Intro to Contemporary Japanese Semester of Notes
Intro to Contemporary Japanese Semester of Notes SISEA 242
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Contemporary Japanese Note 113 Taisho Democracy class note Democracy Do voting for people who run the country Emperor s country everyone is subject of emperor Taisho logical continuation of Meiji Why did Democracy fail Was it really a Democracy Democratic Consolidation Theory A Electoral Democracy state w free and fair competitive elections minimum Democracy EX Most African states Russia B Consolidated Democracy when democracy becomes routinized and deeply internalized ins social institutional psychological life used to understand why some become democracies but do NOT remain democracies EX Thailand military coup 1991 Weimar Germany Taisho Japan Pakistan 2000 C Liberal Democracy extensive protections of individual and group freedoms plurality in civil society civilian control of military strong rule of law secured thru an independent impartial judiciary EX United Kingdom contemporary Japan US Canada France etc D Democratic Transition non Democracy convert to Democracy EX Poland South Korea Millions of live would have be saved if countries retained Democracy Democratic Consolidation Theory A Behaviorally no signi cant actors spend resources attempt to achieve their objectives by creating a nondemocratic regime EX head of military civil war religious political leader Japan keep an eye on military B Attitudinally a strong majority of public opinion even in midst of major economic problems that Democracy is not bad Committed to Democracy Japan keep an eye on people C Constitutionally government nongovernment forces subject to bounds of laws procedures institutions that are sanctioned by the new democratic process Japan Democracy ends 1931 Taisho Period 19121926 Economics Continued Economic Growth industrialization leaving farm Rise in Living Standards More food more clothes Electricity bus railway transportationbicycles Growing middle class white collar workers Mass Media newspapers 19121932 real per capita GDP doubles growing economic concentration some taking larger economic share unequal Concentrated in Zaibatsu Mitsui Mitsubishi Yasuda Sumitomo cause some problems Poor strikes go up 1918 massive rice riots Use Korea and China to get rice they were inferior Literature talking about individualism spread from group identity in past society is changing as well new values from west Women still treated legally as a minor until married cant enter into contract wout husband7 s consent Urban culture ero guro nansensu Mobo and Moga milk parlors smoking cigarettes Jazz Age Kanto Earth Quake Politics Taisho Democracy Meiji Constitution vague document Oligarchgenro had eXtra constitutional in uence in cabinet formation Cabinet group of advisors to president and in charge of part of bureaucracy cabinet more important in parliamentary system prime minister usually less powerful than presidents Cabinet usually legislators Oligarch has power Some even Prime Minister most cabinet minister Really running the country parliamentary system headed by prime minister head of government EX Japan UK Canada Israel Germany Rise of political parties very vocal in Diet legislator congress Oligarch A is bozo said whatever they wanted bc they wont get arrested in the Diet Ito Hirobumi formed 15 poitical party in 1900 Seiyukai vs Minseito Pork barrel politics 1912 1923 Army bring government down for refusing to give army two new revisions 1918 Beginning of Taisho Democracy A Rice Riots Democracies win WWI Hara Takashi leader of Seiyukai becomes PM rst cabinet of Japan one of many signals that Japan s democracy is deepening 1920 tax quali cation lower to 3 yen 1925 Universal manhood suffrage men over 25 can vote gigantic increase in electorate Counter trends 1 1925 Hara assassinated by right wing youth ppl that want to end Democracy through killing conservative politician 2 1925 Peace Law give police more power bad Cabinet became responsible to the Parliament instead of Emperor Contemporary Japanese note 129 Bureaucracy Ppl working in social security IRS DMV police CIA bureaucrat Bureaucracy most important in talking about politics and quite distinct Key to understanding later topics like 55 system and industrial policy Todai training ground for bureaucracy Imperial University of Tokyo set up to train bureaucrats in Meiji Civil service exam to enter bureaucracy quite dif cult to pass Legitimation from graduating at APEX of exam system 39 seen as smartest in nation High status of bureaucrats 1 Meritocratic 2 Apex Eroded by scandals of 1990s Still higher status than US Sense of national mission patriotism driving long hours Spurred debates in US over industrial policy US need to emulate Japanese system Japan was doing SO good with bureaucratic system First instinct We will look up to the state to solve the problem Politicians and bureaucrats who s in charge in general small of political appointees 50 in Japan 1500 in US In Japan who rules Q many ex bureaucrats become politicians Variation in politicization MOC MOA politicized METI MOF seen as less so Amakudari early retirement Forced out as age cohort i Administrative Vice Minister Highest position 9 I JZ V TOD7f J l 6372 3 cl 75 5Pr375H3 T V can t be older Descent to positions in business serves as top advisors well paid US revolving door in and out Japan one way ticket once you re out you re out Japan unitary state not a federal system national of cers in charge of local of cials Administrative governance indirect command Elite Consciousness in the Bureaucracy U Why would you go to Waseda if you want to be a bureaucrat Socialization