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Fall Semester Notes

by: acgreene

Fall Semester Notes HIST 102

GPA 3.0
World History Since 1500
Christian Davis

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Extensive notes from every single class lecture for the semester, including vocabulary and pictures.
World History Since 1500
Christian Davis
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This 69 page Bundle was uploaded by acgreene on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Bundle belongs to HIST 102 at James Madison University taught by Christian Davis in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see World History Since 1500 in History at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 10/07/15
Why Study World History 827 0 World history became acceptable alternative to western civilization courses in 1970s 0 Bene ts broader perspective of world prevents ethnocentrism understand motives and decisions of other countries Drawbacks lacks depthdetail impoverished understanding of own country can convey stereotypes if taught incorrectly Educates young people about history of the world in order to avoid horri c problems that nationalism caused o Nationsregions are no longer selfcontained everyone is subjected to cultural in uences 0 Can only understand a country s poverty or wealth if you see the big picture global system 0 Global problems respect no national boundaries l terrorism global warming economic meltdown Africans and Asians demanded that their histories be treated the same as Europeans World history counters Eurocentrism quotWest is bestquot quotonly westerners have true agencyquot is no longer an accurate representation of understanding the world 0 World history explores nonwestern values and validates non western experiences 0 Questions assumption that western civilization progress 0 Shatters myth that only westerners have true agency 0 Image by Johannes Stradanus of Amerigo Vespucci Eurocentric perspective because natives are portrayed as animals Vespucci shown as technologically advanced native posed helplessly European expansion in Americas fueled ground work for Industrial Revolution Europeans didn t have ability to impose their will on Africa and Asia Ottoman Empire colonized Easter and South Eastern Europe while Europe was colonized the Americas 0 14502 conquered Constantinople renamed Istanbul o 1463 conquered Greece Serbia Bosnia 0 15205 conquered Hungary governed 13 of Europe for 300 years while spreading to North Africa 0 Mehmet II led conquerings using advanced war technology Ottoman Empire was place of ethnic diversity allowed Christians and Jews to practice their own faith Ottomans controlled intercontinental trade because they were in between Europe and Asia Future seemed to belong to the Islamic faith not Christianity Neighbors with Safavid Empire and Mughal Empire Islamic religion made its way to Africa by 16th century rulers in North and East Africa followed Islam Europeans were on the rise in the 15005 but did not yet possess most dynamic or powerful Empires China Ming Dynasty since 1370 oversaw Chinese expansion northward into Mongolia and south into Vietnam Booming economy effective central government huge population built roads and canals agricultural trade production of silk amp porcelain had huge cities like Beijing and Canton Ming voyages 140514305 diplomatic missions huge eets of ships reached Persian Gulf Red Sea and East Africa 0 Displayed level of wealth and prosperity the Europe could only imagine Africa 13 15th centuries controlled by Islamic Mali empire yet most of its inhabitants practiced local African religions Agricultural empire with large cities like Timbuktu contained 50000 people with mosque and library Mali empire replaced by Songhai empire 0 Wealth from trade involvement rulers were also Islamic o Traded gold and slaves for textiles and salt Empires were often at war with each other over territory and religion different versions of Islam Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus goal was to reach Asia by sailing East underestimated size of globe and accidentally landed on the Americas and the Caribbean Columbus s letter to King and Queen of Spain shows motivation to explore was a lust for wealth discovered cotton gold spices mastic 0 Wanted to plug himself into a preexisting system of intercontinental trade 0 The great Khanquot of China referring to ruler Genghis Khan Columbus reveals his desire to become apart of Asian trading network Intercontinental system of commercial exchange 0 Silk Road connected China to India and Middle East and Mediterranean most coveted item produced in China was silk 0 Indian Ocean sea trade route travelled from China Japan Korea to India and Eastern coast of Africa 0 Spices pepper nutmeg cloves cinnamon were central to Indian Ocean trade reached Europe through sea routes and African caravans Highly desired by elites because of use for food seasoning wine and beer avoring medicinal purposes 0 Northwest Africa gold secret gold mines south of Mali produced majority of gold in the world market exchanged for textiles and salt Also traded ivory kola nuts cloth and slaves European Players Europeans were marginal players in this trading system they were not central Didn t produced anything that the rest of the world wanted to buy people wanted items produced by Asia and African markets Geographically blocked by Ottoman Empire to direct access to Middle East and Asia European Crusades 10971291 brought Europeans into greater contact with eastern trade goods and products Crusader knights created crusade states along western coast of Middle East Vivaldi Brothers 1291 attempted to sail from Italy to India by going around southern tip of Africa disappeared and never heard from Marco Polo went from Venice to China across Africa and through Asia claimed to be successful and wrote memoir describing travels abroad greatly increased desire by European elites to get more direct access to other markets which motivated Christopher Columbus Vasco de Gama wanted to sail directly to Asia to create a more direct trade route sailed around southern tip of Africa successfully landed in India in 1492 0 He and Columbus were not only motivated by wealth and commerce but also by God convert people to Christianity Why did Columbus and de Gama succeed Mapmaking technology maps were becoming more accurate and helpful now that people had an idea of what the world looked like Shipbuilding designs allowed Europeans to make longer voyages and carry more provisions development of bigger ships with larger hulls 14205 shipbuilders were building skeletal ribs to make ships stronger and able to survive stormy seas and carry heavy cannons Lateen sails triangular allowed vessels to sail against the wind New technology by the 1400s European sailors were using compasses and astrolabs determines latitude to improve sailing abilities African coastal explorations European understanding of west and northwest Africa caused them to travel down the western coast to get gold and spices MidAtlantic Islands discovered explored and conquered by European sailors in 1400s islands because laboratories for European imperialism European sailors learned 3 lessons 0 Europeans and their plantsanimals could prosper in entirely new places sheep olives wheat and export them to Europe 0 Large scale production of tropical crops sugar was possible grown using slave labor 0 Indigenous people of conquered lands can be pushed aside or wiped out and be replaced with Europeans the Guanche of the Canary Islands by 1530 there were hardly any Guanche 0 Pattern Establish by Columbus during initial voyages Document read to Native American communities encountered by the Spanish in the New World shows that the conquistadors were governed by religion will take from natives peacefully or by force instilling fear into natives believe they have divine right to spread empire to the Americas Hispaniola Columbus claimed island for kingdom of Spain inhabited by Arawak people 0 Wrote that they have no religion and therefore good candidates to convert the Christianity lack of metal weapons would be very easy to enslave or dominate o Returned to island and created system of forced labor in an attempt to squeeze as much wealth possible from them through a gold tribute system 0 Columbus begins to claim land natives who previously owned land are now enslaved to the new owners o 1495 Columbus raids communities and lled his ships with 500 natives to take them back to Spain 0 Natives perform mass suicides ee island to escape slavery Religion and Expansion 0 Pope Alexander Vl new lands discovered in Atlantic ocean