Notes (first lecture to present)
Notes (first lecture to present) DANC 100
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by ebone Notetaker on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Bundle belongs to DANC 100 at Ball State University taught by Ms. Emily Jordan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Intro to Dance History in Art History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
September 1 October 1 2015 O O O 90 90 90 O O 90 9 Movement A form of Communication and Expression Universal Language Everyone speaks movement 93 of communication is nonverbal Unites different cultures Athleticism Everchanging Because society is always changing Because the body and its limits are always being pushed Aesthetic Quality vs Quantity Subjectivity vs Objectivity Personal views develop from personal experiences Aesthetic Dance usually intended for a specific audience usually performed on a concert stage aesthetic sense sensory response Natural Dance Intrinsic movement urges Autonomic bodily rhythms 393 Social Dance Natural movement and responses that have been repeated and structured to give physical voice to social needs Elements of anthropology and cultural psychology 393 Dance as a safety valve dance provides a necessary and cathartic response for the release of emotion and in times of great need Dance is educational in nature for the transmission of sentiments and emotion Dance creates interaction and maintains the sentiments of a culture Dance is a journey of selfdiscovery and generation It is a cumulative process involving the layering of thoughts experiences culture and interaction Dance creates and breaks boundaries and involves certain competitive elements involving competition Dance is drama ritualized Dance is ever evolving into other deep structures and uncharted areas of movement and dance experience 0 O O O 00 00 00 O O 90 90 Request protection Celebrate marriage To imitate war and victory Depictrequest successful hunting Symbolize Peace Portray Health and destruction Request divine intervention Imitate Animal Behavior Make a connection With the spirits or the divine Form a part of courtship Requestcelebrate fertility Symbolizecelebrate death birth and rebirth Bless crops Ask for elemental help 0 Began in Europe 0 Early in uences from medieval folk dance Cultural In uencesBlack Death 00000000000000 Arrives via a trading ship in the mid 1300s Killed 20 million plus Europeans over a 5 year period 13 of the population Widespread panic 0 Dance Macabre Dance of Death Dance to inform Chain Dance Carols Ring Around the Rosie Revelry and Celebration Court Dance PreRomantic Period The Ballet d Action Formal Structure 0 Romantic 0 Classical 0 NeoClassical 0 Contemporary 393 Domenico di Piacenza Wrote first treatise about dance in 1416 393 Europeans were beginning to formalize and plan artistic endeavors as entertainment for the upper class gentry nobles and royalty 393 Between 1393 and 1491 a shift in performance style began to evolve connected to music society culture and sociability Earlv Ballet 0r Court Ballet ballet de cour 16th amp 17th cen D Began in the Italian Renaissance Courts earlymid 16th century E Center of court dance shifted to France When Catherine de Medici marries King Henry II in 1533 D Industry of art dancing masters dressmakers patrons tutors D System of control Nobles Gentry D Ballets were more extravagant fetes pageantry or extravaganzas D Nobles learned steps and patterns on the oor D Hierarchy of placement in the dance D Combination of social dances with poetic speeches D Were more refinedelegant versions of country dances D Basic steps in modernday ballet come from this early form Italian noblewoman Catherine de Medici marries King Henry II in 1533 Brought with her the concept of patronage for the arts concept of dancing masters dance composers choreographers and dance as a noble pursuit D Through her husband and three sons who would eventually rule France Catherine was the absolute power behind the throne in matters of politics and art specifically D Institutes the concept of court dance for the courtiers to participate in D Institutes entertainment extravaganzas to celebrate events Royal marriagebirthvisitorsbetrothal or successful ending of a war D Catherine commissioned numerous court extravaganzas 0 Notable commissioned dance extravaganzas by Catherine de Medici include 1573 Balet des Polonais Celebration for the election of one of her sons as king of Poland 0 1558 Ballet commissioned to celebrate the marriage of one of her oldest sons Henri III to Mary Queen of Scots 1571 La Defense du ParadisDark depiction of the struggle between Catholic and Protestant control 0 1581 Balet Comique de la Reine10000 attended 10pm3z30am Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx was commissioned to celebrate a royal marriage Considered important early attempt at choreography a demonstration of Catherine s power and that of the French royalty 393 C 17th century C early 18th century 0 v Referred to as preromantic andor Ballet Comique 0 0 Associated with Louis XIV which is why it was male centered until the rise of the ballerina during the era of the Ballet 1 Action Rise of specific patterned dances with roles for men and women further detailed by O roles for noble hierarchy 393 Served as social structure 0 0 Pavane Volta Sarabande Galliard Minuet Music and dances of the time that evolved during this era to create structure for ballet as a professional pursuit 393 Still not formally on the stage In the halls and ballrooms of royalty and nobles