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Chapter 4- Job Analysis and Performance

by: Aimee Castillon

Chapter 4- Job Analysis and Performance PSYC333

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC333 > Chapter 4 Job Analysis and Performance
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Introduction to Industrial-Organizational Psychology
Kuy Kendall

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Lecture notes for Chapter 4
Introduction to Industrial-Organizational Psychology
Kuy Kendall
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC333 at George Mason University taught by Kuy Kendall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Industrial-Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 10/06/15
Organization name Al m e e C a Stl I I O n acastil7amuedu PSYC333 0 Fal2015 H lLQ ll l1 l2 39 39 ll l5 What is job performance eg How would you define good performance for a school teacher For a salesperson could we just define performance as of sales calls or visits made Why or why not Performance vs effectiveness vs productivity Job performance One of the most studied topics in HQ psychology Tons of variability within performance across individuals 21 to 41 ratio from highest to lowest performer in easy jobs 101 ratio in difficultjobs Understanding how to maximize performance is critical for the survival of organizations Key question What is performance ls performance one thing or several different things Is there a general definition of good performance or it is different for every job Job performance Actions or behaviors relevant to the organization s goals The emphasis is on actions and behaviors It is what people actually do and not the result of their actions performance what employees do actions or behaviors relevant to the organization s goals eg of sales calls or visits a salesperson makes in a month effectiveness The results of performance eg dollar value of sales productivity Ratio of effectiveness output to cost of achieving that effectiveness input Example Dollar value of sales made by salesperson divided by his or her salary Campbell s Model primary contribution of Campbell s model is showing that performance is multifaceted eight performance components Jobspecific task proficiency Nonjobspecific task proficiency Written and oral communication proficiency Demonstrating effort Maintaining personal discipline Facilitating team and peer performance Supervisionleadership ManagementAdministration 3 are essential for every job core task proficiency demonstrated effect maintenance of personal discipline whether and which additional components are relevant varies from job to job determinants of performance Campbell 1990 proposed three direct determinants of performance Declarative Knowledge Understanding what is required to perform a job or task Procedural Knowledge Knowing how to perform a job or task Motivation Consists of three choices 1 the choice to perform 2 the choice of effort level and 3 the choice to persist at a given level of effort over time These three characteristics cause good or bad performance Declarative Knowledge l DK Knowledge about facts and Procedural Knowledge and Skills lPKSl Knowmg now to Motivation quotm Choices things an understanding ofa dothings 7 7 given task39s requirements ljognitioe skill Whit dm dua s make X X Elnoloe to perform Facts P sychomotorskllll Le elnfm m Principles Physical skill or gquot Persostence of effort Goals Selfmanagement skill interpersonal skill Selfknowledge Ability Motivational Elements quot Personality interests From Theory Educatinn Training Experience Suggests that individual differences are indirect determinants of performance Example Intelligence helps people to learn what to do on the job ie declarative knowledge which then helps them to perform better Similar mechanisms are hypothesized for personality interests and other abilities Maximal vs Typical Performance Sackett Zedeck Fogli 1988 suggested that there is a difference between an individual s typical performance what people will do maximal performance what people can do Their typical performance or average performance is guided by a combination of abilities and motivational asoects such as various personalitv characteristics This may be the type of performance lO psychologists are most interested in because it describes the way employees will typically act Maximal performance reflects the types of knowledge skills and abilities that an individual has and is capable of using on the job In other words how well can they perform if they are fully motivated to do so Maximal performance will be more heavily affected by physical and mental abilities and less so by personality An individual s ability puts an upper limit on how well they can 92915 perform The Criterion Problem the challenge of capturing all important components of performance d i l fiim criterion deficiency amp contamination criterion deficiency when actual criterion is missing information that s part of behavior one is trying to measure criterion contamination When actual criterion includes information unrelated to the behavior one is trying to measure relationship bt the ultimate and the