Geography 101 notes Creed
Geography 101 notes Creed Geog 101
Popular in Geography: The physical Environment
Popular in Geography
This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Alison Lu on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Geog 101 at San Francisco State University taught by Professor Creed in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Geography: The physical Environment in Geography at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
Geography Notes 09012015 Radiant Energv Insolation and Energv Balance Radiant Energy all objects above absolute zero OKelvin radiate electromagnetic energy waves Electromagnetic Radiation EMR Unit of measurement micrometer micron one millionth of a meter symbol um Only between 4 and 7 is visible to the human eye In general Shortwave vs Longwave EMR Hotter the object i the greater its output of EMR ii the shorter the wavelength of its peak radiation Sun Earth Energy Primary source of EMR Sun Solar Radiation total output of sun s EMR i Emits energy across the EM spectrum ii Sun s greatest energy shortwave radiation iii peak output is in visible wavelengths Solar Radiation Shortwave peak radiation 05 um sun Radiation from Earth Longwave thermal infrared peak radiation lOum Incoming Solar Radiation Insolation i radiation that enters the atmosphere transmitted re ected absorbed ii radiation that reaches the surface of the Earth varies widely depending on location time of year and time of day iii Insolation provides the energy that drives many of the physical processes of the earth a basic life processes in the biosphere b atmospheric dynamics c hydrosphere circulation of water Basic Energy balance of the earth shortwave in longwave rout longwave energy from earth reradiation of absorbed solar energy Input shorter wavelengths ultraviolet visible and shortwave infrared Output Earth s infrared emission to space and longer wavelengths thermal infrared balance of incoming and outgoing energy is not uniform across the globe Geography Notes 09032015 Review Radiant Energy EMR emitted by all objects as waves electromagnetic spectrum Unit of measurement for wavelengths the hotter it is With EMR the hotter the object greater overall emittance peak tend towards SW Solar Radiation Along the spectrum where is peak What is range in microns of visible spectrum O4 to 07 Where s the Earth s peak EMR l Oum Earth s Energy balance Shortwave in longwave out What is insolation SR that enters earth s atmosphere SR that reaches earth s surface True or False Average annual net radiation is uniform throughout the globe False latitudinal zonation look at temperature patterns look at relations and stratify any set of phenomena where latitude sets Why lack of cloud cover insulates heat SunEarth Geometry Sphericity Earth is nearly round a little wider at equator and atter at poles oblate spheroid Axial Tilt offset of earth s aXis relative to the plane of ecliptic 235 degrees relative to the plane of ecliptic sun s equator i causes seasonal variations in solar angle and day length different intensities of the sun ii result variations in insolation based on latitude and time of year iii What is solar angle Direct and oblique angles Measurement of Where the sun is in the sky Way down low Parallel to sun s aXis Earth s shape Sphericity Concentration of energy and diffusion of energy curved means angle of incidence sun s rays changes depending on location latitude Direct angle greater intensityvs oblique angle less intensity Sun Earth Energy key terms Solar Angle Sun s Altitude height of sun in the sky measured as an angle from the horizon 090 degrees local noon sun is at highest point Sub Solar Point point on earth at Which sun s rays are directly overhead at noon 90 degrees Sun s Declination line of latitude of a sub solar point on any given day of the year declination of changes as earth revolves around the sun Range of Sun s Declination 235 degrees north to 235 degrees south Summer Solstice Northern Hemisphere Day length and solar angle peak in Northerm Hemisphere low point in Southern Hemipshere declination is 235 degrees South Tropic of Cancer Winter Solstice Northern Hemipshere declination is 235 degrees South tropic of Capricorn Equinox spring and fall midway between Summer and Winter Solstice Subsolar point Equator Declination 0 degrees Sun is directly overhead Variations in average daily insolation based on latitude at ground surface Global Net Productivity Seasonal variations green indicates areas of high productivity EquatorialTropical Within range sub solar point most consistent annual insolation Zones to north and south of ET increasingly variable annual insolation seasonality Lines of positivenegative net annual insulation about 35 degrees NS Insolation and Atmosphere What happens to insolation as it enters the atmosphere Some f it gets re ected to space scattered transmitted or absorbed Take a look at atmosphere layers and composition Atmospheric Layers de ned by changes in temperature i Thermosphere increases