With some works being performed in a proscenium setting but not necessarily a theatre 393 Louis XIV commissioned works that would be centered on himself with frequent solos and leads v Most famous of these preromantic era court ballet works was La Balet de la Nuit 1653 King Louis XIV starred as the Sun God Apollo Louis was frequently referred to as the Sun King after this performance 393 The Academie Royale de la Danse is established 1661 by King Louis XIV to develop a uniform style and specific forms and steps for ballet They were further charged with codifying and documenting the art form and creating a scientific approach to teaching 0 Louis XIV retires from dancing 1670 and the era of the noble amateur and male focused ballet ends Means lively or strong 0 The step of the lady that we learned called the Seguito Ordinario is simple and slow because of the heavy skirts of the time 0 The step we learned for the male dancer is called the Arbeau Step 0 There are many other steps that are included in a traditional Galliard 0 Means small or neat 0 Is a slow and dainty court dance Was known as The Queen of Dances for 150 years 5 requisites for making a good figure in the minuet 1 A languishing eye 2 A smiling mouth 3 An imposing carriage 4 Innocent hands 5 Ambitious feet Contains extensive requirements for bows and many rules in the actual dance as well c 1760 01820 393 King Louis Retires from dance in the later 1600s 393 Ballet loses its popularity as a court function 393 King Louis Collaborators took over the dance Jean Babtiste Lully Italian born musician dancer politician obtained the charter to the Royal Academy of Dance and to the Palais Royale 0 Pierre Beauchamps Head dance master at the Royal Academy of Dance Created the 5 positions of the feet that are still used in ballet today 393 More specific rules were required in dance due to the change in performance venue 393 The Palais Royale was used instead of ballrooms and halls Turn out of the legs became a requirement Movement is less about oor patterns and horizontal movement but more about technique and vertical movement 393 Ballet d Action and PreRomantic era are very closely tied together Both serve as the precursor to what we consider standardized ballet form Main difference Ballet d Action utilizes music but is separate from the OperaOperatic Ballet d Action is attributed to J eanGeorges Noverre Ballet d Action is a blend of dance theme with mimetic movement The female is the lead or focus of the ballet in subjectthememovement 0 Most noted of the Ballet d Action era is the rise of the female as the focus of ballet Trailblazers Jean George Noverre Marie Salle Marie Camargo The changes that Salle and Camargo made to movement and attire left audiences both scandalized and in awe 393 Both Salle and Camargo were students of Francoise Prevost a ballerina and actress O O 90 90 O O O O 90 90 90 90 O O 90 90 O 90 O 90 O 90 They both learned Prevost s Les Caracteres de la Danse a basic fairly average solo work combining basic character dance and acting Through the changes they made to Les Caracteres de la Danse and their own interests changes and uke moments they eclipsed their mentor and were cast in roles she felt she deserved Prevost was jealous and worked to try to stem their rise to fame especially Camargo She was unsuccessful in that pursuit 17071756 0 O O O 90 90 90 90 O O O O 90 90 90 O 0 Considered the first female choreographer Debuted in 1721 at the Paris Opera Credited with change in skirt weight and length In 1734 performed in Pygmalion wearing in essence what amounted to a tunic Her movement and thoughts on movement narrative and costume were the precursor to J eanGeorges Noverre and his treaties on dance form Salle was more actress focused and less focused on technique of dance Turned Prevost s Les Caracteres de la Danse into a pas de deuX Pygmalion was her most famous role She emigrated to London where she became famous 17101770 0 O O 90 O O O 90 90 O O 90 90 Shortened her skirt to show the calf and ankle Decided not to wear the hard and heeled court shoe of the time and instead donned a softer more exible shoe without a heel not unlike ballet ats of today First to wear ballet tights Was extremely focused on the technical aspects of dance and how to elevate the skill level and art form Increased the technique level of Prevost s Les Caracteres de la Danse and focused the solo on the skill of dance and less on acting Les Caracteres de la Danse was her debut role at the Paris Opera in 1726 When a male premier danseur missed his cue Camargo stepped onstage and performed a solo precursor to a grande allegro This also solidified the female as the focus of future ballets with the male as her cavalier 18271870 1845 Pas de Quatre Choreography by Jules Perrot for four of the reigning prima ballerinas of the time Fanny Cerrito Carlotta Grisi Lucile Grahn and Marie Taglioni O O Closely inspired by and associated with the era of Romanticism the Romantic Period in literature society music and art Considered to have begun with Marie Taglioni in La Sylphide 1827 and to have ended with Coppelia in 1870 Only era in ballet with such definitive dates Female as main focus male as savior and villain 0 Predominant female roles spirits ghosts sylphs nymphs wilis all costumes inter changeable 0 Mimetic gesture 0 Outline Format devised for presentation of Romantic Ballets rising action climaX Falling action 0 Portrays soft femininity for the female dancers and open masculinity for the male dancer 0 Themes of fantasy myth mystery soulmatesromance otherworldliness