actual criterion L Good or Not Relevante Outcomes Identified by Outcomes Outcomes Related to Training l Objectives Needs Assessment M l39aasured irl and included Evaluation in Training Objectives The Relationship Between the Ultimate l and theActual Criterion Contamination l Palmer Criterion Deficiency Relevance and Contamination r An Actual Measure ofdob Performance UC Good Measure of Performance Lots of Overlap gOOd measure Of performance lots of overlap The Relationship Between the Ultimate and the Actual Criterion Task performance vs OCB Bad Measure of Performance Little Overlap bad measure of performance little overlap Extensions of the Basic Performance Model task performance doing just what is expected Different from jobtojob Typically predicted by abilities amp knowledge OCBs Organizational Citizenship Behavior going beyond what is expected common behaviors across mostjobs typically predicted by personality determinants of 0083 OCB and CWB Reeshad personality Dalal S metaanalysis specifically conscientiousness OVera relat39onsmp work environment jobs with high autonomy between OCB 8 CWB interaction of personality and work environment 32 conscientious individuals more likely to engage in OCB3 d CWB OCB when autonomy is high are d39St39mt altruism helpful behaviors directed toward individuals or groups within the organization ie teachers stay afterhours to help students generalized compliance behavior that is helpful to the broader organization ie posting something nice on social media CWBs Counterproductive Work Behavior encompasses all forms of deviant behavior at work including theft absenteeism sexual harassment verbal abuse sabotage etc Sackett proposed a hierarchical model with a general CWB factor This broad factor is made up of either interpersonally or organizationallv directed deviance At the bottom of the hierarchy are the specific forms of CWB Hierarchical Model of Deviance Sac ketxt DeVo re Figure 45 Hierard ml Model of Devianc SOURCE Based on 5 Datum EDD Enunlerprndut litreheha a inr Inlerpersmnal dauiance r h lrgzamzatmnal dEvrance determinants of CWB Low emotional stability low agreeableness and conscientiousness Low positive and high negative affectivity Low agreeableness is a strong predictor of CWBl and Low conscientiousness is a strong predictor of CWBO CWBs are also strongly predicted by perceived unfairness Conditional reasoning test could possibly be used to identify people with aggressive tendencies who are more likely to engage in CWBs relationship bt 008s and CWBs some research has shown that 008s and CWBs have a strong negative correlations Because of this some have suggested that they might just be opposite ends of the spectrum However it is easy to think of examples where individuals engage in immmmvmwumnmm ran ammunmmmwmmmmmmmemmm Table 43 8 Adaptive Performance Areas and De nitions Nahuman both CWBs and 008s Adaptive Performance performance component that includes flexibility and the ability to adapt to changing circumstances Beneficial due to changing nature of work Changing technologies alter work tasks Mergers downsizing amp corporate restructuring Globalization amp working in different cultures 8 Dimensions Handling emergencies or crisis situations Handling work stress Solving problems creatively Dealing with uncertain work situations Learning work tasks technologies amp procedures Demonstrating interpersonal adaptability Demonstrating cultural adaptability Demonstrating physically oriented adaptability occupations vary in the extent to which adaptive performance is required and the 11 of adaptive performance that is most critical determinants of adaptive performance given the emphasis on learning cognitive ability is a strong predictor of adaptive performance achievement motivation is also a strong predictor more research is needed 10115 Soft indicator qualitative prone to subjectivity Hard indicator quantitative you can count them ie weight height Job Analysis Fundamental Properties and Practices Job analysis Process that determines the important tasks of a job and the human attributes necessary to successfully perform those tasks uses ofjob analysis information include performance assessment training selection recruiting promotion job description workforce reduction think Up in the Air movie criterion development compensation taskoriented describes the tasks that the worker actually performs the tools and machines used and the work context eg functional job analysis used by US Employment Service job analysts to classify jobs for the DOT describes what workers do in jobs work elements are scored in terms of relatedness to data people and things The most recent version uses seven scales 1 Things 2 Data 3 People 4 Worker Instructions 5 Reasoning 6 Math and 7 Language workeroriented focuses on what is required to perform the job eg human characteristics and attributes eg position analysis questionnaire PAQ Developed by McCormick et al 1972 most famous job analysis survey uses workeroriented approach assessed all jobs on a common set of behaviors by judging the relevance of the behavior for the target job PAQ methodology allowed for factor analyses across a number ofjobs The resulting