JRN 101 notes
JRN 101 notes Jrn 101
Popular in Media and Society
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
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Date Created: 10/06/15
JRN 101 Chapter1 notes With traditional mass media whowhat is the sender 0 Large forprofit organizations Examples Why are they sending their messages To make money Who tended to be the receiver of these messages 0 Large mass heterogeneous diverse audiences How did audience provide feedback to the senders slowlimited phone letters stop watchingreading That model of mass communication has changed in recent years because of the Internet Howwhy Let s individuals reach mass audiences at little or no cost for specific audiences The senderreceiver model of mass communication discussed above most closely resembles the Linear model discussed in Ch 1 In that a large forprofit corporation sends a message to a large diverse audience through an electronic channelmedium All members interpret the message in a similar way and the sender gathers limited often slow feedback But this linear model fails to consider that many receivers interpret messages differently because of their cultures who they are what they believe What factors would likely influence how a person interprets a mass media message Culture Religious Views Political Affiliation This way of understanding media messages is referred to as the cultural model Be familiar with these two models and with the social science model which relies largely on data analysis to determine how media messages are interpreted A few terms to watch for in here These will come up often 0 Consolidationconglomeration o convergence blending previously distinct media into one AN obvious example of this would be internet 0 Diversity of voicesmarket place of ideas 0 Censorship note the various types With consolidation one company buys another Ex Gannett Company and thus concentrates or consolidates its power Note the many holdings of advanced publications owner of Booth Newspapers in Michigan which might own paperswebsites in your hometowns Ann Arbor Flint Grand Rapids Saginaw The concern here is that those media outlets will benefit only with profitbenefiting stockholders and NOT the communities they purport to serve Yet another important consolidated company is Clearchannel the largest radio company in the United States It owns about 800 stations and reaches a major portion of the US audience It also owns outdoor advertising and promotes live concerts It has enormous power and influence and generates billions in revenue annually Conglomeration is when a company owns Like or dissimilar companies Disney for example owns theme parks clothing companies travel agencies But it also has many media holdings Both conglomerates and consolidated companies raise concerns Americans value or claim to value a diversity of voices in the marketplace of ideas The marketplace of ideas refers to the notion that when all voicesideas are allowed to compete the best ideas will prevail Consolidation and conglomeration are thought to threaten diversity in that marketplace because fewer voices will tend to dominate Fewer voices ideas information will be allowed on the airwaves in print or online denying them the right to compete in that marketplace of ideas Some argue the Internet has largely cured this problem because about 75 percent of digital content most of it on the Internet is usergenerated content produced by individuals But large corporations still dominate what is seenconsumed online because they draw larger audiences And their products tend to be of a much higher technical quality potentially giving them more power Further many large companies are buying out smaller previously independent websites Google s purchase of YouTube for example A final C word convergence refers to the blending of different types of media in a single medium The most obvious example of that would be the internet which brings together print video audio Much concentration of ownership took off in the 1980s because of deregulation under Reagan The feds Federal Communications Commission eased ownership restrictions letting one company buy more properties in a single market The trend continued in the 90s under Clinton so it transcends political parties Many media moguls began snapping up other previously independent companies In particular Rupert Murdock took the lead His News Corp bought Fox TV Fox Studios and MySpace More recently he bought Wall Street the premier financial newspaper in the United States and one of most widely read Investors in these private companies often demand huge profits from them What effect would those demands likely have on those companies news operations which often lose money but most would argue provide an essential service to society Focus on trivial rather than important We ll often discuss in here censorship and the threat it poses to journalists other professional communicators and the public in general Four main types of censorship T raditionaIgovernment The government or some state entity tries to restrict access to material based on the material s content Corporate censorship Where a company bans material for whatever reason usually to avoid offending and losing customers and cash Informalcommunity Often certain topicsideasopinions are considered offlimits in certain communities so people there tend to avoid those topics even though no formal law prohibits them from such discussion Selfcensorship Where an individual censors himself or herself often out of fear of informal or community censorship and fear of being outcast or ostracized Would CMU s restrictions on the amount of material you can download be an example of censorship If so what kind Explain your answer No censorship deals mostly with restricting content rather than the amount of distribution IChapter 3 concluding notes A few closing comments about factors that shape the news These apply to TV radio print multimedia to any type of journalist today Reasons why news stories tend to be quotnegativequot In western societies we expect things to work Businesses are supposed to make a pro t while behaving ethically Athletes celebrities and