PROMOTION M specialists 2 2nd task Bureaucratic Rivalries Who controls it EX Telecom wars new issue war Major Ministries METI MOF MOFA etc Diminished power Politician want to have more power than bureaucracy Tight link to LDP weakeningAdministrative reform P weakening of bureaucratic power Power of bureaucracy going down but still stronger than US Ex NBA Diminished Prestige a ppl quit to work in private sectors drop in bureaucratic prestige Insane working hours in the Ministry of Finance Generalists Rotation within ministries to know the whole ministries Mr Ishii What is it like to be working as a bureaucrat in Japan Kyushu University aerospace engineering Ministry of Transport Run Infrastructure Tourism Worked in Ministry of Finance as well Common in Japan for bureaucrats to draft legislation on their common knowledge Work over midnight to negotiate w cabinets Wanted to have technical career but wanted to differentiate from others Not dif cult to get to job offer from major manufacturers if you have recommendation from professors but since he passed civil service exam and got the interview he decided to work for the government Job interview pS hopeful to work w corporations like Boeing Mitsubishi Heavy industry but in reality a lot of paper Work 2 felt like being cheated Studied 12 yrs of English but those knowledge seem to have disappeared When he came to Seattle Problem in Japanese English education PM Aso restrict Amakudari Contemporary Japanese note 122 Education High literacy rate even in Edo period Japanese educational system and American educational system have different goals Japanese educational system high literacy rate numeracy How to compare cross language Ex American to Japanese Japanese to French s Compare math OECD comparison of tests along the rich countries where everyone could get education US 28th Great Hierarchy Tokyo University Kyoto University self loop University Admission determines success in life c stay in one corporation for whole life Gakureki pure merit base based on what you know Gakubatsu feel old school tie K8 Competition to get into good pre schools is intense everybody cleans up together High School Exam hell rote learning huge forces of conformity frighteningly good Elite Schools High average student more school daysyear J uku yobikou ronin 50000 juku kikokushijo Right wing Mombusho vs left wing Nikkyousou Japan teacher Union separate pamphlet on WWII University Clubs groupism senpai kouhai relations amp verticality Gender breakdown more men than women in Japan in 4 yr university Graduate Schools Weak very few on top lists worldwide US are the best Bring in foreigners and keep them Great Deal to bring in smart pplcontributors to US country at point of Grad School Historical Background By 1870 4045 boys and 15 girls were basic Japanese literate Dore argument Recent Changes Move to a more relaxed education policy in 2002 0 U T makekids more well rounded S tougher school standards Textbook controversy people don t look into it too much about detail Talks about WWII how Japan invaded China Bullying may be worse in Japan kids not going to school No school on Saturdays 30 less workload parents hate it N 78 Japanese favor send kids to juku 0 v Contemporary Japanese note 120 Paci c War amp the occupation Independent Judiciary Guardian Council not in uenced by Politician Once appointed you have the right to decide without worries of being red Review Constitution to enforce laws Paci c War begins in 1931 broadens in 1937 broadens in 1941 Culture and the prosecution of the war US 1 Superhuman threat and foes 2 Deni grate Japanese as subhuman animals simian lice Japan 1 Images and themes of purity 2 Katana slicing enemies 3 Folkloric oni momotaro US image of Japan Japanese displayed as giant monster in image 0pU animals that need civilization death of Japanese Japanese image of US Japan beats up China j U demonic images Individualism and luxury western ideas contaminating Japanese Liberate British to help India Indonesia Kamikaze not dedicated and committed to become suicide bombers Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor Japanese Crazy God punishes them Act of mad dog Unsurpassed in the past Snyder Japan believed in myths paper tiger myth US doesn t have will bandwagon theories if Japan struck early other powers would not side with US Japan had other choices but did not choose them Militarism and Overexpansion opside of Meiji Restoration Late developers government heavily involved in economy Government was able to check the overexpansion but hijacking of concentrated militarist interest group dictated policy Caused by ghting against democratic trends that threatened position of military values amp institutions Riding a tiger hard to get off G Case in Manchuria and China Racism and triple inventions lack of resources affected Pearl Harbor decision Japan s invasion caused problem If Japan didn t invade China US didn t embargo oil Young of cers lie toward generals to push towards invasion MIT political scientist Japan had to expand in order to meet US aggression but at the same time Japan thought US was meek so that they wont ght after pearl harbor Japan need industrial empire P L need to control own oil US has ten times more industrial power why attack US if industrial is decisive IRRATIONAL Rational Sagan nuclear deterrence theory MAD don t attack enemy with nuclear weapon for your own sake if you are rational Deterrence theory Military capabilities must be suf cient threats must have credibility Japan attacked bc Not attacking US was worse Losing 2nd class power so take a chance on winning even if the odds are against you Deal or No Deal America few bases at time