will be given equally to Spain and Portugal Treaty of Tordesillas Dominican friars criticized the abuse and murder of Native Americans group of Europeans that did not agree with how the Spanish were treating natives Conquest Hernan Cortez conquered Aztec empire from 15191522 25 million inhabitants capital Tenochtitlan Francisco Pizarro conquered lncan empire in south America 46 million inhabitants along west coast 1532 defeats native American resistance 0 Spanish and Portuguese American Empires conquered much of south America and Mexico allied with discontented native American groups 0 Cortez allied with groups ghting against Aztecs provided him with troops taught him local geography and valuable enemy information 0 Isolation of the Americas from the Old World allowed conquistadors to quickly defeat natives through technological and biological advancements A World in Isolation There were 23 waves of migration to the Americas from east Asia between 20000 BCE and 8000 BCE through the land bridge near Alaska but as temps rose the bridge was covered by water therefore shutting the Americas off from human contact between the Old ad New World until Columbus in 1492 0 Biological isolation in the New World there were no pigs goats cattle camels or horses no food fertilizer or plow pullers o In Mexico only animals domesticated were turkeys and dogs 0 SAmerica only domesticated animal was llama o Remarkable uniformity in blood type 0 in New World than in Old World argument against infusion of foreign people until Columbus arrival evidence of longstanding biological isolation o Technological advancements Europeans had rearms from Chinese cannons gun Native Americans had never seen this technology Gave Europeans technological and psychological advancements during conquerings Natives found with stone and wood weapons lacked iron items to create metal swords spears armor 0 Spanish fought to injure yet keep alive their enemies while natives fought to kill Diseases natives had no resistance to smallpox measles in uenza or pneumonic plague that the Spanish brought to their land Spanish had survived diseases as children and had resistance Columbian Exchange Dramatic transformation of natural world as a result of biological creatures across Atlantic and Paci c that occurred once the Americas became connected to the rest of the world 0 Microorganisms plants and animals 0 Native American population was replaced by animals brought from Europe 0 Many conquistadors became ranchers in Mexico and South America 0 Exchange also went the other way l Turkeys became popular in Spanish and other European countries Natives gave syphilis to Europeans Europeans took crops from New World and brought them to Africa Europe and China 0 Potatoes corn zucchini tomato became popular in Old World 0 How did the conquest of the Americas by the Spanish and Portuguese change the human landscape 0 At rst there was little oversight by the Spanish crown of the new American colonial empire 0 The Spanish conquistadors governed the new land n their own without a lot of interference from back home 0 lnstilled themselves in the place of the native rulers that they had killed 0 Demand goods services labor on their estates 0 Married into the families of the deposed indigenous royalty to gain legitimacy in the eyes of the natives Spanish Crown Involvement 1540s the Spanish discover silver mines in Mexico and Peru form of currency in Spain coin money used to buy foreign goods from Asia biggest silver mine in Potosi Spanish monarchy the Crown takes 20 of all silver produced 0 Crown set up forti ed trade centers to safeguard ships carrying silver back to Spain 0 House of Trade agency created by the Crown to license ships and merchants for American trade and issue permits to move goods and peoples 0 Spanish become interested in keeping the natives alive want to protect the lives of the remaining native Americans Argument over the humanity of the natives had been resolved according to Pope Paul Ill natives are of cially considered human natives want to receive the Catholic faith 0 0 Crown needs laborers to work the silver mines in Mexico and Peru population in Mexico from 1515 to 1600 dropped from 1015 million to 1 million people Threefold policy 1 Encourages creation of missions throughout the empire Franciscans set up villages and churches to destroy Pagan temples 2 Enacted system of resettlement into new towns and villages to create viable communities resettled near silver mines to make sure their labor would be easy to acquire Crown would know where the laborers lived 3 Set up system of conscripted labor slavery was abolished Spanish authorities created list of all male adult native inhabitants who were required to work several years in silver mines and other royal projects not slavery because term of work was limited and natives were paid a wage may not survive period of labor 0 Between 1560 and 1685 25000 to 35000 tons of silver owed to Spain from the Americas each year 0 Indigenous native religion declines after Spanish involvement 0 0 Spanish set out on purpose to destroy native Americans system of belief to convert them to Christianity Cortez prohibited human sacri ces Aztecs believed the Sun God needed a constant ow of human blood sacri ced given to him in order to survive Spanish missionaries were ordered to use power of Spanish Crown to force natives to attend lessons on Christian prayer focus attention on sons of royalty Taught Spanish ways of living told sons of native royalty to instruct Spanish religion upon other Native Americans Mass baptisms must be baptized to go to heaven natives are dying so fast that Spanish must perform baptisms by the dozens in order to prevent them from Hell Cultural resilience traditional styles of dress retained native languages still spoken practiced old religion with new religion hybrid aspects of Christianity with aspects of traditional religion sons of native royalty continue to practice worship of the old gods 0 Mixed race families and children European men raped and married Native American women 0 Mestizos people of mixed race ancestry eventually outnumbered European settlers o Creoles people of European descent but born in New Spain discriminated against by Europeanborn men who ran the colonies China and the SingleWhip System 0 Silver mined in Mexico and Peru also makes its way to Asia 0 Columbus and de Gama wanted to plug themselves into intercontinental exchange that had focused on China India andlndonega o Europeans didn t make anything the Asians wanted until the discovery of silver in the Americas much of the silver that was mined was traded with Asia 0 1560s Spanish conquered Philippine islands turned it into a weighstation for silver 0 1570s Chinese government declares all tax payments from Chinese citizens must be made in silver instead of tangible goods no longer use rice chickens etc called a Single whip system 0 Portuguese and Dutch in Indian Ocean Vasco de Gama s ships were more heavily armed than the ships he met in open waters in the Indian Ocean other traders had lightly armed ships that operated on an honor system peaceful trade 0 De Gama used Portuguese muscle to dominate 1507 captured port city of Ormuz 1510 captured Goa 1511 captured Malacca Malaysian peninsula also take control of strategic cities on the coast of east Africa 0 Ports used for naval bases and places where the Portuguese can store spices and other precious goods desire to create monopoly over the shipping of important Asian products 0 Imposed licensing system in Indian Ocean declare that any merchant caught by the Portuguese in Indian ocean that hasn t purchased license to trade will be blown out of the water 0 Portuguese not successful not even ships or sailors or strength 0 Dutch and English try to challenge Portuguese and try to replace them Dutch are very successful 0 Dutch East India Company monopoly trading right given to them by the Portuguese 0 Established important trading port of Batavia in 1619 very close to production of Indonesian spices use it to create their own trading empire 0 Dutch also attempt to control production of spices capture indigenous spice plantation and destroy them to build their own destroy competition 0 Europeans in 1500s and 1600s are no match for the empires and kingdoms of Asia which are strong enough to resist European attempts to conquer them European relative weakness in Asia Europeans and Africans in the Atlantic 0 French Dutch and English create colonies in the Caribbean and north America become key players in the triangular system of trade 0 Movement of goods and people across and around the Atlantic from European colonies in Americas