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Chapter 5- Memory

by: Aimee Castillon

Chapter 5- Memory PSYC317

Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Cognitive Psychology

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Contains chapter 5 lecture notes
Cognitive Psychology
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC317 at George Mason University taught by Wiese in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 10/06/15
Aimee Castillon acastil7amuedu PSYC 317 0 Fall 2015 everything in life is memory save for the thin edge of present Introduction what is memory memory is the process involved in retaining retrieving and using info about stimuli images events ideas and skills after the original information is no longer present purpose of memory retain information that is no longer present Memory functions as a time machine that helps us to travel back in time seconds years reexperience events and feelings episodic memory remember facts that we have learned semantic memory remember our plans for the future prospective memory use skills that we have acquired procedural memory The case of Clive Wearing damage to temporal lobe due to viral encephalitis inability to form memories lives within the most recent one or two minutes of life remembers what has just happened forgets everything else feels like he has become conscious for the first time confused and reports that his life feels like death Modal Model of Memory Atkinson amp Shiffrin 1968 Rehearsal A control prooess Lon a SQHEGW millW p iriernoryr mem w if structural features sensory memory is an initial stage that holds all incoming information for seconds or fractions of a second shortterm memory STM holds 57 items for about 1530 seconds longterm memory LTM can hold a large amount of information for years or even decades control processes active processes that can be controlled by the person may differ from one task to another example rehearsal repeat information over and over again memory strategies make stimulus more memorable attention strategies focus attention on what to remember Sensory Memory retention for brief periods of time of the effects of sensory stimulation persistence of vision seeing the progression of still images as movement Sperling measuring the visual icon 1960 it F o 3 I M L T 3 I Array of letters flashed for 50 g g I Report as many letter as possible WWWM I 45 out of D reported I Array of letters ashed for 50 ms i 39quotF39 quot T I Tone signaled which row to report 393 391 I P f r I 33 out of 4 reported Illl nn ml nil 11 I Array of letters flashed for 50 ms 3 I h quotH39ii rv B I Tene signaled was delayed r n 2 P Stat I More letters reported for short delay DB39M Ii nd 1 From Goldsleio Cognitive Psychology 7 Peeler E l E l ll Ealeulete number of letters available to participant or as 1 D ll 141 UHE 13 ii 0 Delay of tene SEE conclusions shortlived memory registers most of sensory information information decays within a second sensory memory is also called iconic memory or visual icon similar effects were found for other modalities ie sound sensory memory registers huge amount of information function of sensory memory collecting information to be processed holding info briefly during initial processing filling the blanks when stimulation is intermittent Shortterm memory holds small amounts of information for a short time stores what you are currently processing big proportion of this information gets lost STM connects sensory memory and longterm memory duration of STM effective duration is 1520 seconds What is the duration of shortterm memory What is the capacity of shortterm memory How is information coded in STM proactive interference previously learned and new information interfere Participants performed well in the first trial Performance dropped from the third trial onwards Triplets of letters are stored in STM for some seconds Previously learned content interferes with new content Interference effect present for 1520 seconds Interference effect decreases after 20 seconds capacity of shortterm memory is measured by the digit span typical span is 58 digits STM capacity is 58 items the magical number 7l 2 size of the times is variable chunking collection of elements that are strongly associated with one another but are weakly associated with elements in other chunks small units can be combined into larger meaningful units chunking as a strategy to expand the capacity of STM instead of items chunks or units are handled Chunking in chess Chase amp Simon 1973 Master dines ltirE Ef39 EECEELI39EE can 1th it H No advantage for based on game positions master chunk 