factors were used to assess all jobs on several important criteria both approaches help to identify the KSAO knowledge skills attributes amp other characteristics necessary to perform well on the job but workeroriented JA is more KSAOfocused task vs workoriented JA Workeroriented JA is more common and may be more useful Why Less tied to particular technology More general KSAOs knowledge collection of discrete related facts amp information about a particular domain skill eg computer or interpersonal skills practiced act ability stable capacity to engage in a specific behavior other characteristics interests personality etc Figure 46 Role of job Analysis in Assessment llttentifitatiltnlaf if lilevelmpmzent all Jul Analysis I HEADS Assessment Emcee how job analysis is done observation limitations interviews incumbent supervisor can be conducted with subject matter experts SMEs SMEs critical incidents amp work diaries Critical Incidents Techniques SMEs are asked about the critical aspects of performance in a job This information is primarily based on SMEs recalling specific incidences of outstanding or poor performance Work Diaries SMEs incumbents or supervisors write down what they are doing at specific times throughout the day questionnairessurveys SMEs respond to questions about specific behaviors and their frequency and importance for performance on the job The best SMEs are those with experience on the job Suffers from the same problems as interviews performing the job Con invasion of privacy Job analysis Newer developments electronic performance monitoring can be cost effective potential for providing detailed and accurate worklog eg this call may be monitored for quality control purposes very useful for training and creating performance evaluations cognitive task analysis methods for decomposing job and task performance into discrete measurable units with special emphasis on eliciting mental processes and knowledge content Approach used to observe seemingly unobservable thought processes thinkaloud protocol Approach that investigates thought processes of experts who achieve high levels of performance timeconsuming and requires a good deal of expertise to do well Consider the following to determine whether cognitive task analysis may be worthwhile Persistent performance problems Costly errors or accidents Training difficult to transfer to job behavior Takes a long time to achieve high levels of performance personalityrelated position requirements form PPRF Devoted to identifying personality predictors ofjob performance Intended to supplement job analysis summary ofjob analysis process The more information gathered from the greatest number of sources the better the job analyst can understand the job Most job analyses should include considerations of personality demands amp work context Occupational Information Network ONET Introduced by federal government to replace the Dictionary of Occupational Titles DOT Electronic medium so it can be updated instantaneously as changes occur Experience I equiremerrls I aiming Experience LIEEHEIJFE IIJ39IIEEE IIEIEhIr1rJi hula and Eiqulrimnril I ha39rmm gm mm competency modeling Identifies characteristics desired across all individuals amp jobs within an organization Connects individuals with organizational viability amp profitability Natural extension ofjob analysis logic rather than a replacement example at Intel Corp Taking risks and challenging the status quo Emphasizing quality by setting high goals 3 Demonstrating discipline in project planning meeting commitment and conducting business with a high level of integrity probably most useful if combined with traditional job analysis Job Evaluation Comparable and the Law Job evaluation Method for making internal pay decisions by comparing job titles to one another amp determining their relative merit Compensable factors Factors used to determine pay Skills responsibility effort amp working conditions Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires equal pay for equal work Often based on job titles comparable worth Notion that people who are performing jobs of comparable worth to an organization should receive comparable pay In the end comparable worth is concerned with the social value of fairness Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Federal law that prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of race color religion sex or national origin These five groups are protected groups Prohibits both intentional and unintentional discrimination against these groups Intentional racist individuals making hiring decisions Unintentional a test that unintentionally filters out members of a protected group at a disproportionate rate job analysis and employment litigation Competent job analysis does not guarantee validity but absence of credible job analysis could be very damaging Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures 1978 Requires explicit connection between test used to select employees and the job tasks and responsibilities Job analysis provides that connection SIOP Principles 2003 are more updated and consistent with current research


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