to and from Europe and Africa 0 African slaves in Americas became labor force for American plantations that produced raw materials which were then shipped to Europe 0 Trade was dependent on the enslavement of people from Africa create interdependent Atlantic economy 0 Massive transfer of African populations to New World forced migration of people makes Africans and their descendants the majority population in parts of the Americas Slavery in Africa was widespread in 1492 before the rise of the American plantation complex 0 Individuals who worked the land did not own the land it was loaned to them but what you cultivated on the land you could sell or pass down to your children 0 Couldn t own land but could own people who worked the land way to increase wealth was not to buy more land but to buy more people to increase productivity of the land 0 Reasons why Europeans turned to African slaves Proximity of Africa to the Americas racism Amerindian death rate not enough Euro servants Africans knew agriculture Africans were exposed to Old World diseases Africans were easier to control bc they were foreigners preexisting slave market in Africa 0 Over 400 years 95 million slaves were shipped to the Americas places like Brazil amp Caribbean islands became overwhelmingly black Plantation complex economy based on the growth and export of a cash crop 0 Sugar plantations one of the most pro table crops transforms Caribbean into the center of sugar production 0 Sugar production needs constant reliable supply of highly controllable labor planters needed army of slaves to ensure the sugar was processed very dangerous process 0 Coffee amp the Coffeehouse Traditional view European in uences ew outward from Europe to the rest of the world the world is shaped by contact with Europeans not vice versa l too simple overlooks ways in which nonEuropeans affected Europeans and shaped Euro identities History of commoditization and consumption in early modern times shows how nonwestern cultures and products in uence Europeans 0 Chocolate coffee and tea had an important impact on European culture and forms of sociability The coffeehouse by the 1700s they were all over Europe different from taverns in that they served coffee and tea instead of alcohol became places where men could gather to discuss serious topics became important to European history 0 Created the public sphere zone for social life economic transactions serious conversation outside the family independent of churches and royal court 0 Caused culture that was uniquely middle class increased con dence and independence from aristocracy of rising middle class 0 Tea became de ning feature of English social life 0 Use of coffee and tea shows that the ow of in uences from Europe to the rest of the world was twodirectional Coffeehouse was a Muslim invention made its way into Europe in the 16005 earliest reports of growing of coffee beans occurred in Ethiopia and made its way into Yemen 0 Late 1400s Yemen began to produce its own coffee for exportation became most important coffee producer to other parts of the Middle East 0 Used in connection with religion by practitioners of Su sm l Muslims who attempted to attain a mystical relationship with God through a trancelike concentration upon the divine wanted to be oblivious to rest of world to get facetoface with God Mid 1500s coffee is consumed in Constantinople modern day Istanbul no longer connected to religion drunk by Muslims for pleasure leads to rise of coffeehouse taverns o In 1633 Sultan Murat IV passed decree prohibiting coffeehouses and making consumption of coffee illegal does notsucceed o Ottoman authorities didn t like coffee because of passages in the Koran that condemn consumption of coffee and wine because they distract people from God 0 By 15605 there were 600 coffeehouses in Istanbul European merchants and traders ship coffee from Middle Easy to Asia and then to Europe via the Dutch East India Company and English East India Company 0 First English coffeehouse in 1650 o DEIC begins planting coffee in Java Indonesia and Surinam South America French planters grow in Caribbean in 17005 0 Islamic producers lose their monopoly over coffee Chocolate Originates from Americas made out of seeds from cacao tree in rainforests of Amazon river basin 0 Columbus discovered native American use of cacao beans in 1502 o Consumed by elite in Native American civilizations used as type of currency 0 First legal shipment of cacao to Europe arrived in Seville Spain in 1585 by 1620 it had spread to Austria 0 Dutch create own cacao bean plantations on Curacao Sugar Consumption Increases because of creation of sugar plantations goes from being very expensive to incredibly cheap no longer consumed exclusively by the elite by the 18005 used in jams pastries molasses Per capita annual sugar consumption in England 0 17001709 4 lbs 0 18001809 18 lbs 0 Sugar made up 16 of total caloric intake of working poor in England in 1900 gave workers a way to stay awake in the factories Were Africans able to transmit their culture to the new world 0 NO the conditions of the slave trade and slavery prevented cultural transmission three points 0 1 Psychological shock of middle passage 2 randomizing effect of slave trade slaves spoke different languages 3 dif culty in maintaining stable family life men outnumbered women 0 African languages died out in the new world 0 YES john Thornton Boston U argues that psychological shock was not permanent and just about any slave in the Americas could nd someone who spoke similar languagehad similar customs whites bought as many slaves from the same region as possible and encouraged them to make families in order to discourage rebellion o Ogum Brazil Ogun Cuba Ogou Haiti west African God originated in west Africa among people who spoke Yoruba connected with iron working interpreted as God of Iron objects God of War God of Creation sometimes blended with Christianity and Islam ritual dance where dancer assumes qualities of the God 0 This suggests that John Thornton is correct 0 Gullah Geechee groups of people descended from black Africans slaves who have retained aspects of their culture more than any other group isolation on the sea islands off of South Carolina and Georgia allowed them to retain their language Creole Verbs with no tense no passive voice words often omitted hundreds of words of African origin 0 18th Century in SC and GA white planters preferred slaves from a certain part of West Africa Rice plantation owners wanted slaves from the Grain CoastRice Coast of Africa Slaves who lived and worked in SC and GA islands were isolated from mainland more than any other black American group because the plantation owners didn t spend a lot of time of the islands subject to diseases Expansion of Old World Empires Russian Empire headquartered in Europe expanded into Asia and Siberia for fur China to the south of Russia under Qing dynasty expands territory north south and west Mughal Empire Expands until it owns all of India Ottoman Empire Expands from Anatolia into Syria and Arabia even into south eastern Europe Safavids rival of the Ottomans Islamic expands north All regional empires not global expanded in 1500s1600s Reverses historical trends Expansion of Russia and China result in dramatic permanent shift in balance of power between settled societies and nomadic pastoralists The Mongols lifestyle revolved around horses used to hunt and farm and in war skilled in archery warriors were skilled on battle eld large military force 0 Began to invade territories to the south of them invaded and overthrew Song dynasty in China and created the Yuan dynasty o Invaded Korea Tibet Burma then moved out of Asia and into the Middle East overthrew Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad Shiites large Jewish and Christian populations Emperor Akbar didn t force Islam on the majority Hindu population of India Chinese of cials didn t pressure conquered people to convert to Chinese beliefs Russian Expansion Russians were concerned with material wealth fur trade was the reason for expansion into Siberia China driven to gain wealth and eliminate threat of pastoral people and to economically exploit regions Istanbul was the center of the ottoman empire Bureaucrats were chosen by merit helped sultan at palace sent out to districts of empire to govern in the name of the sultan Grand Vizier was right under the Sultan children would wage war between each other to gure out who would be the next sultan Jesuits Jesuits mission was to spread Catholicism all around the world Because of European explorations there as a dramatic increase in the exchange of ideasgoodspeople Jesuits