doable Occupation End of militarism in Japan why Structure vs Culture Alliance with US or simply changed as a person 1944 Gallot Poll do you favor killing every men women and child in Japan Ans 13 Enemy J aps as people not like Hitler party etc Emperor has special own words bc he s the superior ppl didn t know what he was talking but understood it was a bad sign Cities ruins poverty soldiers giving candies to kids MacArthur and the Emperor head above Emperor hands behind back 2 rude MacArthur got power US policy makers we gonna change Japan massive transformation that would change nature of Japan k SCAP MacArthur himself and his of ce RECONSTRUCT not PUNISH INDIRECT German direct bc not many Americans could speak Japanese Americans think differently about Japan pissed monkey Two main goals Demilitarize Japan fairly easy colonies stripped Taiwan with China Korea divided into SKorea and NKorea USSR took four small islands still at WAR with Japan bc did no sign the Peace Treaty in 1951 Article 9 in Constitution Democratize Japan reconstructed political institutions More liberal than US constitution Emperor not god and sovereign not hanged Good for cohesion Australian thinks Emperor should be hanged as war criminal House of Peers and Privy Council eliminated Diet Supreme new Upper House people are sovereign not vague like military Emperor etc Judiciary strengthened Purges military of cers incumbent politicians but few bureaucrats Japan unitary state Women get the vote Decentralization push power to local governments 1956 police and education recentralized Bureaucrat serving to people now Everyone equal regardless of class gender Cabinet have power Aimed to fundamentally transform Japanese political culture Make sure no authoritarian government take over and Democracy take root 0 Give women right to vote union more power interest groups and social forces Education no ethics courses obedience to superior no propaganda for emperor decentralize educational system 6 3 3 4 system Religion ended State Shinto Voting age reduced from 25 pY7 pj7 El pZ7 5 itA Land Reform 1946 a6 Independent land ownership stable democracy and no revolutions Recognized role of agrarian distress in rise of militarism By 1960 75 of farmers own all their land and 18 half their land SUCCESSFUL How SCAP limited amount of land that could be held to 7 12 acres if self farmed 2 12 if rented Economy Zaibatsu Busting end economic concentration backed up by democracy affected only Mitsui Labor reform Promotion of unions membership jumps from 4000 to 4000000 from 1945 Mao Zedong preaches Communist in China Reverse Course s Japan as democratic ally to US Contemporary Japanese Note 23 The 55 System Patterned Pluralism Pluralism x refers to both objective description and normative statement Good to have lots of different groups in uencing government Objective Description That political system is characterized by pluralism Immigration Ordinary people express concern about Homeland security Congress ICE interest groups courts system president lobbying co ethnics media etc all affecting policy Patterned Pluralism In Japan some interest groups have in uence on policy but only certain Some groups get into it some don t types of interest grou have power labor unions excluded patterned Japan inc 3 legs 39 W D reaucracy business politics Iron Triangle 1960 divided nation p x lots of ppl didn t like US security treaty Japan mg US Japan security treaty scatter US military and nuclear weapon in Japan Post war student movement Anti Government Socialist at risk being involved in nuclear war with Soviet Union go to war Conservative Japan can focus on economic development Kishi determined to pass US Japan security treaty despite the riot Door barricaded by group of Socialists Many saw Kishi s decision against Democracy 131 part politics Eisenhower cancelled visit Kishi resigned for embarrassment Poverty where was Japan heading Who would be left behind Miners miserable work 0 union Japan switches to oil from coil Mitsui lay off 1200 workers intense conflict 35 pays thugsyakuza to kill the worker to break the strike 3 HJ national crisis Government came in Miike lost FE 0nv 2nd part business Head of SocialistAsanuma murdered in live by right wing fanatic Hayato Ikeda came from Economic Bureaucracy Financial Ministry 2 double your income American beat Japan needed nancial support and security work of MITI P declared Japan s future depended on electronics favored big companies But small companies like SONY did emerge and grew at furious pace High speed course put collision with America TVs Companies worked together backed up by Government whereas America worked alone US aided Japan in anything that would help Democracy But Japan TVs were starting to catch American consumers problem for American TV makers Color TVs secret agreement that would sell TVs cheap in US Market Japanese government allowed powerful companies to form Keiretsu not able in US Japan Capital rates due to high saving rate and government intervention Film everything starts in 1960 form basis of Japan inc Most Japanese Start in 1955 55 system Begins in 1955 LDP wins and takes power rule until early 1990s LDP relationship w Bureaucracy Bureaucratic Primacy Ideological confrontation against Socialist in Opposition Distribution of Disaggregable Goods roads bridges subsidies etc Internal Relations Weak PM no power LDP rules alone Who rules Formation of LDP in response to JSP merged in order to win election against the formation of Socialist Party Socialists really a Peace Party A Reject US Japan Security Treaty 1960 B Rejected SDF until 1994 Key moment in system 1960 Gradual erosion of socialist challenge LDP