Bello Mappa Mundi Ca 1300 Gardner P 389 A B Strasbour style feverish emotionalism W Art of cartography Roman Emperor Augustus at bottom left North is left east at top Christian believed Christ would rise in the east on Judgment Day Angels lead the saved to the left Demon pull the damned to mouth of hell Center Jerusalem Circular walled city with picture of Christ on Cross Major feature circular maze legendary labyrinth of the Minoan palace at Knossos Babylon s tower of Babel multistory fortress AleXandria s lighthouse stands at mouth of the Nile River in Egypt Monstrous races depicted that were said to inhabit the far corners of earth Answered question of what a traveler would nd beyond the oceans 39 MORS death 0 appropriate for narrating dramatic events in relief Ekkehard and uta statues in the west Chr Naumburg Cathedral Gardner 1 P 392 A B C D Attached to columns and stand beneath architectural canpies follow pattern of French Gothic portal statuary Period costumes and individualized features and personalities impression that they sat for their own portraits Sculptor realized drapery and the body it enfolds are distinct Subtly revealed shape of Uta s right arm beneath cloak Two statues images of real ppl even if they bear the names of aristocrats the artist never met Equestrian portrait statue in the east choir Bamberg Cathedral Gardner 1 P 393 A Mounted against a pier in Bamberg Cathedral beneath an architectural canopy that frames the rider s body but not his horse Revive image of Carolingian Empire derived in turn from that of ancient Rome Seems to be true portrait perhaps German emperor Frederick 11 Historical personality most likely the subject Careful observation but did not understand animal s anatomy schematic Rider towards the viewer Torsion of gures seems to reflect the same impatience with subordination to architecture found in the Reims portal statues shape is rather stif y Virgin with the Dead Christ from the Rhineland Germany Gardner 1 P 394 A Contrast to con dent gure standing Wide spread troubles war plague famine social strife B brought awareness of suffering Fevered and fearful piety sought comfort and reassurance in the re ection that Christ and Virgin Mother shared humanity s woes 0 exaggeration of suffering Christ as stunted distorted human wreck blood gushing Mary oversized head w expression of unbearable grief Nothing like Romanesque and earlier Gothic depiction of Mary Humanizing of religious themes and images accelerated steadily from 12th century Expression of feeling accompanied the representation of human body in motion twist move within their niches stand independently Art History 202 Notes 310 High Renaissance Art Leonardo Da Vinci cartoon for Virgin and Child with Saint Gardner II P 495 A B Glowing light falls gently on majestic forms Figures robust and monumental stately grace of their movements reminiscent of the Phidian statues of goddesses in the pediments of the Parthenon Leonardo Da Vinci last Supper Fresco 14951498 Gardner II P 496 A Christ isolated from disciples and in perfect repose the still eye of the swirling emotion around him B Christ s head focal point of all converging perspective lines in the composition 2D 3D psychodimensional focus are the same C Judas placed on the same side of the table as Jesus and other disciples sacri ce of traditional iconography to pictorial and dramatic consistency D Broad range of emotional responses voluminous knowledge Mona Lisa A Gaze directed at observers engaging them psychologically B Ambiguity of the smile consequence of Leonardo s fascination and skill with chiaroscuro and atmospheric perspective C Subtly adjusted the light and blurred the precise planes sfumato Donato D Angelo Bramante design for the New Saint Peter s Rome 15056 A B C D Central plan church Consist of a cross with arms of equal length each terminated by an apse intended the building to serve as a martyrium to mark Saint Peter s grave Called for a boldly sculptural treatment of the walls and piers under the dome Using the pantheon as a model two towers and medley of domes and porticos Michelangelo Buonarroti David 15011504 Gardner II P 502 A B C David with heroism but not after the victory turns his head to his left sternly watchful of the approaching foe Muscular body tense with gathering power ampli es the psychological energy of the monumental David s pose In uence from GrecoRoman statues rst project Julius II commissioned from Michelangelo pontiff s own tomb freestanding two story structure with some 28 statues Michelangelo ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Vatican City Gardner II P 504 A B C D Viewers review in reverse order the history of the fall of humankind Interest in the con ict between good and evil and between energy ofyouth and the wisdom of age Representation of body in its most simple elemental aspect in the nude or simply draped with no background and no ornamental embellishment Painted with a sculptor s eye for how light and shadow