spread Islam from Arabian Peninsula to India China Africa by conquest and peaceful traveling Christianity and Missionary Impulse Almost from the very beginning Christians believed they had a special mission to spread their religion to their followers St Paul Saul of Tarsus lived during lifetime ofJesus one of the early followers declared that new religion based on Jesus s teachings could also convert other people who weren t Jewish to Christianity 0 Christians believed that their religion was the ultimate and nal faith for Christians all other religions were super uous Christians had both success and failure in Asia 0 Japan late 16th century military ruler Nobunaga ofJapan welcomed missionaries to Japanese islands but his successor Hideyoshi persecuted them and banned Christianity in 1614 1630s Japan closes itself off from foreign in uences 0 Major religions in Asia Islam Hinduism Buddhism Taoism Confucianism Penalties for leaving Islamic faith was death few missionaries succeeded in converting Islamic followers to Christianity Hinduism centered in India belief in reincarnation or rebirth after death Buddhism achieve enlightenment by eradicating suffering by detaching oneself from worldly concerns monastic orders Taoism advocates the contemplation of nature and introspectionselfexamination Confucianism an ethical system for living a digni ed life respect your betters and know your place in society Emperor Kangxi embraced Confucianism as a kind of state religion closely linked with Chinese state Jesuits had to compete both with preexisting religions but also the institutions and governments The Jesuits in China Believed that if they became experts in Confucianism they could impress and convince the ruling courts that Christianity was important and worthwhile 1583 Gained right to reside in Imperial Court 1606 appointed as Imperial Astronomers 1692 imperial edict gave toleration to Christianity But Jesuits had downplayed certain aspects of Christianity and embraced aspects of Confucianism that the Roman Pope found problematic Pope Clement XI rejected Jesuits compromises with Confucianism a decisive blow to the Jesuits in China Protestant Reformation Martin Luther began the Protestant Reformation in 1517 he emphasized the importance of reading the Christian Bible for oneseH Reading the Bible was much more important than following church leaders believe Pope in Rome lacked spiritual authority compared him to the antiChrist Power Imbalance Between East and West Scienti c discoveries in Europe about the natural world gave Europeans a huge advantage over nonEuropeans by the 1800s China tightly controlled its interactions with westerners in the 1600s and 1700s limited European traders to the city of Canton and allowed them to trade only from October to March Muslim geographers had very negative opinions of Europeans Opium War 18391942 0 Resulted in an astounding British victory and humiliating defeat for Chinese British used iron steam engine ships to travel upstream into interior regions of China 0 After this Europe came to own China and most of Asia 0 China had been on the cutting edge of technological advancements some technology appeared in China 17 centuries before they appeared in Europe so why did China lose the war Why Not China Aspects of Chinese culture seemed to discourage scienti c innova on In order to become successful and wealthy in China you had to become a government bureaucrat to enforce the will of the central government had to take a civil service examination based on education of humanity not nature 0 No incentive to pursue the natural sciences created a culture in China that deemphasized science and scienti c education 0 Students were expected to give standard answer a creative answer would result in failure enforced a uniformity of thought China s strong centralized government also hindered scienti c investigations no independent universities or professional organizations 0 Articulated belief that imperial emperor ruled with mandate of heaven to go against emperor s will was rebellion against the divine no room for intellectual or political dissent 0 European decentralization Europe had history of independent institutions from the kingqueenemperor political fragmentation meant that if an idea was repressed in one part of Europe it didn t mean it would be repressed in another part Ming emperor T aitsu ordered execution of 68 scholars and two students who displeased him and threatened all scholars with death who didn t serve the ruler Chinese royal throne sponsored astronomical investigations knowledge that was gained through observations was closely guarded and not allowed to leave royal court sti ed scienti c discoveries European Scienti c Revolution Galileo Galilei 15641642 his claims about the solar system that angered the Catholic Pope put under house arrest and forced to recant but not executed also disproved ancient theories about nature of the universe supported Copernicus s ideas also built telescope and argued that heavenly bodies were not made of different material than Earth discovered Jupiter s moons Medieval European perspective on knowledge that it already existed in books written by ancient authorities everything that could be known had already been discovered looked to the Bible and ancient Greek texts 14005 new approach to knowledge not everything has been discovered AND people should focus on the present and heaven 0 Renaissance new con dence in human abilities o Empiricism all knowledge is derived through the senses observation and experimentation are keys to knowledge universe is rational and uniform not chaotic there are natural laws of operation that do not change Nicolas Copernicus polish astronomer believed the Sun was the center of the universe heliocentric Aristotle 384 BC 322 BC seen as THE authority on the natural world by medieval European scholars believed that all planets revolved around the Earth geocentric model and all heavenly bodies were made of different matter than the Earth 0 Ptolomy supported his views 0 Copernicus and Galileo directly challenged Aristotle s ideas 0 Decline of European monarch power in 18th amp 19th centuries 1700 western Europe consisted mostly of monarch power but by 1945 most monarchies had been overthrown and powerful legislative bodies controlled European governments o Constitutions were also created that limited the power of the monarchs who still existed 0 Democratic forms of government spread beyond Europe to India Japan South Africa Eastern Europe 15005 and 16005 European intellectuals believed that people can understand the natural world themselves by using their M reason and powers of observations The Enlightenment Swept over Europe in the 17005 philosophes articulated belief that social and political problems could be examined rationally and solved with reason 0 This type of thinking challenged the existing political order challenged idea that only religiouspolitical authorities knew what as right or wrong demanded intellectual freedom 0 Political and social problems have to be solved by an open and honest debate in favor of civil libertiesrights that the government couldn t take away that also didn t exist Jean Jacques Rousseau 17121778 wrote The Social Contract in 1762 governments must be based on a contract between the rulers and the ruled all citizens must agree on the form of government that rules them citizens have the right to revoke laws and ultimate authority lies with the people 0 Rebuked the divine right of kings 0 King James I hated British parliament and believed that kinds resemble a divine power upon Earth 0 1700s literacy became more widespread as a result of the Triangular trade caused a larger middle class had more time to get educated increase in publication of books and journals during this time Political Revolutions English Bill of Rights 1689 guaranteed freedom of speech religion to protestants existence of parliament gave parliament power to approve taxes American Revolution 1776 created a new government without presence of Britain created a constitution that guaranteed civil liberties French Revolution 1789 created elected legislative bodies that shared power with king and eventually replaced king white males acquired right to elect representatives to government 0 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen 1789 Rise of secular thought Enlightenment fostered criticisms on religion Voltaire French philosophe believed in power of reason power of observation people should only believe what they can deduce from their own senses blind obedience to religious authorityquot caused chaos 0 French Revolution 17891790s quotLiberty Equality Fraternityquot