politicians and other prominent people are expected to abide by the standards of their profession Everyone is expected to obey the law and do his or her job That is the status quo When they don t do those things when that status quo is disrupted that s news When systems fail when processes don t work properly when people violate the norms of society the news media believe that society needs to know about it And it s the news media s job to tell them That s why 500 planes landing safely at Detroit Metro is nota story But one plane crashing is a huge story And it s why we don t need to know that most politicians in Lansing and DC are reasonably decent and honest people We do need to know when two politicians are ensnared in an affair and using public resources to hide that fact It s an even better story when those two campaigned on quotfamily values and morality themes We need to know these problems so that we as a society can try to x them If thousands or even millions of college graduates are leaving school with massive student loan debts and especially if they re unable to nd jobs in their eld society needs to know about that problem Again it s a journalist s job to inform the public on such matters Changing role of gatekeepersjournalists Journalists are good at pulling facts together and trying to make sense of themplacing them into context telling their signi cance or why they re important But in large part because of the internet and especially social media the traditional role of gatekeepers haschanged When making decisions these gatekeepers must now consider the role social media and the internet As the telegraph did in its times more recent technology is forcing journalists to emphasize speed sometimes over accuracy Of those two considerations which is the most important one for an ethicajournalist Journalists are no longer the sole gatekeepers Now almost everyone has access to the internet and members of the public often gather and post information photos raw video text and few of them feel constrained by traditional ethical standards In many cases they are posting clickbait which might be described as content often shocking designed primarily to lure users to click on a link Ethical journalists believe shocking content if used should have a larger purpose to inform public on important issue provide special insight into a social problem to galvanize society to act If you re going to run the video of the Roanoke TV crew that was murdered on camera how do you justify that Other times the content is designed to outrage Cecil the Lion and a story that might have been ignored under the old model now dominates the headlines for days or even weeks Note the discussion of the photo of the drowned Syrian boy Can you suggest a larger purpose greater good that might have been served by using that photo To inform the world of that are going on and generate support to help a cause Partial notes Chapter 2 Over the centuries we ve seen several communication revolutions The shift from oral to written communication generated grave concern that people would forget how to converse facetoface The invention of the telephone raised similar concerns as did TV and radio As we said the printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the mid14005 revolutionized communication and greatly in uenced society both short and longterm The printing press democratized knowledge eventualy making it available to far more people that had been the case Allowed more ideasknowledge to be spread more rapidly easily broadly Cheaper books also became more accessible 0 Those with access to books began to expose themselves to new ideas Cheaper books also encouraged literacy as people saw great value in learning to read and in some cases to write 0 Readers eventually began to demand more variety nonreligious books 0 As people became more literate they began to read and interpret on their own No longer did they have to rely on the literate elite classes such as clergy and nobility to tell them what for example the Bible meant 0 Their own interpretations were often at odds with what they had previously been taught by those who had a lock on knowledge 0 It also became more difficult for authorities to seize andor destroy every copy of an offensive work because there were simply too many of them 0 This trend clearly threatened the lock the elite had on knowledge and eventually threatened status quo Not surprisingly though the elite often tried to centralcensor information Faster and more accurate publishing also allowed scientists to begin to share ideas and discoveries more readily and to build on earlier ndings These discoveries led to new knowledge that often challenged the beliefs of the Churchclergy These are just a few of the many changes wrought by the printing press Note however that these were usually gradual longterm changes n0tsudden and dramatic ones People say we are in the midst of a digitalinformation revolution Do we see any of these trendschanges today Can you draw any parallels between the printing press and the Internet Books eventually became a mass medium and have often been considered dangerous by those in control of knowledgeinformation That s true even today Books are among the quotleast massquot of the mass media and so are less susceptible to commercial pressures than many types of media Thus they have less need to reach mass audiences by catering to popular tastes Because they don t rely on advertising readers pick up mostall of the cost of books they can offend and push unpopular ideas Seen as repositories of culture and as authoritative the nal word They are seen as a more intimate medium that often act as agents ofsocial change Books ability to quotspeak toquot their readers to move in uence readers makes them a threat to status quo and many people have banned or tried to ban books throughout history see Banned Books List MAGAZINES Chapter 4 Partial notes The rst American magazine was established in the 17405 and this medium was said to be the rst to really transcendlocal issues Because they publish less often than newspapers magazines focus more on issuestrends than on daily events crime elections