communicate volume and surface Creation of Adam A B Bold entirely humanistic interpretation of the momentous event Life leaps to Adam like spark from the extended and mighty hand of God Female gure under Lord s left arm apprehensively curious but as yet uncreated Focal point of right to left to right movement off center replaced the straight architectural axes found in Leonardo s compositions With curves and diagonals Motion directs not only the gures but also the Whole composition Raphael School of Athens Stanza della Segnatura Vatican Palace Gardner II P 509 A B F Vast hall covered by massive vaults recall Roman architecture Plato and Aristotle as central gures Plato holds his book Timaeus and points to heaven the source of his inspiration Aristotle carries his book Nichomachean Ethics an gestures toward the earth from which his observations of reality sprang Ancient philosophers men concerned With the ultimate mysteries that transcend this World stand on Plato s side Scientist and philosophers concerned With nature and human affairs stand on Aristotle s side Raphael included his own portrait on extreme right Groups appear to move easily and clearly convey very nature of calm reason heart of philosophy Reconciled and harmonized Platonists and Aristotelians but also paganism and Christianity Raphael Baldassare Castiglione Ca 1514 Oil on Wood transf Gardner II P 512 A B Splendidly yet soberly garbed looks directly at viewers With a philospher s grave and benign expression clear eyed and thoughtful Muted and low keyed tones be t the temper and mood fo this reflective middle aged man Background neutral Wout usual landscape or architecture Head and the hands Wonderfully reveal the man Appreciation for the beauty found in the natural World Art History 202 Notes on Early Christian Art 1 Roman Empire Diverse Population A 3rd amp 4th century people started to reject the emperors polytheism in favor of monotheism Late Antique sculptures painting mosaics and buildings of the Jewish and Christian art produced under Roman Rule formed the foundation of the art and architecture of the middle Ages Dura Europos present day Syria A Called Europs by the Greeks Dura by the Romans B Pompeii of the desert C Included Shrines of polytheistic religions of the Mediterranean and Near East but also worship places for the monotheistic creeds of Judaism and Christinaity although neither was approved religion Synagogue Paintings A Extensive cycle of mural paintings depicting biblical themes B Paintings seem to defy the Bible s Second Commandment prohibiting the making of graven images C Jews of the Roman Empire did not worship idols as did their pagan contemporaries biblical stories appeared on the painted walls of synagogues and probably also in painted manuscripts no illustrated Bible of this period survives D God however never appears in the Dura paintings except as a hand emerging from the top of the framed panels E Dura murals are mostly devoid of action artist tell the stories through stylized gestures gures with expressionless features and lack both volume and shadow tend to stand in frontal rows This Late Antique style is characteristic of much pagan art during the 3 and 4th centuries F Dura painting of Samuel anointing David I Painter drew attention to Samuel by depicting him larger than all the rest 11 David is distinguished by the purple toga color associated with Roman Emperor Baptism in Old House A Wout the approval of the state Christian communities remained small and often attracted the most impoverished of the society Found the romise of afterlife appealing B Romans hated the Christians bc of 1 alien beliefs that god had been incarnated in the body of a man and the death and resurrection made possible the salvation and redemption of all 2 Christains refused to pay even token homage to the Roman State s of cial gods Catacombs and Funerary Art A Early Christian Art earliest preserved works with Christian subjects not the art of Christians at the time of Jesus 3rd and 4th centuries and found in catacombs B Christians had to be buried outside a city s walls on private property C After Christianity received of cial approval churches rose on the land above the catacombs so that pious could worship at the grave sites of some of the earliest Christian martyrs Painting A Jonah as a popoular gure in Early Christian painting and sculpture especially in funeral contexts B Honored as a pre guration a prophetic forerunner of Christ Jewish subjects in Christian Art A Many of rst Christians were converted Jews 10 11 12 13 B Old Testament as pre gurations of new Testament Christ and his Sheep A Orants praying gures make up a cross section of the Christian family seeking a heavenly afterlife B In the Christian motif sheep on Christ s shoulders is one of the lost sheep he has retrieved symbolizing a sinner who has strayed and been rescued C Prior to 4th century artist invariably represented Christ either as Good Shepherd of as a teacher Eventually