ii Mesosphere decreases iii Stratosphere increases bc of ozone layer iv Troposphere decreases Shown by a temp profile or gradient What is the normal lapse rate rate at Which temperature decreases 65 degrees Celsius per 1000 meters When gain elevation gets cold loss of oxygen Atmospheric Pro les Density and Pressure lower atmosphere is denser than upper atmosphere i forces of gravity closer to earth greater the weight pressure of the air above What is the weight of the atmosphere at sea level atmospheric pressure Millibars 1013 barometric pressure About 147 pounds per square inch At 6000 meters 20k ft about half the pressure Geography Notes 09082015 Review Global variations in insolation What is the effect of earth s Sphericity Direct or diffuse depending on latitude What is the effect of Axial tilt Seasonal variations What is Solar Angle height of sun in the sky measured as an angle from the horizon 090 degrees Sub Solar Point sun at 90 degrees at noon Sun s Declination line of latitude of SSP What are the four seasonal stages of earth s revolution What is net primary productivity Seasonal variations Atmospheric layers based on vertical temp variation i Thermosphere ii Mesosphere iii Stratosphere iv Troposphere In which of these is the ozone layer Stratosphere What is and how much is the normal time lapse rate in the troposphere 65 degrees Celsius per 1000 meters Atmospheric pressure trend Atmospheric Pro les Density and Pressure Pressure pro le atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude to the edge of the stratosphere rapid decrease strong gradient in Troposphere Both temp and pressure decrease with altitude in the Troposphere Stratosphere and Troposphere Stratosphere up to 50km 30 miles Troposphere 17km 11 miles variable i 90 of all atmospheric mass ii nearly all water vapor clouds and weather iii variable components Atmospheric Composition Troposphere Constant components gases proportions remain the same i Nitrogen 78 ii Oxygen 21 iii Argon 093 Variable components gases amount depends on time and place i Carbon dioxide 0004 ii Methane iii Sulfur Dioxide iv Water Vapor highly variable Atmospheric Composition Variable components Suspended particulate matter SPM particles smaller than 100um Sources natural and human 10100um settle within hours smaller then 10um can remain suspended for weeks or longer Atmospheric Composition Variable components Natural sources dust storms volcanic eruptions forest res plant pollen salt spray Anthropogenic Sources automobile emissions burning of fossil fuels esp coal burning of fuel wood for warmth forest clearing by burning weapon detonation SPM from epa i10um irritants potentially harmful if concentrated ii 25um most hazardous to humans and animals small enough to enter the blood stream Air Pollution Particle Pollution concentrations of Suspended Particulate Matter SPMsmaller than 10um Photochemical Smog chemical reaction between solar radiation UV and auto emissions Gas component of photochemical smb Ozone O3 same as Ozone layer in Stratosphere Groundlevel Ozone i affects oxygen intake to lungs ii causes respiratory ailments Air Pollution in the US Sstates of the Air annual report by the American Lung Association 2014 rank often worst metropolitan areas in US based on yearround levels of Groundlevel Ozone i Particle Pollution annual PM25um Why In the San Joaquin Valley Human Factors i Two major transportation corridors 5 and 99 freeways ii Expansion of urban areas over last 20 years Metroareas designed for automobiles iii Industrial agriculture mechanized farm equipment Physiography Topography bowl effect i sierra nevada east ii coast rangeswest iii tehachapisouth Climate long summers with little wind and virtually no rainfall AprilOctober Stable Air Mass Effects of pollution in SJV i public health a high asthma ratesFresno County double national average b high rates of hospital Visits for respiratory conditions c potential cause of premature deaths CDC 2011 ii Crop yields up to 30 yeild loss from groundlevel Ozone Long term effect on forest ecosystem GEOGRAPHY NOTES 09102015 Review Troposphere 4 lowest Stratosphere 3 Mesosphere 2 Thermopod 1 highest With gain of altitude in the troposphere temp decreases while pressure increases gt FALSE Composition of the troposphere constant Nitrogen gas Oxygen Argon gas variable C02 gas methane gas If it s not gas then it s SPM particle form dust Gas powered release SPM Size of SPM lOum irritant 25um harmful Harmful component of photochemical smog Ground level Ozone 03 Where is the worst air quality in the US SJV What is the combination of factors contributes to Air Pollution in the SN mechanized farming in a bowl freeways What creates the bowl like affect Sierra Nevada Mountains Tehachapi Mountains Coast Ranges Some effects of pollution in SW respiratory issues crop production Path of Insolation What happens to insolation as it enters the atmosphere Transmitted Re ected Absorbed Transmitted pass through substances atmospheric surface Re ected what re ects