Freedom of religion and though equal treatment under the law political rights for the common man government authority comes from the people Endurance of revolutionary principles 0 Haiti the revolution of black against France 17911804 was inspired in part by the French Revolution 0 Spanish America wars of independence were partly inspired by the French Revolution The ideas of the French Revolution transcended race class and gender and time and space 0 European Enlightenment attitudes towards women Feminism the radical idea that women are full human beings just like men and therefore deserve the same rights that men enjoy 0 Not accepted in many places in the world today Women participated in the French Revolution but were denied citizenship rights by revolutionary men Women were prohibited by the revolutionary government from holding public meetings with a political purpose Conventional wisdom during the European Enlightenment women and men are NOT equal and women should be con ned to the private sphere the family and the home Rousseau articulated belief that women were not equal to men they should not have the same educationquot women s education should be geared towards how to care for men and children because men and women are different biologically 0 Early Feminists Olympe de Gouges wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen of 1791 o Argued against limiting citizenship rights to men only women should enjoy the same rights as men modeled her document against the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Mary Wollstonecraft British also used the language of the revolution itself to argue for female rights women have the right to get educated accused French revolutionaries of acting like tyrants Despite the efforts of early feminists women did not gain the rights that men were given until the early 20th century 0 ln 1800s Europe women could not vote or serve as legal witnesses women could not go to universities husbands took their wives property and wages o How can we avoid an inappropriate Eurocentrism when dealing with a phase in world history in which Europeans were in fact centralquot Strayer 722 remember that the European moment was brief recall that European rise was dependent on nonEuropean factors remember the European rise to power was met with resistance and rebellion NonEuropeans made their own use of European ideas Europeans were not the only game in town Haitian Revolution typically seen as only inspired by the ideals of the French Revolution but there was a strong African dimension to the uprising o Inspired in part by Vodou mixture of African religious beliefs and Christianity 0 Before the uprising in August 1791 a meeting of slaves was held that the led by Vodou priest Boukman o Boukman conducted Vodou ceremony that helped to fortify slave rebels 0 Most of these slaves had been born in Congo and had their own African ideals about good kingship compromise negotiation consultation which were just as important as the ideals that came from France 0 The slaves had been soldiers who fought on the losing side of wars which is why they were enslaved which is why they were so successful in the uprising O 0 Early Nationalism 0 Johann Gottlieb Fichte German poet and early spokesman of German ethnic nationalism 7b The German Nation 1806 o If you incorporate different people into your group it will upset the balance and confuse the group 0 Language is the true internal boundary that unites people and determines the outline of a state not geography o quotBy the end of the twentieth century the idea that humankind was divided into separate nations each with a distinct culture and territory and deserving an independent political life was so widespread as to seem natural and timelessquot Robert Strayer The rise of nationalism in the 18005 was a stepping stone in world history 0 Medieval and early modern nationalism most Europeans identi ed themselves in very local or very universal terms ie what village you belonged to and what religion you followed 0 Modern nationalism Nationalism gave rise to a sense of self both larger and smaller than the older forms of identi cation as part of a speci c nationality ie what country you were born in Nationalists like Fichte think that people who belong to the same nationality ie Germans should be in the same independent political state 0 Ottoman Empire Rebellions against ottoman rule in 1821 in Greece independent nation state is formed 0 1878 Montenegro and Romania break away and become independent states Bulgaria also splits 18705 Egypt effectively becomes independent 0 1800 Italy and Germany did not exist just several different Italian and German states but individuals living in these states starting thinking of themselves as Italians and Germans rather than Venecians and Sicillians and Prussians 0 increasing dissatisfaction of political boundaries 0 1900 political boundaries had been redrawn newly uni ed Italian and German state 0 How 0 Print culture books written in vernacular language local tongues not Latin were key in spreading new sense of self 0 Individual Europeans who read these texts started to see themselves as part of a speci c nationality rather than members of a religious community or city Texts forced the people to identify with that language 0 Vernacular language connected one person speaking that language in one city to another in a different city 0 0 People who spoke different dialects learned to read and understand one dialect 0 Newspapers reported on events and situations outside of the town or village gave people a way to think about themselves belonging to a much larger community forced readers to learn a particular dialect French Revolution during the revolution French men and women became aware and interested in national politics men across France gained the right to participate in national elections 0 Spurred interest in national politics rather than local 0 New sense of national pride that was a new phenomenon revolutionary France went to war with rest of Europe and this aggression encouraged nationalism 0 Not the results of kings and queens but results from the people that represented them Other types of nationalism 0 Ethnic nationalism based on allegiance of a speci c ethnic group 0 Civic nationalism based on allegiance to an idea of a set of values or a system political liberalism constitution o o The Industrial Revolution changed everything Began in England in late 17005 spread to continental Europe By 1900 the US Russia and Japan had experienced industrialization becoming a global phenomenon It changed how people worked ate lived family relations social classes politics nature warfare and more 0 The switch from and agricultural lifestyle to an industrialized lifestyle 0 Gave advantages to those that industrialized Charley Chaplin s Modern Times 1936 during the Great Depression about how the IR transformed life in the US and western Europe examines rami cations of transformation on human level satirical but truthful Industrial Revolution A shift from a labor intensive handicraft agrarian economy to machine manufacturing with steam and fossil fuels and a specialization of tasks and division of labor 0 The transformation was gradual older forms of labor persisted IR led to urbanization made sense to group machines together near power sources which made it easier to supervise the workers 0 Workers came to live around the factories which led to new towns and cities or increased the size of existing towns and cities 0 Great Britain had one city of 100000 in 1750 but 1850 it had 24 cities of that size 0 IR created new social classes the landless proletariat and the lower middle class 0 Landless proletariat workers separated from the countryside living in cities and working in cities eventually became powerful force in European politics saw working class people as having common political interests created political parties aimed at improving conditions of work place posed a threat to the new middle class order 0 Lowermiddle class different from LP formally educated but may not be making more money that the LP many lower middle class workers were female ie secretaries sales clerks bank teller accountants IR transformed modes of consumption by mechanizing production more goods available for purchase people were now buying items not necessary for survival luxury items 0 Why Was Britain the Leader of the IR Dominance of the Atlantic trade raw materials foreign market capital transportation networks 0 Strong domestic market 0 An earlier agricultural revolution population boom workers 0 Rich reserves of coal and iron ore Political atmosphere encourages technological