sports As early as the 18005 magazines began to specialize and aim their content at niche audiences that are a smaller part of the larger public In the 18005 magazines often focused on women39s issues and social issues patent medicine child labor arts and cultures and political commentary Much of this specialization continues today and it has allowed magazines to survive or even thrive The main audience for magazines today is women This is a very lucrative audience in part because they make many of the buying decisions in a home and increasingly beyond In 1821 the Saturday Evening Post became the rst general interest magazine TIME magazine was launched in 1923 and was one of the rst to write from a particular point of view eschewing the notion of objectivityfound in newspapers Time became the lead publication for TimeLife a media empire that eventually launched People in 1974 which focused on celebrities and Sports Illustrated which of course focused on sports Also note that the highestcirculation magazine today appeals to a quotnichequot audience of sorts AARP aimed at older retired people In the early 19005 the muckrakers crusaded against abuses of big biz corrupt gov39t Some of the major names from that era were Jacob Riis photojournalist Upton Sinclair Thejungle whose work exposed some of the awful working and health conditions at the nation39s meatpacking plants Ida Tarbell who wrote of the abuses of the Standard Oil Trust and Lincoln Steffens who wrote about governmental corruption Do muckrakers exist today Examples Yes Michael Moore Fast Food Nation Magazines thrived in the 19305 and 19405 but faced new challenges from Win the 19505 They soon began to specialize even more targeting their content at narrower portions of a larger mass audience As noted this trend continues today Examples People Seventeen Teen Vogue While many writers aspire to write for magazines it39s quite dif cult to nd a staff position Most magazine writers work rst for newspapers where they build a reputation for writing clearly concisely and accurately and they show they39re able to meet deadlines Perhaps the best way to break into magazine writing is by free Iancing working on a perstory basis Many magazines rely exclusively on them Three main types of magz ConsumerPeope Reader39s Digest Sports Illustrated The ones you probably know best 0 Trade magazines that focus on a speci c industry or trade such as Columbia Journalism Review 0 Company magazines that circulate within companiesinstitutions and are often written by their PR people Increasingly magazines are moving exclusively to the web webzines Examples Salon and Slate Many magazines operate on a formula They know precisely what their readers want and they give it to them Celebrity magazines for example What would make a quotgoodquot celebrity piece While many magz launch few about lg last long Like other media magz are consolidating and no surprise moving to the web sometimes exclusively Still we have about 19000 magazine titles today The twomain sources of income for magazines are subscriptionssales and advertising Most magazines contain about 50 percent advertisingeditorial news features content and advertisers often try to in uence magazine content Chrysler for example used to demand to see the editorial content prior review before deciding whether to advertise Cigarette companies have done the same These practices threaten the publications39 editorial integrity Magz remain an attractive medium for advertisers gt Nature of audience affluentengaged gt Audience is quotready to buyquot brie y explain this They are interested in the products gt Longer sheIfIife than other types of media gt High passalong readership boosts numbers who see a magz A few words about photoiournalism and photoiournalists manv of whom made their names in magazines Mathew Bradywas originally was a portrait photographer richfamous but later decided to record the Civil War He organized his photographic corps and assigned photographers to various fronts but he actually took very few photos himself Photography at the time was tedious timeconsuming Newspapers lacked the technology to run photos illustrations instead although magazines ran a few These photos are some of the most authentic images from the Civil War Photography became key to creating a truthful record of history Contrast the quotBradyquot images with earlier images paintings and illustrations of war which tended to be Romantic glamorized Note the dramatic difference jacob Riis was considered a muckraking photojournalist He grew up in poverty and wanted to expose the conditions of the poor especially immigrant life Riis was one of the rst to use ash photography which let him photograph inside and at night He captured what some have called the quothell on earthquot of immigrant life and his photos are far more revealing and honest that many of the mistyeyed images from that era A kindred spirit to Riis was Lewis Hine whose work took aim at child labor He sometimes lied to get into the factories and was often threatened with his life He documented the Depression and his work appeared in a few newspapers but more often progressive magazines Marg BourkeWhite was also a renowned photojournalist She was the rst female war correspondent and the rst to be allowed in the combat zones At the end of WWII she photographed many of horrors of the Holocaust such as Buchenwald She was also the rst female photographer for Life Much of her work appeared on its cover Along with Dorothea Lange she documented the plight of the Okies who ed the Dust Bowl in the Southwest during the Depression 19305 for California One of those in uenced by the work of Depressionera photographers was Gordon Parks who started in P at age 25 He paid special attention to the AfricanAmerican community documenting its problems and successes He also documented the racism that he and many other AfricanAmericans faced at the time Parks was known for his extensive series of photographic essays in Life magazine the premier photojournalistic showcase of its time His photos of Muhammad Ali and civil rights activist Malcolm Xdrew wide acclaim and he was also an accomplished fashion