trials of love 0 Positions include arms low elbows relaxed torso tilted forward for style and lighting purposes 0 Hair worn draped over the ears and pulled back into a bun at the nape of the neck 0 Costumes were soft bell shaped tutus with a length that fell between the lower knee and mid shin The bodice of the tutu is form fitting and sometimes contains fabric that drapes over the shoulders 0 Aerial roles were being implemented for the first time with the use of wires 0 To further achieve this idea of oating and elevation pointes shoes were implemented for the first time 1832 La Sylphide Choreogapher Philippe Taglioni Philippe choreographed this ballet for his daughter Marie Taglioni La Sylphide is the story of a nymph who fell tragically in love with a Scotsman This marked the beginning of the romantic period in ballet and is when the romantic tutu became popular 1841 Giselle Choreographer CorraliPerrot Giselle is a peasant girl who falls in love with a nobleman He is already betrothed but Giselle does not realize Giselle s health is delicate and when she discovers that her lover is unfaithful her heart gives out and she dies Her spirit joins the Wilis who are the spirits of women who s men have been untrue They kill any man they encounter but Giselle s spirit still loves and forgives her lover which saves him from the Wilis 01848 01930 Classical Ballet The Basics 0 Not to be confused with the classical period in music17501820 O Began circa 1848 ended circa 1930 as a focused era although ballets are still created in the classical style 0 Severely upright torso and arm carriage 0 Body extremes including turn out of the legs O Largest variation of choreographic intent in this era Training and Attire Studio classroom as well as performances are essential Required attire Leotard women Dance BeltLeotardfitted top men Tights for all Hair was now required to be pulled back into a slick bun at the crown of the head for women Ballet slippers and standard warm up at class Separate classes for men and women Pointe and variations for female dancers vs male technique Pas de deuX class more facts 0 Classical era also known as Rise of the technician 0 Classical Era also referenced as The Rise of Imperial Russian Ballet 0 00 0000 B allet was state controlled which is why many had respectable dance careers French and Italian choreographers were imported to Russia 0 Marius Petipa 18181910 Choreographed most of the wellknown classical ballets and restaged many romantic ballets Codified mimetic gestures Used ballet technique folk dance character dance and mime 0 Adagio O pas de deuX 0 solo of male dancer 0 large jumps 0 solo of female dancer 0 small jumps petite allegro and turns 0 coda meaning tail 0 Male and female dancers come together again usually for faster partner work and a couple more solo points that involve turns VAGANOVA METHOD 0 Founded by 0 Agrippina Vaganova 0 Originated in Russia Extremely detail oriented with a focus on connection of the upper and lower body Usually teaches 180 degree turn out CECCHETTI METHOD Founded by Enrico Cecchetti Is known as the Italian school because Cecchetti himself was Italian A rigorous method that focuses on safe anatomical positions 000000000 0 Swan Lake 1895 Choreographed first by Lev Ivanov then later by Marius Petipa Petipa is the recognized version although sometimes restaging is a fusion of both but still credited to Petipa 0 Composition by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky The Sleeping Beauty 1890 0 0 Choreographed by Marius Petipa Composition by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky 1892 The Nutcracker Choreographer Marius Petipa Composition by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky L apresmidi d un faune Afternoon of a Faun 1912 Choreographed by Vaslav Nijinsky Modern in uences follow personal discovery after Isadora Duncan s visit to Russia andor the beginning of his deteriorating mental capacity Composition by Claude Debussy continued c1848 c1930 Student performer and teacher at the academy in Russia Was one of the first to express a desire to implement more modern changes into the ballet The same ideals of Jean George Noverre were shared by Fokine Wrote various requests to the directors of the ballet asking permission to implement his ideas and after a good amount of time he was successful in these endeavors Mostly known for his innovative choreographic works namely Les Sylphides Fokine was also a talented dancer himself DE DE DE CI Classroom movements should not be utilized on the stage Rather every work should have a specific style of movement all its own that is representative of the country and time period from which it came CI The movement of the body should carry the dramatic theme of the story and should contain no unnecessary unrelated movements CI Pantomime is not useful for clear portrayal of a story and should be discarded in favor of the entire body moving to express the story CI The whole cast of the ballet including the corps de ballet should be used to tell the story The soloistsprinciples should not carry the entire dramatic action alone CI Music scenery and costumes should work together with the dance to tell the story of the ballet oFounded by Serge Diaghilev 18721929 Original Diaghilev founded company was active from 19091929 NOT to be confused with other companies that sprang up after his death like the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo New York based or the Les Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo London based The above were lesser imitations of