advances Key inventions o Spinning jenny 1765 water powered machines no longer human powered 0 Water frame 1760s 0 Watt s rotary steam engine 1780 perfection of steam engine drove lR forward led to rise of steam powered railroads and eventually spurred growth of other industrialized industries 0 Power loom 1787 0 Railroad as symbol of IR 1825 rst locomotive railroads spur coal mining and steel manufacturing 0 Negative Effects of IR 0 People became disconnected from natural environment because of migration to cities people now live in extremely polluted and crowded environment 0 Few people had good housing did not have services needed to meet demands of expanding population no garbage collection or sewer systems 0 89 people sharing single rooms dying of epidemics Smoke from factories caused cholera tuberculosis River of London offers disease to inhabitants 0 Working conditions child labor working for 10 hours a day or longer dangerous conditions harsh discipline no government regulations on wages or anything work related Charles Dickens s Hard Times observations of industrialized life in urban Britain details the horri c nature of day to day life caused British Parliament to investigate factories and mills Andrew Ure advocate of IR The Philosophy of Manufactures believed that the industrial setting was exhilarating resembled a sportquot and gave them a pleasing dexterityquot o Grew out of the Enlightenment s faith that reason could be used to solve social problems Socialists believed that it was possible for people to create a society with no class divisions no poverty with social justice everyone would be happy and ful lled Socialists said that capitalism created wealth for a few and misery for everyone else 0 Karl Marx Scientific Socialismquot of Communist Manifesto 1848 0 social revolution would inevitably abolish private property and place the means of production in the hands of the workers l would end economic exploitation o Abolishing private property in land would make the upper and middle classes disappear create a society of equals 0 Argued that this was inevitable base on his study on the progress of human history 0 Marx saw rise and fall of social classes as natural law like gravity Also saw the French Revolution of 1789 as this natural law in action the middle classes overthrew the aristocracy he believed 0 Mom and Pop VS WalMart Who s going to survive Marx argued that revolution could be expedited by committed revolutionaries Like the German Marxist Kosa Luxemburg below speaking in 1907 Socialist workers party of Germany 1875 Some believed in violence communists and others believed in no violence 0 00000 o o 0 New Imperialism 188051914 Aka quothighquot imperialism characterized by incredible European exploration and expansion Africa was divided up by European powers except Ethiopia who stopped Italian invasion Asia was incorporated into Euro empire Japan was only Asian colonizing power in Asia and took over Korea China lost ability to control Western people By the end of this period European claimed control over most of the planet and nonEuropean peoples Never before in human history had Europeans been able to subjugate nonEuropeans with such ease o How did Europeans explain their success Many Europeans insisted that their civilization was superior and cited recent technological achievements as proof and justi ed domination 0 Railroad steam engine telephone electricity Some argued that it was all due to biological superiority biological determinism starting with intelligence 0 Many scientists tried to prove this through comparative anatomy skulls of African Asian and European people argued that white Euros had bigger brains than Non Europeans 0 Problems with biological determinism Scientists manipulated their data to get the results they wanted based on history these ndings were false Chinese during Ming voyages had capacity far beyond Europeans Imperialism was actually a reversal of longstanding trends in world history 0 Motivating factors for European imperialism Ideological European hubris excessive pride and self con dence European dominance was inevitable and therefore a motive for expansion 0 Civilizing mission the alleged duty to civilize and uplift non Europeans built universities and schools in India to educate children of the wealthy to teach them western ways 0 Rudyard Kipling s The White Man s Burden 1899 white man s burden is to take care of the weaker countries of the world by ending famine and disease taking over people in order to bring them peace Political heightened climate of rivalry and competition between the empires colonies were seen as necessary to survive o Uni cation of Germany in 1871 frightened Britain and France who sought out new colonies to maintain their power status 0 Germany sought out colonies to elevate itself to a great power o A need for new types of raw materials spurred by the industrial revolution materials were found in Africa and Asia so powers needed to colonize would ensure permanent supply of these raw materials and would create captive market for your goods 0 What made the new imperialism possible 0 Industrial Revolution reversed longstanding power inequities shifted away from agrarian labor intensive societies gave Europeans increased powers of production 0 Advanced weaponry gunpowder weapons gave Europeans an edge when ghting against nonEuropean countries that had not been industrialized Chinese invention radical improvement of the design of gunpowder weapons increased range accuracy and rapidity mass produced 0 Breechloading ri e adopted in 18605 replaced muzzle loading ri es faster to reload between shots can remain sitting while reloading o Hiram S Maxim perfected the machine gun in 18905 Zulu with Michael Caine Siege of Rorke s Drift 140 British soldiers fought off a Zulu army of 4000 men 0 Sudan 1898 Battle of Omdurman against the Mahdists decisive battle between BritishEgyptians and Mahdists 24000 men vs 40000 men British had machine guns and eld artillery battle over in 5 hours 0 British lost 40 men Mahdists lost 5000 because of modern rearm technology 0 Travel technologies steamboat facilitated conquest and allowed Europeans to travel faster than ever before and allowed armies to move upstream against currents railroad allowed quick movement of men and material and enabled control of large territories in India and Africa Quinine comes from bark of cinchona tree in S America drug that ghts effects of malaria Indigenous collaborators white colonizers turned to local people to serve as their enforcers pictures of British of cers and Sikh of cers in India African guard in Congo 0 PICTURES m 7 95 Rl irur39rr O unfit 1 39Tquot quot r 1 7 K O Eilgllal39llll llll39lggIEEIFl rlt surm V lefbjr y European ftican quot ambitions on r L V V 7 China EELliilT emalrEiiliii1E i 1 a are 1p i 7 n o The Chinese are a l m weak people and g ltt ht V 3f China would hold the latter s destruction as a great lossquot Tome Pires of cial of Portuguese I trading post at Malacca 1515 Whoever is lord of the Chinese I trading city of Canton and its environs has the entire 30 leagues around it in his hand Certainly its a l conquest would bring us more r r honor than the dominion of Indiaquot another of cial of Portuguese trading post at Malacca 1515 expresses early modern European ambitions on China 0 1522 the Chinese coast guard attacked and chased away every Portuguese vessel in the south China seas 0 1540s the Portuguese were allowed by the Chinese government for trade ONLY at the city of Macau 0 China refused to accept European ambassadors to Chinese court referred to Europeans as barbarians 0 Reasons for China s collapse in 1800s 0 1 Long history of seeing self as the center of the world no borrowing from outside world reluctant to admit it had something to learn from West Chinese hubris o 2 Geographically remote from western Europe didn t have close contacts with developments in Europe 0 3 Internal economic social and political problems 0 Qing dynasty in decline rampant corruption among ruling classes 0 Civil service exam broke down because of cheating wealthy men paid others to take exam for them or bribed examiners in ux of uneducated men into bureaucracy that were unable to carry out responsibilities in Chinese of ces embezzled money from government causing decline of gov t revenue 0 Public works projects neglected Dikes along Yellow River broke down in 18505 causing heavy ooding and famine 0 China s population had grown to 4 million but the economy hadn t expanded to allow for this increase millions of poor and impoverished people vagabonds and bandits Newly aggressive and capable Europe western countries