with beard of a mature adult supplanting the yhouthful imagery of ost Early Christian portrayals of Christ Sculpture A Cof ns for the Faithful I Marble sarcophagi was favored by Christians who rejected cremation II Roman workshops often produced sarcophagi before knowing who would purchase them they added the portraits at the time of burial This underscores the universal appeal of the themes chosen III In the early centuries of Christianity baptism was usually delayed almost to the moment of death because it cleansed the Christian of all sin Constantine was one of the baptized A Convert s Sarcophagus A Junius Bassus Pagan converted to Christianity B Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus I New Testament ll the 10 niches Christ appearing in the center II Scene of Christ s heavenly triumph is situated above that of his earthly triumph III Cruci xion does not appear An Idol of Christ A Monumental sculpture became increasingly uncommon in the 4th century B Justin Martyr accused the pagans of worshipping statues as gods C Christians tended to suspect the freestanding statue linking with the fake gods of the pagans D Greco Roman experience still existed and converts of pagans still retained some of their classical values E Christ seated from Civita Latina attains hair like Apollo like youth and wears Roman tunic toga and sandals and holds an unopened scroll in his left hand F Monumental sculpture of Christian character was not signi cant in the history of art until the 12th century Architecture and Mosaics A Constantine convinced that the Christian god had guided him to victory over maxentius protected and advanced Christianity throughout the empire Also a rst major patron of Christian architecture B New Rome in the East Constantinople C Elaborate basilicas memorials and mausoleums built in Constantinople Bethlehem Jerusalem 14 Basilica to Church 15 A Classical temple could have been adapted only with great dif culty as a building that could accommodate large numbers of ppl in it but Roman basilica was ideally suited as a place for congregation B Had a wide nave w anking aisles and an apse at the end Inside an Early Church A Unlike pagan temples Old Saint Peter s was not adorned with lavish exterior sculptures C D 16 The A Had brick exterior walls Inside contained frescoes and mosaics marble columns grandiose chandeliers and gold and silver vessels on jeweled altar cloths for use in the Mass A huge marble baldacchino supported by four spiral colums marked the spot of Saint Peter s tomb Central Plan Central plan building s parts are of equal or almost equal dimensions around the center I Costanza in Rome built in the mid fourth century Possibly the mausoleum for Constantina the emperor Constantine s daughter II Interior design of the Roman buildings was modi ed to accommodate an ambulatory 17 Mosaic vineyard A B C 18 Abr A B Santa Costanza mosaic program also included pagan subjects along with old and new testament themes Christian thought of the wine of the Eucharist and blood of Christ when they saw the imagery of the Santa Costanza Christ as Sol Invictus Earliest known mosaic of explicitly Christian content aham and Lot Old Testament Themes are the focus of the extensive 5th century mosaic cycle in the nave of the basilican church of Saint Maria Maggiore in Rome Parting of Lot and Abraham I Lot leads his family and followers to the right toward the city of Sodom with his two daughters instrument of the evil evil choice II Abraham heads for Canaan with gure of the yet unborn Isaac the instrument of good standing before him good III Simpli ed motion characteristic of Late Antique narrative art of both pagan and Christian subject matter has great power to communicate without ambiguity IV Another century had to pass before Western Christian mosaicists portrayed gures entirely as at images rather than as plastic bodies nally rejecting the norms of classical art in favor of a style better suited for a focus on the spiritual instead of the natural world Art History 202 Notes 36 Fifteenth Century Italian Art II Imitation and Emulation develop artists Adoration of the Magi Gentile Da Fabriano Gardner II P 463 A Elements portrayed in a rainbow of color with extensive use of gold B Style fundamentally Late Gothic but striking bits of radical naturalism variety of angles C Sense of perspective Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden Masaccio Gardner II P 465 Figures in structural accuracy bodily weight Adam s feet on ground human presence on earth Crying from Eve s mouth voices her anguish COP Sharply slanted light from an outside source creates deep relief Masaccio Holy Trinity Gardner II P 466 A Tomb with skeleton reminder of death B Vanishing point at the foot of the cross illusion of an actual structure that transects the wall s vertical plane illusionistic painting C Concise metrical proportion unity and harmony of monumental composition Donatello David Gardner II P 473 A Reinvented classical