insolation Land surfaces water ice tops of clouds atmospheric clouds are particulate matter planetary surfaces Re ective capacity of substancesurface Albedo O albedo no re ection 100 albedo full re ection a little re ection can t change the climate 31 of insolation that enters the troposphere re ected back to space water bodies 1060 the lower the sun angle the greater the re ected most of earth s albedo is in atmosphere and is only 3 re ected from surface and 28 is absorbed 100 insolation 28 re ected atmosphere 3 re ected surface Amour surface albedo 48 absorbed at surface Insolation in the Troposphere and Earth s Energy Balance absorbed atmo 21 by water vapor atmospheric gases and SPM variable absorbed surface 48 varies based on atmospheric conditions and surface type Global Temperature Patterns What are the primary factors that in uence global temp patterns latitute altitude maritime vs continental locationland surface or water surface cloud cover Also Oceanic circulation Colder overall temperature temp decreases with altitude in troposphere Thermal inertia takes a lot for water to move and retain heat Geography Notes 09152015 What is Albedo capacity of re ectance how to measure percentage More re ectance occurs at Earth s surface or in atmosphere atmosphere 2831 What else happens to insolation in Troposphere bounced back transmitted Diagram of dynamics on test Global Temp Pattem Primary factors Equatorial Latitude Maritime Water moderates temp Effect of altitude cooler temp regime overall colder disrupts effect of latitude LandWater heatingcooling differences Key Distinctions Store specific heat how much heat can substance store Opacity doesn t get through vs Transparency relative Water will allow energy to be penetrated at much greater depth Stability vs Mobility Thermal Inertia If the environment is changing measure how slowly temp is changing temp moves slowly water moderates temp extremes at various scales surface atmosphere What is effect of cloud cover scattering by day reduces insolation thus surface temp albedo effect at night functions as insulation of longwave energy Isoline isotherm of highest mean temp Global Energy Imbalance spatial variations in surface aging across the globe Equatorialtropical zone receives 25 times more energy from the sun than the poles per year from week two Maps of global temp patterns show a belt of consistently high temps in equatorialtropical zones ET energy surplus Upper latitudes and polar regions energy deficit This Global Energy Imbalance is the driving force behind macroscale atmospheric and oceanic circulations Energy Imbalance and Thermal Regulation Basic model poleward movement of energy in the form of warm air and water from lower to upper latitudes In addition movement of cold air and water from upper to lower latitudes Selfregulation of the earth s thermal system Processes of energy transfer affected by Earth s rotation forces of friction landmassesoceans system dynamics Atmospheric Pressure force of gravity creates atmospheric pressure at earth s surface Barometric Pressure use of barometer to measure its force Standard unit of measurement is millibar mb Average air pressure at sea level 1013 mb Surface pressure varies widely based on temp and atmospheric dynamics Atmospheric interactions occur as a result of relative pressure differences Atmospheric Pressure Basic Model see notebook Thermal Pressure systems cold air dense sinking creates high pressure at earth s surface warm air less dense rising creates low pressure at earth s surface Atmospheric pressure and wind ow basic model see notebook ow of air across the surface wind is the result of differences in atmospheric pressure PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE Air ows from an area of high pressure descending air into an area of low pressure ascending air horizontal and vertical components surface and upper level winds Sea or Lake breeze conditions daytime heating of land surface is more rapid than heating of water body atmospheric circulation systems localmicro scale ow in upper atmosphere is reversed Effects of earth s rotation Coriolis Force effect causes objects in motion to de ect from a straight path across Earth s surface initiates rotation of atmospheric systems air ow from HP to LP de ects into in circular pattern effect of coriolis increases with distance of ow Coriolis Friction Friction force wind drag on earth s surface moderates coriolis effect and causes spiral effect Result air ow spirals out of high pressure systems diverges divergent system Air spirals into low pressure systems converges convergent system Circulation pattern for all surface weather systems IMAGES SEE SLIDESHOW Summary of Pressure Systems Low pressure ascending air mass convergent wind circulation rotates counter clockwise in NH clockwise in SH CYCLONE cyclonic system High pressure descneding air mass divergent wind circulation rotates clockwise in NH counterclockwise in SH ANTICYCLONE SEE IMAGES
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