more secure 55 system ends in 1993 w revolt within LDP covered later in quarter Phase1 19551964 Uni ed opposition 2 party system polarized pluralism deeply divided Society 1964 CGP forms N 1960 DSP forms Phase 2 1964 1976 JSP votes decline 32 S LDP declines 57 p Income doubling plan Phase 3 1976 0 1979 rst LDP vote rise More af uent Japan Rise of zoku and politician power One party dominant system Phase 4 1989 1993 Loss of upper house Scandals and more scandals Still one party dominance of 38 years is remarkable in comparative perspective 55 System LDP dominance Socialist main opposition losing all the time Bureaucrats powerful LDP relationship w interest groups and internal relationships Changes in the System Rise of new parties increasing affluence at individual and national level increasing savvy of politicians thinking more Decline of socialists Decline of polarization LDP and IG Less dependent on farmers Contemporary Japanese Note 210 The 94 System Institutions structure Electoral Systems affect number of parties Important things are indeed affected by electoral system Why do Electoral System matter Is there a people s will Choosing leaders essence of Democracy Can get opposite results by slight change in the electoral system SMD 2 Party system PR Multiparty system Plurality biggest group Majority over 50 PR system coalition govt Gerrymander VERY UNFAIR Can t gerrymander in PR Japan s Systems Old System under 55 system to 1994 SNTV MMD Very personal vote intense his personality as a human being New system 1994 Mixed System 300 SMD amp 180 bloc PR 25 or 3 party system F LDP DPJ CGP LDP Internal structure amp Electoral System Change Factions PARC Koenkai PARC committee group win LDP Unions still strong 12 million members farm vote dwindling important amp Soka Gakkai in uential urban oating voters more More Muscular PM Structural Changes Admin reform 2001 Electoral Reform TV Why PM more powerful Media attention links PM to party image Electoral System makes party label more important International System End of Cold War p Rise of China what will Japan do Bureaucratic Power Perceived decline scandals long term economic growth more assertive politicians 1 Electoral System matters in politics 2 How the changes shape Japan Today Contemporary Japanese Note 115 Militarism and Imperialism How and Why did Taisho Democracy end Be able to say when it ended and how and why critical Weimar Germany brought woe to neighboring countries by end of Democracy similar to Japan 1 Taisho Democracy starts with rise of party cabinet takes control of gov by being prime minister etc 2 Taisho Democracy ends 19311932 by assassination of Inukai May 15 1932 or Manchurian Incident Sept1931 IMPORTANT Inukai Assasiation shocking event Collaboration of right wing civilian groups and junior military of cers working together Radicals saw access between rich zaibatsu and politicians corrupt similar to increasing wealth in zaibatsu and increasing poverty during 1920s February 26 incident 1936 really a coup de tat led by radical young of cers Saburo Aizawa honored for his actions for love of country Japan brought to blink of civil war but survives Political Parties power decline due to political assassination By 1940 they are gone Censorship rises useless literature is waste of ink Minobe s Organ of State theory rejected emperor is a god State power turned against intellectuals freedom of religion expression suppressed Western goodsstylesideas banned baseball becomes yakyuu bc sounds more Japanese Closed dance halls Omoto religion banned completely Why did Taisho Democracy die Radicalism Institutional Flaws Radicalism economy slows down Agrarian society rice price goes down rapidly Great Depression export fell by half GNP decline 18 Silk devastated income drop by half from 1929 30 unemployment lower wage question of starve to death or not Overall income 100 0 J Terrorism not mass party like ItalyGermany emphasis on native Japanese purity No party PM since Inukai too scared Independence of supreme command p248 Military not subordinated to civilianPM Civil military relations MacArthur vs Truman China sent troops to NKorea UNUS mainly on other side Truman Bombing on north of Yalu River NG not want war w China MacArthur wanted to bomb 39 39 red NOT TRUE IN JAPAN w Radicalism of Military Imperialism For Recognition and Revision of unequal treaties imposed after Perry s Arrival u Okinawa u Taiwan sino Japan war Hokkaido pW Extra territoriality phased out form 1899 Countries don t like extra territoriality it is seen as that country is less civil Japan wins Taiwan over War on China start of Imperialism Americans thought it was great since civilized countries were imperial and it was their duty to civilized the non civilized Russo Japanese War over Korea Contemporary Japanese Note 212 Women in Japan Speech difference Home Oi Women typically control purse strings Children s education Importance of role as mother Divorce rates highest among retirees man in home more less Worry about money Women Who don t get married seen inferior Violence Against Women Severe underreporting of rape in Japan Tremendous amount of violence high in Japan Historical Background In uences from China Buddhist in uences Educational differences Different views on raising boys and girls Women and Work Fewer Women Work M curve Women get Worse jobs than men in Japan OLs incredibly boring EEOL Equal Employment Opportunity Law but no penalty M Curve Work retire W part time Work Child Care Provision and Tax Huge effect on Women s labor force participation If law assures you to go back to Work after 2 yrs of having baby Bigger companies likely to have less Women executives managerial