nude biblical david First freestanding nude statue since ancient times B Relaxed contrapposto stance and proportions and sensuous beauty of Greek Praxitelean gods Classical poses and formats appealed to humanist Medici Sandro Botticelli Birth of Venus Gardner II P 475 A Inspired by Angelo Poliziano leading humanists of the day B Lightness and bodilessness of the winds move all the gures without effort C Elegant and beautiful sytle seems to have ignored all of the scienti c knowledge experimental art had gained D Visual poetry 0 possess a lyricism and courtliness that appealed to cultured patrons such as the Medici Portraiture revived in 15th century with increased emphasis on individual achievement and recognition that humanism fostered Bust length portraits based on Roman precedents Donatello Gattamelata Gardner II P 477 A First to rival the grandeur of the mounted portraits of the antiquity B Figure stands high set apart from its surroundings liberation from architecture C Of cer dominates his mighty steed by force of character rather than sheer size Man and horse irresistible strength D Left forehoof of the horse on orb ancient symbol of hegemony over the earth Andrea Mantegna Dead Christ Gardner II P 487 A Strikingly realistic study in foreshortening B Harsh sharp line seems to cut the surface as if it were metal and conveys the theme s corrosive emotion C Reduced the size of gure s feet presented both a harrowing study of a strongly foreshortened cadaver and an intensely poignant depiction of a biblical tragedy Art History Notes 225 Fifteenth Century Northern European Art II Private Devotional Imagery Expand use of prayer books and Books of Hours Separating the sacred life from the secular became virtually impossible although it may seem inappropriate or even sacrilegious in Flemish life Robert Campin Merode Altarpiece The Annunciation ca1425 28 Gardner II P 440 A Small for private devotion B Well kept middle class Flemish home as site of the event carefully rendered architectural scene C Objects not only decorative but symbols remind of event s miraculous nature Books candle lilies copper basin towels symbolize Virgin s purity and her divine mission D Mouse trap Christ is bait set in the trap of the world to catch the Devil E Middle class couple in a closed garden symbolic of Mary s purity and owers relate to Mary s virtues especially humility Jan Van Eyck Giovanni Arnol ni and his Bride 1434 Oil on wood Gardner II P 440 A Objects portray holiness of matrimony Figure taking marriage vows B Little dog delity C Bedpost s nial St Margaret patron of saint of childbirth D Medallions set into the mirror frame tiny scenes from passion of Christ and represents God s promise of salvation for the gures reflected on mirror s surface E Brides with clogs solitary lit candle in chandelier Flemish marriage practice F Woman stand in the room vs Man near open window outside world G Figure of artist in the mirror with inscription to record and sanctify the marriage Petrus Christus A Goldsmith in His Shop Possibly Saint Eligius Gardner II P 441 A Crystal container for Eucharistic wafers and the scales religious interpretation B Variety of objects in the painting advertisement for the goldsmiths guild raw materials precious stones beads crystal coral scattered among nished products including rings buckles and brooches importance of goldsmiths to both the secular and sacred communities C Mirror in the foreground extend the paiting s space into that of the viewr creating a greater sense of involvement p naturalism Jan Van Eyck Man in a Red Turban 1433 Oil on wood Gardner II P 442 A Completely secular portrait wout the layer of religious interpretation common to Flemish painting B Interest in reality both physical and psychological C Level composed gaze directed from true 34 head pose impressed observers creation of illusion that eye return that gaze regardless of the angle viewed D Heightened sense of speci city beard stubble veins in the bloodshot left eye weathered and aged skin E Portraits used establish identities ranks used for practical purpose ex marriage Rogier Van Der Weyden Portrait of a Lady ca1460 Oil on panel Gardner II P 443 A Dress and bearing imply noble rank but commission detail unknown B Lowered eyes tightly locked thin ngers fragile physique bespeak a reserved and pious demeanor contrasting to formal Italian approach which was sterner and conveyed little of the sitter s personality C De ned large simple planes and volumes achieving an almost abstract effect in the modern sense of dignity and elegance Hieronymus Bosch Garden of earthly Delights Creation of Adam Gardner II P 444 A B C D Wildly imaginative setting including odd pink fountainlike structure W unusual animals interpretation involving alchemy Right panel horrors of Hell beastly creature devour people others impaled on instruments gambler nailed to his own table Center fruits and birds fertility procreation gures paired off in copulees Warning to viewers of