became more powerful than China and trade had balanced out o The British imported huge quantities of opium from British controlled India to China despite China s ban on opium importation 0 Millions of Chinese become addicted to this drug 1830s Chinese try to strictly enforce ban on importation of opium send Commissioner Lin to Canton to end smuggling of opium and con scates millions of pounds of it British declare war on China 0 Opium War 18391842 0 Humiliating Treaties Treaty of Nanjing forced 5 ports open to British residence allowed British merchants to trade with any Chinese merchant gave Britain Hong Kong Treaty of Tianjin 1858 with Britain open preaching of Christianity now allowed 6 new ports opened to foreign trade no more talk of barbarian Europeansquot in Chinese documents 0 British war ships are now allowed to enter any Chinese port as long as they claim that they re chasing pirates Rebellions Taiping Rebellion 18505 and 1860s called for social reform land redistribution liberation of women led by Chinese Christian convert 0 quotCan the Chinese still consider themselves men Ever since the Manchus poisoned China the in uence of demons has distressed the empire while the Chinese with bowed heads and dejected spirits willingly became subjects and servantsquot Boxer Rebellion 18981900 sparked by mounting pressure on China by the West sense that the country was going to be divided up by West and Japan rebellion aimed at throwing westerners out 0 People who lead the rebellion are Boxers carry out terrorist attacks aimed at western missionaries and Chinese Christian converts 0 quotThere are many Christian converts Who have lost their senses Don t you realize that Their aim is to engulf the country poem written during rebellion o Empress Cixi openly supports rebellion by declaring war on the West quotThe foreigner have been aggressive towards us oppress out people and blaspheme our godsquot 0 Effects at internal reform Chinese government did make attempts to reform itself after the Opium War new gov t sponsored schools to teach foreign languages use of foreign investors to build railroads and modern communication systems Cixi had the young emperor her nephew Guangxu imprisoned in 1898 when he attempted more radical reforms 1ci 5 j l i Dipium Esm alters in China ritiis l1 I In Hf piiium l l r L39 i 1 F I E u u 39 l Debate within the British East India Company over how to educate Indians 0 Thomas Babington Macauley 18001859 member of the Supreme Council of India in 1830s when most of India was controlled by British East India Company BEIC had replaced the Mughal rulers as the supreme power in India by the late 1700s 0 In 1830s internal debate within BEIC about how to educate Indians so that they re useful to the company 0 O Macauley argued that British should educate the children of Indian elites for a speci c purpose and a speci c way quotto form a class Who may be interpreters between us anol in intellect Thomas Macauley 1830s what he believes the goal of education in India should be quotWhat then shall the language of education bethe most paltry abridgments used at preparatory schools in England Thomas Macauley no point in continuing Indian schools because their culture isn t as important as European culture Assimilation through education you can make nonWestern people just like the English transform them into a European becomes unpopular by 1900 o The NEW conventional wisdom among Europeans by late 1800s cultural characteristics are determined by racebiology not education history or environment 0 Outright racism replaces cultural chauvinism The new racism 0 Racism is a product of modern times people in the past were divided by on Christian theology Christians vs nonChristians 0 Christian thology encouraged people to think of humanity as one big family despite physical differences because the Bible says everyone descended from Adam and Eve Shift away from this Christian thology occurred during Enlightenment tried to understand the world by not referring to the Bible but by their own observations 0 O Began to study physical differences and divided people by characteristics rather than religion Racial hierarchies arranged according to aesthetic considerations of classi ers in uenced by their own ideas about physical human beauty 1 Winckelmann History of Ancient Art 1764 declared that the ancient Greek ideal of human beauty seen in Greek statues was the best encouraged Europeans that deviations from Greek standards of beauty were signs of inferiority F Blumenbach 17521840 a founder of racial classi cation argued that there are 5 human races with Caucasian on top because it is closest to ideal type most beautiful and smartest 0 Early race thinkers in 18th and 19th centuries believed that these differences were super cial products of climate and environment and could change over time 0 Samuel Morton American physician published 3 major works on human skulls from 18391849 proving that whites have bigger brains o Polygenism 1800s theory that human races were separate biological species that had descended from different original ancestors 0 Charles Darwin On the Origins of the Species by Means of Natural Selection 1859 animal species are not xed but are constantly changing as a result of naturally arising variations but these changes take a very long time Worries about racial purity brought a new emphasis on segregating the races in European colonies became worried about a mixed race mixed race child will be an evolutionary step backwards because they would be one the same evolutionary stage as whites PICTURES The Problems of European Colonialism quotiii quotnilairma ifquot f l 0 Ram Mohan Roy 17721833 and Indian scholar who advocated a Britishstyle education for Indians in India Colonies lacked democracy Asians and Africans were typically subjects and not citizens had no voting rights or right to elect deputies to send to British and French Parliaments no right to elect local leaders 0 Had duties of citizenship without citizenship right taxed required to give labor to colonial state forced local Africans to labor for WWI effort 0 Civilizing missions obscured fact that colonialism was exploitative situation Colonial rule increased ethnic tensions Types of Colonies Two types Tropical Dependencies vs Settlement Colonies 0 Tropical dependencies colonies where very small numbers of Europeans ruled over very large number of AsiansAfricans or people of the South Paci c Islands ex German East Africa 0 Settlement colonies either white dominions or contested settler colonies 0 White dominions native people had been virtually wiped out and replaced by the white settlement population ex Australia 0 Contested settler colonies large number of white settlers and large indigenous populations that survived initial conquest ex New Zealand Hawaii Divide and Rule Strategy Europeans would come into areas of Asia and Africa with diverse populations and would recruit from one particular religiousethnic group and use them as collaborators 0 Gave those members a stake in the system of white control used indigenous collaborators to control the rest of the system 0 Gave local natives a Western education then made indigenous collaborators local leaders judges police of cers etc Indirect Rule 0 White administrators made major decisions but local authority was farmed out to indigenous elites nobles princes sultans who had some political power before Europeans arrived British overlords approached them and ruled through them 0 Problem Reinforced and exaggerated authoritarian tendencies in indigenous cultures British gave African leaders expanded powers that the leaders didn t have before British arrived Both divide and rule and indirect rule aggravated ethnic and cultural divisions created divisions that hadn t existed before Europeans ardved Example of Rwanda Ruled by Germans then the Belgians Europeans privileged the Tutsis over the Hutus o Tutsis wealthier more powerful more social status than Hutus Both enjoyed leadership positions in society both could change their status from Hutu to Tutsi and vice versa Europeans regarded Tutsis as racially superior got rid of Hutu chiefs and replaced them with Tutsi chiefs and gave them more power gave Tutsis access to Western educational opportunities 1930s Belgian government required all Rwandans to carry IDs that labeled them Hutus or Tutsis o A uid social identity became a permanent ethnic identity 0 Reinforced decades or privileging Tutsis helped generate gate and discord Berlin Conference 18841885 European leaders decided upon division of Africa 0 Dividing a continent they didn t know anything about 0 quotWe have been engaged in drawing lines