position Men s gender role is structured just like Women men don t necessarily like to Work Women and Politics Passing elite bureaucracy exam 161 are Women In top 3 posts in bureaucracy 1 Womennn Local Politics small Japan getting better over time but still bad compared to US and Sweden labor participation Will rise Contemporary Japanese Note 35 Civil Society Civil Society Sphere Non state Non market organization Includes voluntary associations religious groups nonpro ts EX Green peace churches KKK not all civil society necessarily good Empirical de nition Non pro t do not distribute share to holders no one owns the organization Businesses cannot be NGO can t just read from the words NGO civil society Certain civil society can be controlled by the government by receiving a lot of funding Why does civil society matter A voice outside of the government independent policy ideas Social capital norms idea ex reciprocitytrust and network that facilitate communication help people get along better making government more effective or ef cient Another problem solver relieves efforts after disasters homeless medical care etc A place for the arts research medical What is Japan s Civil Society No one number to illustrate Civil Society r independent professionalized groups ANPO Japanese Enviornmental Movement 16 adult Japanese US Individual Japanese belong to groups ex NHA Local govt love kairanban cheaper more communication Small professionalized civil societies ppl know less about them Why Cultural Argument you don t know so you don t help Mandatory houshi katsudou vs volunteering Fail to account Kobe Earthquake Japanese volunteer high compared to professional civil society Political reasoning Core regulation is Article 34 for Public Interest Legal Person PILPs Lack legal status BAD Japan you have to bene t the public in order to be recognized by government determined by bureaucracy has legal monopoly so you can t sue Meiji law hard for Civil Society group concentrate on strong industry and army Direct Financial ows private giving public sector payments private fees Japan receives barely any public sector payments Indirect Financial Flows Postal regulations tax bene ts Implications for Democracy Civil society very little independent research contrast to US Got lots of Social Capital Cooperation and Ef ciency Information Trust monitoring the state Provides more info better creating pattern of many small or local groups but few large Contemporary Japanese Note 312 Security and Cool Privatization of con ict want to improve the environment in the US and want to regulate it reduce discrimination towards women in of ce SUE your of ce would be better but everywhere else that ruling would also apply Japan Protest get a redress but it wouldn t mean anything to people to next door Bureaucracy not willing to change law or regulation but do something about it Economics Trade Huge trade surplus with US about 90 billion Second biggest importer is China In fact China now the top importer Foreign Direct Investment Lots in China SE Asia Endaka meant lots in SE Asia Plenty of investment in US sometimes spurred rancor 1989 Mitsubishi purchase of Rockefeller Center Sony s purchase of Columbia Japan Invades Hollywood Death of Vincent Chin 1984 Not much inward investment ODA world leader top donor to about 50 countries in the world 1 until 1990 Diplomacy Reactive State Gaitasu Bilateral focus Incerasingly this concept challenged Saadia Pekkanen on WTO Culture Hard power guns amp money Soft power idea of Democracy pop culture Leader in consumer electronics video games TV shows movies J POP popularity in S Korea SE Asia History of Japan s IR War colonization of Korea Invasion of Manchuria 1931 China 1937 War w US Occupation De Militarization Article 9 violated SDF Reverse Course 1960 security treaty revision and Renewal Cold War Ally of US A normal country Changing Geopolitical Context Bipolarity Cold War Peace now Japan a balancing ally now Nuclear weapons Economic Interdependence Domestic Structures Rise of nationalist right Changing generations Younger ppl no experience losing war Party system change LDP and DPJ conservative International institutions Rise of China Neighbors China Frictions Rise of China frightening to Japan Catalyst in IR theory Bad History Japan tired of war crime accusation China tired of Yasukuni visits Taiwan ambiguity defend Taiwan Japan feels China wants a weak and passive Japan Incentives for accommodation China 1 trade partner huge part of J apan s economic growth now Japan integrating to China s economy rather than China depending on Japan Neighbors North Korea 1998 Taepodong Test right over Japan oC Japan spy satellite Myster ShipNaval battle Nuke Crisis Japan Abductee issue more important than nuke hard to understand Neighbors South Korea US ally no directly military relationship W Japan textbook Neighbors Russia No WWII peace treaty Kurile IslandsNorthern Territories dispute BUT oil incentive for accommodation Neighbors US Japan Alliance Host nation support Concentration of troops in Okinawa cheaper to have in Japan bc they pay everything besides salary Cork in the bottle in Japan keeps China DPRK in check Japanese Military Might 300000 military personnel Annual defense budget 50 billion strong navy Weak army not legally allowed to have military but does in reality Scholar s view of the future of J apan s Defense Policy check slide Contemporary Japanese Note 218 Religion amp Baseball Substantive de nition Human involvement w the sacred Primacy of Action try and see action precedes knowledge Religious action as cultural and social actions high level of belongings amp participation Most belong to Buddhism amp