the fate awaiting the sinful decadent and immoral 15th century French Art Jean Fouquet Melun Diptych Etienne Chevalier and Saint Stephen Gardner II P445 Left panel Chevalier appears w his patron saint Saint Stephen donor portrait bc an individual commissioned the portrait as evidence of devotion 34 stance and sharp clear focus of the portrait reminds Flemish art Saint Stephen hold stone of his martyrdom death by stoning atop a volume of the Scritpures q identi cation of Saint Highly oriented architectural setting Juxtaposition of image 2 allowed patron to beat witness to the sacred Depiction of Virgin Mary Agnes Sorel the mistress of King Charles VII personal narrative as well as religious interpretation 15th century German Art German Piety Stephan Lochner Madonna in the Rose Garde ca 1430 1435 Gardner II P 446 A B C D Virgin and Christ in a rose arbor traditional reference to Mary s holiness and a symbol of her purity Rosary devotion popular one meditates on aspects of the lives of Christ and Mary while reciting prayers served the needs of the laity in tie of growing privatization of religion Symmetrical and very structured composition and exquisite gold background recalls Byzantine and medieval artworks Reliance on familiar recognizable iconography and presentation popular Konrad Witz Miraculous Draught of Fish from the Altarpiece of Gardner II P 446 A Landscape s prominence sky glaze on the slowly moving lake surface mirrored reflections of the gures in the boat and transparency of the shallow water in the foreground careful observance Lake Geneva Le Mole Mountain in the distance town of Geneva on the right depicting a speci c site Veit Stoss The Death and Assumption of the Virgin I Gardner II P 447 A B Huge gures represent the Virgin s death and Assumption Intense piety of Gothic culture in its late phase artists used every gural and ornamental design resource from the vocabulary of Gothic Art to heighten the emotion and to glorify the sacred event One supports Virgin others wrings his hands in grief attitudes of woe and psychic shock strive towards realism Restless gures twisting and curving swaths of drapery vision of agitated emotion Massing of sharp broken and pierced form that dart framelike design principles of Late Gothic Archtiecture merger of sculpture and architecture enhancing their union with paint and gidling Tilman Riemenschneider The Assumption of the Virgin Gardner II P 448 A Intricate Gothic forms altarpiece s elaborate canopy B Endless and restless line that runs through draperies uid mtion C A look of psychic strain and consonant with the emerging age of disruption heightens the spirituality of the gures immaterial and weightless as they appear Graphic Art Michel Wolgemut and Shop Tarvisium pg from the so called Gardner II P 448 A Blunt simple lines of the woodcut technique give detailed perspective of Tarvisium harbor and shipping walls and towers etc B Woodcut picture onto the same page as the letterpress exhibit stark contrats and sharp edges Martin Schongauer Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons Gardner II P 449 A Marvelous distinctions of tonal values and textures from smooth skin to rough cloth from the furry and feathery to the hairy and scaly B Use of hatching to describe forms C Engravings drypoints and etchings generally present a wider variety of linear affects in use of intaglio Art History 202 Notes 228 Fifteenth Century Italian Art and Architecture I Filippo Brunelleschi Sacri ce of Isaac competition panel Gardner II P 456 A Sturdy and vigorous interpretation of the theme emotional agigation favored by Giovanni Pisano B Abraham lunges forward draperies ying exposing Isaac s throat to the knife C D Faithful representation of all elements in the biblical narrative Saving Angel matches Abraham s energy Lorenzo Ghiberti Sacri cec of Isaac competition panel Gardner II P 456 A FTC Emphasis on grace and smoothness Abraham in S curve contemplate the act he is about to perform Isaac beautifully posed recalls Greco Roman statuary could be the rst classicizing nude since antiquity torsion of body and dramatic turn of the head Altar decorated with acanthus scrolls of a type that commonly adorned Roman temple Careful treatment of gilded bronze surface show him as goldsmith Spatial illusion rocky landscape seems to emerge from the blank panel towards the viewer as does the strongly foreshortened angel Donatello Feast of Herod from the baptismal font of Siena Gardner II P 457 A Figures recoil in horror into two groups one man covers his face with his hand on the right On the left Herod and 2 terri ed children shrink back in dismay Psychic explosion drives the human elements apart leaving a gap across which the emotional electricity crackles Rationalized perspective space show 2 arched courtyards and groups of attendants in the background ancient roman illusionism returned Lorenzo Ghiberti east doors baptistery of Florence Cathedral Gardner II P 459 A B C D E Recall painting