the original Ballet Russes Believed that ballet should be a complete theatrical art and that music design and choreography should equally break new ground Believed that the male dancer was key to the success of a concept and ballet although the female should always be in the foreground Hired painters as set designers fashion designers as costume designers and had close collaborations with set costume choreographers and music composers feeling that only intense and close collaboration would ever produce anything of artistic worth Dancers and choreographers discovered by Diaghilev who matured within the Ballet Russes include Nijinsky Fokine and Balanchine Not a dancer himself but studied law and composition He had a knack for directing artistic endeavors and for discovering talented artists The Rite of Spring Choreography by Vaslav Nijinsky Composition by Stravinsky A ballet in one act Premiered by Diaghilev s Ballet Russes in 1913 in Paris Both the content and musical score were considered shocking and controversial Music had strident and churning rhythms and clamorous orchestration The ballet concerns a primitive Russian tribe sacrificing a virgin maid to bless and bring the arrival of spring Choreography and movement lines go against classical ballet lines Dancers had pigeon toed stances and showed the Weight of their movements The work was pulled after 7 performances for being socially unacceptable and inciting Now considered a seminal example of modernism both in ballet and modern dance history c 1920present Began around 1920 and continued to evolve throughout the 20th century 0 Although fewer ballets are still being created in the neoclassical style in the 21st century George Balanchine is credited as the force behind NeoClassical ballet 0 It began with Nijinsky and his experiments and continued with Diaghilev and the Ballet Russes 0 Found its final incarnation under Balanchine in New York as neoclassical ballet 0 George Balanchine 1904 1983 0 Started ballet at the Imperial School St Petersburg at the age of 9 0 Created abstract ballets focused on movement not dramatic themeplot Instilled more acrobatic movement in the ballet 0 First love was music but the need to create led him to choreography O Founded the New York City Ballet 0 Jerome Robbins 1918 1998 0 American born dancer and choreographer O Choreographed ballets for New York City Ballet and on Broadway 0 Famous works include West Side Story Fiddler on the Roof and Afternoon of a Faun 0 A prominent ballet from the Neoclassical period is Romeo and Juliet 0 This is the era in which ballet made its way to America 0 Simple themes using imagination and space 0 Focus on movement itself and how to subtly alter for maximum effect Examples Flexed foot tilted hip bent wrist 0 Hair could be pulled back in different bun styles based on theme or worn loose down the back 0 Usually basic leotard and tights sometimes simple chiffon skirt 0 Intentionally and resolutely plotless ballet 0 Set to Bach s Concerto in D minor for two violins 0 Frequently revived and performed with permission of the Balanchine trust around the world 0 There is no set or decor and dancers are attired in practice clothes 0 New York City Ballet Premiere 1948 Foundational staple of their repertoire 0 There is no official beginning time frame for early contemporary ballet but it reached its clearly defined incarnation in the late 20th century 0 Incorporation of classical ballet elements and modern dance 0 May use traditional ballet movement aesthetics but use bare feet and modern dance costuming or use pointe shoes and classical approaches mixed with modern movement aesthetics 0 Follows the traditional training methods of ballet companies and schools 0 Classical music with nontraditional movementvice versa 0 Having company classes in modern African and Jazz dance etc in addition to ballet 0 Always visible aesthetic of ballet within movement arrangement or linesmusculature presentation of dancers 0 Blend of Classical and NeoClassical movement ideals 0 Hair and costume can represent contemporary norms or historic garb depending on theme 0 Michael Baryshnikov O Incorporation of classical ballet elements and modern dance 0 May use traditional ballet movement aesthetics but use bare feet and modern dance costuming or use pointe shoes and classical approaches mixed With modern movement aesthetics Follows the traditional training methods of ballet companies and schools Classical music With nontraditional movementvice versa Having company classes in modern African and Jazz dance etc in addition to ballet Always visible aesthetic of ballet Within movement arrangement or linesmusculature presentation of dancers Blend of Classical and NeoClassical movement ideals Hair and costume can represent contemporary norms or historic garb depending on theme 0 Alonzo King 0 O Incorporation of classical ballet elements and modern dance May use traditional ballet movement aesthetics but use bare feet and modern dance costuming or use pointe shoes and classical approaches mixed With modern movement aesthetics Follows the traditional training methods of ballet companies and schools Classical music With nontraditional movementvice versa Having company classes in modern African and Jazz dance etc in addition to ballet Always visible aesthetic of ballet Within movement arrangement or linesmusculature presentation of dancers Blend of Classical and NeoClassical movement ideals Hair and costume can represent contemporary norms or historic garb depending on theme
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