Shinto Academics believe 2030 adults actively practice but in polls only 33 declare Shinto Major Religions Shinto Buddhism New religions Shinto polytheism Co eXtensive seen as rituals for cultural and societal reason Pragmatism bene t oriented L A 3 3 d Pluralism born Shinto marry Christian die Buddhist Inclusiveness no this or that A or B blurred more the better Fluidity situational complementary all go together Individual can become god Toshogu shrine dedicated to Tokugawa Ieyasu Shinto Rites and Festivals ex setsubun birth etc Buddhism imported from Korea in 552 heavily in uenced Japanese arts aesthetics philosophy and thinking Associated with death more than Shinto Some to the point of being called commercial amulets pragmatic bene t New Religions nearly 3000 new religions Melting pot of religions Buddhism Shinto Confucianism Christianity etc Soka Gakkai big one 8 million Baseball Beesuboru yakyuu beginning of militaristic dominance Dominance of TokyoYomiuri Giants in pro baseball company own by far the most popular in Japan media in uence Foil Hanshin Tigers Koshien koko yakyu seen as pure passion amp intensity of players highly valued Ritual aspect of fan behavior in fan club ouendan Playing for ties to not miss the last train Cultural values emphasized in Japanese baseball Hardwork importance of practice Group identity Cooperation Respect for age and seniority Ya gotta have wa E Contemporary Japanese Note 25 Regime Change and Bubble Burst End of the 55 System Political Parties LDP and J SP Electoral System Economics Bureaucratic Scandals Role of TV in Politics Political Parties 1993 End of LDP government e Rise of Coalition Government multiple parties working together LDP in coalition after 1994 IMPORTANT SNTV Electoral System LDP J SP Opposition End of the Socialist LDP opposition p No con dence vote June 18 1993 passes if passed b automatic election backed by LDP defectors July 18 1993 new elections LDP biggest party not a rejection of LDP but others can be majority if formed coalition J RP J NP J SP CGP DSP Saki gake SDL all not LDP Communist August 1993 new coalition govt with PM Hosokawa excluding JCP and LDP only end of 55 system Bottom line Party Split Ichiro Ozawa Faction Politics old ppl in power young had to wait p split of party Scandals recruit scandal unlisted stock for favors implicates Takeshita Sagawa Kyubin 199293 u Shin Kanemaru s hoard of gold But now also implicating bureaucrats HIVAIDS and Hemophiliacs mishandling of nuclear accidents No pantsu shabu shabu MOF Rise of TV in politics Increased public dissatisfaction End of the Cold War 13 election under new system 1996 LDP continues to do January 1994 electoral reform passes u well How it works 300 SMD single member district Proportional representation representation is proportional vote for party not for individual fairer Proportional Representation making number of seats proportional to number of votes result 2 ballots district and PR people Opposition Parties vs LDP J SP leaves coalition coalition minority PM Hosokawa collapse since they are minority LDP J SP sakigake government 1994 J SP Murayama PM Socialist nally win But with long time feud LDP Yagou destroys the J SP credibility LDP J SP Saki gake government 11 1996 LDP PM Hashimoto Since then LDP in various coalition w various partners and still in power Liberals Ozawa Koumeito Conservatives Opposition Mutation 55 system main opposition JSP JSP and CGP 199394 Main opposition was several parties JSP CGPlt JRP JNP p 121094 Rise of Democratic Party of Japan a lot of parties New Frontier Party Chaotic 19902000 Bubble Burst Growth rate stabilize with high GDPCapita developed states more stable Economic slowdown is typical Japan grew very fast before but Bubble is atypical Bubble unprecedented growth of price along with crash Plaza Accord Setpember 1985 decision Chronic trade imbalance w the US 238 yen 1 dollar in 1985 to 120 60 1 year changing currency rate affect export 1990 MOF stopped issuing new bonds to nance de cit At height of bubble Tokyo alone more than USA 1990 Japan s real estate worth 2489 trillion dollars about half of the value of all real estate on earth 1 in 10 tokyo family millionaires 1987 Japanese stocks worth 42 of all stocks in the world TSE gt NYSE NTT gt IBM ATampT Exxon GE GM 1985090 Nikkei stock index tripled in value Bubble pe rations were up to 100 ANA 305 pe Lending frenzy stocks going up money is coming in bubble Bubble burst 3 yrs lost value of land amp stocks to Japan s economy 8 trillion 40 times WWII loss in absolute terms big banks moved MOF started J usen 1970 to get more funds to ordinary Japanese for housing to consumer mortgages J usen loses market share Hyper liquidity of bubble years D loaned money to unsavory customers 2 BAD People started to look at MOF what have you done wrong Monetary Policy 2 refers to measures like interest rate govt stimulate economy by lowering interest rate for everybody Fiscal Policy govt create job budget govt spend more money want de cit Jusen Problem limit number of money going to real estate J loaned money to anyone 2 most unsteady nancial institutions stimulate economy MOF didn t Why did the Bubble Happen Bubble Happens After the Bubble Bad loans 80 trilllion yen in 1990 Japan hope to recover wout massive intervention Japan let it be R time US opposite Got to keep things going or it would affect others and eventually overall economy You have to have banks loan money foreign money or take tax payer s money 2 Unpleasant but only way Japan performed various approach but did them too late V recession US U recession Japan pain over long period of inject money 7X Why Hasn t Japan got better It has but slowly