15 1E i I M Emmet phlegmants meet placements m a h 7 77 7 7 D Master Beginner Master Beginner is actual game positions bi Random placement how is information coded in STM coding refers to the way information is represented physiological approach stimulus is represented by firing of neurons mental approach stimulus is represented by mental model in mind auditory coding sound Conrad 1964 target letters were flashed on the screen participants had to write down the letters misidentification due to similar sound of letters example F vs S vs X conclusion code for STM seems to be auditory coding in STM seems to be auditory rather than visual visual coding image Zhang amp Simon 1985 Recall based on visual coding B Greater recall when F auditory coding 395 6 possible 3 g H11 f E 4 I ilkr lg E r i r f E if 2 I Ha iGa39 Character 0 H 7 7 7 7 no sound has sound Emma Characters fail m semantic coding meaning Wickens 1976 Gmups Fruit Meet Profession Trial 1 banana peach apple salami pork chicken lawyer re ghter teacher 39lirisl 2 plum apricert lime bacon hmxdog beef dancer minister executive 1le 3 melon lemoni grape hamburger turkey veal accounting teeter editor quotl39Iial 4 omega cherry pineapple orange chemy pineapple untangle pineapp e same category settth Eswiteh es39tegosy l Protestaims lg Meat i FnJit 100 1 00 161 quotwill lqu tea Ham fmm PI 3 5 a buildup lial 395 W E as so en en E W to 4e 4e 39 er a es If set 3 es la a n g D g P M F F M F Fquot M F F Ml F Gratin Emma Gmup Emmi at 39T39rlal 1 M Trial 2 More srants in is Trial 3 Words still in M Trtall 4 Shli39tto llmlt same eategeries same tar professions and meet No shift fruit 10615 Working Memory limitedcapacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension learning and reasoning Participants can perform two tasks in parallel Keep tnese numbers in your mine 11 s as yell tees the tellewing passage Baddeley ressened that if 5TH had a limited stnrag e capacity at sheet the length ef a telephone number lling up the strange capacity should make it ditl itult to de ether tasks tnst depend en STM But he fennel that participants meld held a shine string at numbers in their meniery while tarrying ant enetlier task such as reading at even series ing a simple wetd emblems How are yen deing with this test What are the numbers What is the gist ef what you have jest seed in STM consists of components that function separately working memory differs from STM Shortterm memory is a single component whereas working memory consists of a number of parts Shortterm memory is concerned mainly with holding information for a brief period of time whereas working memory is concerned with the manipulation of information that occurs during complex cognition Baddeley amp Hitch 1974 manipulation of information through three Difference bt working memory and shortterm memory components lPiiennlegllenl 1 Vimspeti eil y lead auditer llnfenmen Central executive is where the major work of WM occurs Pulls information from longterm memory Coordinates phonological loop and visuospatial sketch pad Divides attention between the two types of tasks support for the phonological loop phonological similarity effect ie which task is more difficult Task 1 Slowly read the following fritters Look away and count to 15 Then write thorn down 91 c ll t v p Task 2 Now do the same thing for these letters flk5yg a word length effect task 1 beast bronze wife gold inn limp dirt star task 2 alcohol propert amplifier officer gallery mosquito bricklayer Interaction between PL and VSP ie John ran to the store to buy some oranges a Task 1 Memorize sentence and indicate for each word whether it is a noun by saying yes or no Task 2 memorize sentence and indicate for each word when it is a noun by marking it in a matrix central executive suppression of irrelevant information Task Instruction Cue s mulli Delay Teal fares also 1 Face relevant Remember facets l l 1 ignore scams a l El 1331 llnstnueitinn ue a mmll mm Test stimuli 9 sec 1 am Passive Passive p b y 39 Measure MRI From Goldsmin Cognitive Psyc Good suppressors had less brain activity for scenes DD Pigment correctly a l iii a empire rs suppressors Working Memory and the Brain memory areas in the brain prefrontal and temporal areas are involved in memory prefrontal cortex holds information for short periods quot forquot 1 f quot lM onkey ohm foed Delay Response remember stimulus is represented by neuronal firing lElacm39ical ac m y II II H m we Mummy moves eyes a cue bl During delay working memory takes place in prefrontal cortex as well as in parietal areas and the cerebellum


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