photographer He died in 2006 at age 93 Also note these terms Postal Act of 1879 and its signi cance Minority magazines such as Ebony Essence and Latina elite magazines such as the New Yorker and onineony ezines such as Saloncom and Slatecom Newspapers partial notes JRN 101 Newspapers have traditionally been viewed as first draft of history because they document events history as they happen with all the rough edges They are under tight deadlines and have to tell their stories often before all of the facts are in That pressure has only intensi ed with the Internet The nadraft of history the polished version usually falls to books and other media Newspapers have traditionally served what is called a watchdog function rolefunction in society They try to keep an eye on watchdog government and big business Example Hilary Clinton emails Newspapers also have traditionally been a more serious medium than TV It s less visual but more indepthanalytical than most other media Most quotreal journalismquot the Afghan abuse story for example tends to originate with newspapers Major newspapers in the US and widely read abroad Newspaper of record New York Times Financial The Wall Street journal Politics The Washington Post Popular allaround USA Today Major Michigan newspapers are Detroit Free Press and Detroit News Note that the News broke a major political scandal a few weeks back illustrating the paper s watchdog role Ifwhen newspapers are doing their jobs they often clash with government of cials Years ago doing so could place your life in serious danger as john Twyn illustrates His crime was to politely suggest the king consider the wishes of his subjects before acting m what happened to him Mutilated Hanged Beheaded Burned Quatered He illustrates the dangers of trying to express oneself freey And he illustrates just how hostile the British were to the idea of a free press A few decades later newspapers in the American colonies still operated under various constraints although British were far less likely to butcher someone for violating them 0 Prior restraint which was censorship before publishing 0 Seditious libel or the crime of criticizing the go vernmentgo vernment of cials A few namesdates Benjamin Harris 1690 established Pubick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick the rst newspaper in the colonies gt Published without authority and wrote of royal scandals troubles that made the authorities look bad gt It lasted a day john Campbell 1704 Boston Newsletter gt Published With authority so what types of stories do you think he produced Inoffensive dull works gt It lasted for years and he made a lot of money Colonial authorities often harassed early publishers but those journalists helped establish the notion of a free independent press The Zengertrial 1735 was a landmark event for the pressearly American journalism gt While he was clearly guilty he was acquitted of seditious libel gt This was a moral victorythough nota legal precedent for press gt This helped establish the press as a leader in the ght for more freedoms As is often the case even today editors of that time argued for free expression for themselves but they denied the same to political rivals They harassed editors who remained loyal to British even tarring and feathering them Even after passage of the First Amendment in 1791 journalists and other critics of the government had to deal with gov t censorship such as the Alien and Sedition Acts which punished speechthat was critical of government and sent many editors to jail This was the rst of several attempts to limit free expression despite the First Amendment In late 17005 early 18005 after the new nation the Partisan Press dominated gt Partisan Papers were supportedpromoted by political partiesrich patrons gt Fair and balanced Onesided vicious attacks gt They tended to feature weighty serious essay and debates gt They cost about 5yr and you had to subscribe gt So they tended to reach a wealthy educated audience not the average person Newspapers were not yet a true mass medium This attitude toward journalism changed in 1833 with Benjamin Day s New York Sun He created what became known as the Penny Press what many consider the nation s rst true mass medium It brought important changes gt Because it cost only a penny it tended to reach working class gt Distribution Streets v subscription People no longer had to pay for an entire year s subscription which few could do They could buy it day to day on the street gt Content News over views facts rather than opinion gt Source of revenues advertising not advocates didn t rely on wealthy sponsors or political parties The Penny Press do NOT confuse this with the printing press or the Partisan Press they are three distinct things was a popular product and many other newspapers soon followed suit trying to reach masseslarge audiences This was advent of modern newspapers and in some ways modern media For many years newspapers thrived off of advertising especially classi eds realty and job ads Where have those sources of revenue gone today The American Civil War 1816 brought important changes to newspapers The telegraph placed more emphasis on speed over literary ourish and polished writing In part because of the telegraph newspapers began using the inverted pyramid style of writing that emphasized placing most important information at the top of the story and leaving the nonessentials for later This style is still widely used today Further bylines which told the reader who wrote the story also became commonplace They were mandated by the government to monitor which reporters wrote what Yellow journalism This style arose in the late 18005 in part because of the enormous competition between and among newspapers in larger cities lt drew huge audiences with its bold headlines focus on crime and scandal and exaggerations lies hoaxes gt Two main practitioners were Hearst Pullitzer gt Hearst was thought to have a key role in agitating for the SpanishAmerican war quotYellow journalistquot remains a pejorative even today Do we see any examples of yellow journalism today Tabloids New York Post Fox
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