averaged to be 17 year returned to the appropriate level Time of Transition Contemporary Japanese Note 218 Work 3 major features of employment in Japan Lifetime Employment Seniority Wage System Enterprise Unions union that exist within one company unlike trade unions Lifetime Employment Invest more in training to start More loyalty Few mid career switches of career Links to the education system c point of entry rise of the freetaa Types of Jobs can change after entering the rm depending on what kind of training one gets Life time employment strictly extends to only about 14 of all employees white collar employees at big rms But most rms try to copy or approximate the practice Japanese rms employment layoff variation is about 14 that of US rms especially now when economy is poor Makes sense Economically rational vs Doesn t make sense in terms of pure pro t Seniority Wage System Tied to verticality within Japanese culture 1999 pay based performance US more likely Japan less likely Enterprise Unions Trade unions ppl work in similar jobs principle of organization is your profession Enterprise unions based on company unlike to go on strike to cause the company fall dawn less adversarial relationship Some Americans criticized as truthless not working for company s rights Others see it as groupism and wa But actually a construct negotiated to solve problem Miike coal mine strike Japanese can be intense don t take cooperation for granted Labor excluded politically bc it supported J SP during 55 system and now favors DPJ Cultural basis Harmony wa Groupism Corporate World Keiretsu new zaibatsu Vertical Type subcontractors One group ex Toyota GM Horizontal Type doing all sorts of different things like zaibatsu in prewar Ex GE Subcontractors ones who have to let ppl go safe for big companies outsource Aim for market share more than pro ts Japanese vending machine a lot of brands but more market share US concentrate on pro t F less pro t less types of drinks Japanese Style Management Huge boom in 1980s In uenced US management Speci c practices QC quality control circles Just in time process technology Wet personal relations paternalism Boss meddle with affair more ex marriage result as lawsuit in US lol Bottom up decision making consensus US top down decision making may be slow but implementation can be fast CEO pay 1000 times more than average salary More and more CEOs come from outside rm Gendered Component Women s Work give them tea pouring job quit ha I told you they d quit iffy See Slide Survey of Labor management Policy Toward Women Business Interest Groups Peak Groups Keidanren most important Not corporatism One pillar of Japan Inc unlike labor Quite in uential on LDP policies patterned pluralism labor linked to J SPDPJ Closely connected to bureaucracy Amakudari many advisory councils Rise of Freeters regular employee declining 1 not universal in Japan 2 Are construct of times 3 Changing over time Contemporary Japanese Notes 226 Minorities Japanese not homogeneity 2 4 of those living in Japan are minorities Burakumin not people leatherworkers unclean in Shinto and Buddhism Tokugawa regime emphasized outcastes emphasized boundary Samurai Farmers Artisans Merchants 12 percent of population Eta Hinin shit burakumin 1871 Eta as class eliminated called New Commoners No biological difference from other Japanese 10 still believe a difference exist Visceral sterotypes tanki rude lazy stupid Estimatd 30 suicidesyear due to discrimination marriage school employment 1871 residence determine Burakumin or not BLL J iichiro Matsumoto refused to bow to Emperor Against US Goal improvement of district amp succeeded but prejudice still exists j discourse Many Burakumin joined Souka Gakkai and support CGP militant ethnic pride Euphemism Douwa Mondai Burakumin rather than Eta Educational and occupational attainments lower half as likely to go to college higher unemployment lower wages more likely to be red You will likely to have a less good life Special Measures Law 1965 poured into slums v 1983 lawsuit over broken engagement Discrimination no longer as blatant 5 absolutely oppose less on welfare improved areas but discrimination shouldn t exist in the rst place Regional variation kansai more strong northern less know about douwa mondai Prejudice shapes what ppl think of themselves act it P fact switch to human rights Exogamy rose begin to believe it validates the Ainu Subjugated by Japanese basically famers Ainu hunters Not ethnically Japanese no considered unclean as Burakumins or Koreans Concentrated in Hokkaido but very small in lag in educational and occupational attainments Assimilation or rede nition Okinawans Ryuukyuujin 700 yrs a semi independent kingdom paying tribute to China and then Satsuma and Kyuushuu 0 Forcibly absorbed by Japan in 1879 Kept by US after 1952 Returned to Japan in 1972 Status backward foreign ish houses most US base in Japan poor less educated Japan don t want US base crime rape relocation huge domestic issue Koreans No clear distinction between early Korean and Japanese History There is cultural debt that Japan owes to Korea but many modern Japanese do not realize Japanese colonization of Korea many Koreans unwillingly to work in Japan By 1945 about 24 million Koreans in Japan Rapid repatriation brought the number down to 544903 by 1950 Korea poor in civil war at that time s some stayed in Japan Status Remain foreign nationals Stereotypes of Koreans abound Koreans now Japan born and raised in Japan speak Japanese as 1 language Fingerprinting to get Japanese alien registration documents resisted p abolished Many support North Korea not South pisses off Japanese Run businesses like pachinko parlors