techniques in their depiction of space as well as in their treatment of narrative Illusion of space partly through the use of pictorial perspective and partly by sculptural means represented building according to a painter s one point perspective construction Flattens towards upwards aerial perspective forms appearing less distinct the deeper they are in space imitate nature Mixes of Gothic patterning of rhythmic line classical poses and motifs and anew realism in characterization movement and surface detail Figures Gracefully twist and turn Rebecca classicism Nanni Di Banco Four Crowned Saints Or San Michele Florence Gardner II P 461 A B C D further Positioning of the gures in but confers some separation from the architecture p emergence of sculpture from its architectural setting Semicircle position relating them to one another by their postures and gestures p uni ed spatial composition Figures in interaction gure on the right pointing speaking others listen Roman portrait statues as models strove to interpret or offer commentary on their classical models Donatello Saint Mark Or San Michele Florence Italy Gardner II P 462 A Fundamental step in depicting motion in the human gure by recognizing the principle of weight shift As the body moves draperies move with it sense the gure as draped nude separation from all medieval portal statuary Drapery accentuated the movement of arms legs shoulders and hips sculpture s independence from its architectural setting Donatello prophet gure Habbakuk from the campanile of Gardner II P 462 A Harsh direct realism reminiscent of some ancient Roman Portraits faces bony lined and taut B Bald departure from the conventional representation of prophets but in keeping with many Roman portrait heads C Awkwardly draped and crumpled mantle with deeply undercut folds remote from majestic prophets of medieval portals D Deep set eyes glare under furrowed brows nostrils are presence of disasters that would prompt dire warnings as if prophets were in the very Filippo Brunelleschi dome of Florence Cathedral Florence Italy Gardner II P 467 A Raised the center of dome and designed it around an ogival section p R more stable B Double shell around a skeleton of 24 ribs C Solution to most critical structural problem through what were essentially Gothic building principles Filippo Brunelleschi interior of Santo Spirito Florence Italy Gardner II P 468 A Laid out cruciform building g in either multiples of segments of the dome covered crossing square B Aisles covered by shallow saucer shaped vaults run all the way around the at roofed central space 01w visual effect of compressing the longitudinal design into a centralized one because the various aspect of the interior resemble on e another no matter where observer stand C Demanded 4 entrances instead of the traditional and symbolic 3 death D Identi ed mathematical unit that served to determine the dimensions of every aspect of Santo spirit 8 rhythmic harmony nave twice as high as its width etc Re ect classical architecture such as Roman basilica E Rationality contrasts to soaring drama and spirituality of Gothic churches and Florence Cathedral nave faith in reason rather than in the emotions Renaissance debate and changed after Filippo Brunelleschi facade of the Pazzi Chapel Santa Croce Gardner II P 469 A Plan is rectangular architect placed all emphasis on the central dome covered space B Interior nished with gray stone pietra serena stands out against the white stuccoed walls and crisply line de nes the sign for Santo Spirito C Use of basic unit that results in balanced haronius and regularly proportioned space D Medallions and images of 12 Apostles k add striking color accents to interior Leon Battista Alberti Palazzo Rucellai Florence Italy Gardner II P 479 A Flat pilasters de ne each story of the building B A classical cornice crowns the palace C Rustication of the wall surfaces between the sooth pilasters is subdued and uniform D Creation of a sense that structure becomes lighter in weight toward its top by adapting the ancient Roman manner of using different capitals for each story and Corinthian for the 3rd oor E Modeled facade on Colosseum but creatd a large meshed linear net uni es 3 levels but also emphasizes the wall s at 2 dimensional qualities Leon Battista Alberti west facade of Santa Maria Novella Gardner II P 479 A Took his cue from a pre Gothic medieval design San Miniato al Monte B Height of the church equals w width 2 square de ned areas and related them to one another in terms of simple ratio harmonic relationships C Believed in eternal and universal validity of numerical ratios as the source of beauty apart from medieval predecessors revival of true spirit of High Classical age of ancient Greece D Adequately expressed the organization of the structure attached to it as Well as subjected classical calm and preexisting medieval features round Window to a rigid geometric order PR reason
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