Other Others Increasing Chinese minority Being a gaijin in Japan half Nikkeijin return migrants Uchi Soto Nihonjinron Japanese brains are different Reaction to Chinese cultural superiority 6 9 h century Foreigners can t speak Japanese Contemporary Japanese Notes 32 Media Media in General Agenda setting choosing coverage making news not necessarily become the one we want maybe People judge information know that not everything you see on CNN is true Opinion leaders mediation People tend to change their opinion by talking to people who they respect Minimal effects hypothesis you check it again on your own beliefs rst when you read newspaper Agenda Setting Some things are easier to cover than others sexier news stories Trivial coverage people just don t want to watch it News people lazy In uencing Opinions Opnions tend to be mediated by opinion leaders Campbell et al studies in US identify changers of elections shift in public opinion Ex Eisenhower elected Republican show American ppl s change Found that less you knew about politics more likely you were to change your vote Structure of Japanese Media Books many books more books per capita Magazines High brow opinion magazines like Foreign Affairs in the US popular ex Bungei shunju Popular weekly and monthly magazines again Huge Variety Shuukanshi Newsweek People the New Yorker and Playboy rolled into one closest to The National Enquirer more detailed coverage of selected topics purchased at newsstands Due to commute by train Overall Print Media US small of highbrow publications mass circulation of lowbrow publications Japan large mass middlebrow Newspapers Big 5 National Newspapers Yomiuri Asahi New York Times Mainichi Nihon Keizai Sankei Linked up to media homogeneity of voice in Japan Per Capita readership very high in international perspective mostly subscription TV Networks Rise of TV politics in Japan In US during famous Nixon Kennedy debates in 1960 based on appearance Ppl who heard on the radio thought Nixon won Those who watched TV thought Kennedy won In Japan in 1993 anti LDP see Altman article Newspaper dominant Morning shows read the newspaper Major Networks NHK BBC fair objective boring most in uential BIG 5 private networks Nippon TV Yomiuri TBS Mainichi Fuji TV Sankei Asahi TV Asahi Tokyo TV Nikkei Range of politics in Japan small due to media Newsstation Kume Hiroshi from entertainment Promoted easy to understand news in uence not only politics but on how news were presented soft news amp wide shows Bad for LDP PM and the Vote PM s importance in election has increased 1 Electoral system makes party label more important now 2 Media attention increasingly links PM to party image PM start get his own image regardless of his party Koizumi Charisma media gave more power to PM and his action matters now more often great or terrible PM less simply okay PM Decreasing trust in govt as more coverage occur Contemporary Japanese History Notes 311 Yakuza and Police Yakuza Colorful traditions Tattoos no tattooed persons in public bath signs Finger chopping Hand signal for Yakuza Toshimaen story everyone can identify Yakuza 100000 or so More open than ma a Meishi HQ of ces Very organized crime less random street crime yakuza making sure not happening One reason the police wink at them Recruit from bosozoku and chimpira Yamaguchi gumi Ya Ku Za 8 9 3 losers in gamble Yakuza in lms Glori ed as honorable protecting the people slashed face of Itami juzo Reality can be brutal make money off ordinary people Right wing groups Yakuza LDP nexus Kodama Sasakawa Kishi cellmates 0oq Sasakawa rehabilitation MIT refuses Sasakawa money like taking money from Hitler Jogging with Jimmy Carter Activities of Yakuza Prostitution Loansharing sarakin Drugs speed not narcotics Sokaiya nd out info about company embarrass threat Buy share start ght In real estate boom apartment cleaning Hard to evict in Japan can stay about 2 yrs can t even start proceedings for a year and can t get rid of lawful tenants 02h Relation w police a bit too cozy hire yakuza dogs loud music Police More money turned in than reported lost in Japan Japan much safer than US Kabukicho Safe Measuring Crime hard crime has to occur has to be reported police has to record Best sense of crime murder tends to be reported Japan 1257 US 19650 Robberies Japan 2463 underreported high US 535590 Rape 1483 US 96250 Japanese Drug Laws very strict Incarceration look at mirror to re ect yourself Less ppl in Prison in Japan Koban systm Most encounters with police are to ask directions Generally good impression of the helpful police In US most encounters with police are much less friendly Know the area much better Home visits Intrusive regular visits of homeowners Miyazaki Otaku jiken Ashikaga City info from 3 party favorable no one reported Cars no personal connection 2 less information thinning of human ties Structure FBI DEA ATF CIA state and local cops rolled into one Centralized Structure Real esprit de corps in Japan National Police take hard tests much more professional than US 68 college grads vs US 31 SCAP try to decentralize police but Japanese quickly centralized them after Policing Emphasis on apologies Extracting confessions psychological pressure possible No guns in Japan few gun crime Foreigner crime Chinese crime Increasing issue in Japan especially Foreign gangs taking over Perception vs reality Apichai Shipper argument Foreigner crimes increasing because more ppl are lying about visa or overstay Kenji Nakayama 1983 Aomori NPA National Police Academy Night Police Association Investigate and exchange info With police With crime involving Japanese Competition high
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