upon maps where no white man 5 feet have ever trod we never knew exactly where the mountains andl rivers andl lakes were Lord Salisbury British Prime Minister 18805 Also parceling out colonial subjects without knowing what was going on in Africa sometimes large and competing ethnic groups were put together in a single colony causing competition and antagonistic enemies or split large colonies apart Retooling local economies Europeans restructured local economies to serve European interests not the interests of the local people set out to alter the agricultural economies of the colonies to suit their own needs Local economies became dominated by white plantations produced cash crops instead of food to provide for the local citizens Colonial governments put pressure to work on white owned plantations 0 used taxation must use British money to pay taxes therefore must work for white farms 0 demanded that local farmers devote 13 of their production to growth of speci c cash crop Economic problems with colonization o 1 Made entire regions dependent on production of only a few cash crops o 2 Redirected agricultural production away from food for local consumption resulted in famine in Dutch java 18305 Dutch gov t ordered villages to allocated 13 of their land to coffee bean production 0 3 Drained wealth away from colonies Eta1 39 l we a i a 71 Z14ng c Him I LIErem lanthanum i 39l 39l r n a a Amiy wkl ii I Amir 12 33 n I r a l L l I 1 V I J Hi lullhzi wml l r i i v kgquot l i5 Hr Juli quot gungmwumafeimimma High if 3 r is 5129 Elmquot d i with i39 ulil39 al iiuJF39J iii ll 7 v hii i elirg hi Eli i aw Eriwii uhet a f The Italian attempt to colonize Ethiopia 1895 Italians invaded Ethiopia anticipated easy and quick victory considered Ethiopians savages and any show of force would be enough to shatter any resistance Final Battle of Adowa March 1896 20000 ltalian troops faced 100000 Ethiopians t i l quoti r o Italians were surprised by Ethiopians capabilities who were fully armed with modern industrialized weapons 0 Menelik ll emperor had spent year stockpiling these weapons 0 13 of Italian army was killed 2000 soldiers captured and rest ed and sued for peace renounced claim over Ethiopia 0 1935 Italy reinvaded Ethiopia under Mussolini succeeded for some time but Italy was also under stress from WWII Ethiopia liberated in 1941 0 German humor magazine clipping Britain s version of Uncle Sam at top lady with bonnet represent s Times of London magazine black woman represents Ethiopia beating Italy over the head turning Italy away 0 Japanese modernization May 1905 Japanese navy defeateddestroyed Russian eet in Strait of Tsushima between Japan and Korea 0 Establish Japan as a leading power in Asia decades of intense statedirected modernization was the KEY to Japan s success against Russia in 1905 o 1853 American Matthew Perry de ed Japanese prohibition and sailed into Tokyo Harbor with a eet of ships demands Japanese open their ports to American commerce 0 Japanese rulers are aware of what happened in China during Opium War didn t want to end up like China 0 IfJapan was going to avoid foreign domination it needed a stronger government and western technology 0 Late 18605 new reformminded Emperor Mutsuhito created Meiji Restoration that abolished feudalism and centralized political power created a constitution and Imperial Diet 0 Government pushes reforms on all fronts in following years 0 Military reforms hired European advisors to help modernize army and navy required all men to serve for 3 years in military 0 Political reforms Japanese government created constitution that limited powers of government created Parliament modeled from system in Britain not a democracy but still represented a dramatic change 0 Economic reforms government creates new banks to provide funds to nance private investments builds railroads builds and operates shipyardsmines creates government ministry of industry that oversaw expansion and technical training 0 Social reforms introduces universal education pushes educational system to emphasize science and technology 0 Japanese culture become more western hairstyles facial hair of cials are required to wear western clothing Nakae Chomin quotThe Rousseau of the Orientquot 18471901 became highly convinced that Euro models of government were superior and thatJapan should borrow form examples introduced Japanese public to western theology quotWe must not wait for neighboring countries to become civilized 50 that we can together promote Asia 5 revival reject the idea that we must continue to associate With had friends in East Asia Fukuzawa Yukichi Japan reoriented themselves away from China and towards the West Ethiopia modernization Government of Ethiopia modernized their army by borrowing modern weapons from the West used them to expand their territory to the west and to the south 0 Introduced modern school and hospitals hired foreigners to work established telegraph and telephone system established currency laud foundation for a railway Ottoman Empire French general Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798 which was part of the Ottoman Empire invasion was not successful and this alerted the Ottomans to Europe s rising power Sultan Selim ll ruled 17891807 tried to modernize army and navy but was assassinated by the Janissaries 0 New sultan Mahmud ll destroyed Janissaries with a secret new army created with help of European military advisors in 18205 0 Reorganization of university system with emphasis of science and math creation of postal and telegraph system 1860s government constructs railroads established newspapers 0 1876 government creates constitution that is quickly nulli ed but shows desire to reform along lines of western Europe Young Turks nationalists who wanted MORE reform instituted a coup in 1908 overthrew sultan took away his political power and continued to reform society o Restored old constitution gave civil I 11 3quot IE PI Jrjhji maman Wm WM alIH39 Iifrr ndll a39 freedoms allowed school for women 0 Late 19th century European fantasies of ight and godhood Robur the Conqueror written by Jules Verne in 1886 focused on engineer that created ying vessel to explore world and y to West Africa 0 Uses airship to intervene militarily on the ground in Africa who are in process of executing a prisoner 0 quotLet us free the prisonersand the little gun shot forth its shrapnel which really did marvels Ah They Will have themrender to humanityquot Robur the Conqueror encapsulates what imperialism was about use of airship magni es European magni cence turns Europeans into gods Fantasy turned into reality Pride of War written by GustafJanson in 1912 story of recent was that took place between Italy and Ottomans Italians attempted to gain colony in African Italians dropped rst bomb from an airplane on November 1 1911 0 Book imagined what the Italian pilot must ve been thinking while he bombed the Arabs on the ground World War One as the beginning of the end of the age of European history Starts in Europe and spreads to other places divided Europe into 2 sides systematic killing of other whites for the rst time Carnage unleashed seeds of Euro science and technology resulted in incredible death 85 million dead 22 million wounded most of which were Europeans The beginning of the end of European global dominance Destroyed western moral authority 0 Highlighted hypocrisy of civilizing mission Europeans themselves were guilty of committing atrocities against their own people during WWI 0 After battles of WWI nonwestern observes starts to argue that western progress doesn t equal greater morality 0 Return of self con dence of nonwestern people fuels nationalist movements in European colonies o Europeans drew heavily upon colonies during WWI Britain mobilized Indians to ght for British during war France mobilized Africans to ght German Psychological liberation o Historian Michael Adas coined term gave Africans and non Europeans good cause to question their previous assumptions about the West Ghandi serves as an example Bernhard Dernburg former German Colonial Director speaking in 1916 about England s use of Africans in WWI quotall Who know the minds of the subject raceAfrica t0 the African India to the Indians 0 It s dangerous for Britain to be using African troops in Europe because they will start to think they re more important and valued than they considered themselves before 39 W9 Fields The First W H 39 39 39 151 War II Lrwv 7 39 The Expansion of European Colonial Empires after WWI o The Middle East previously dominated by Ottomans became brand new political units 0 Britain took over Palestine and Transjordan created Iraq and Saudi Arabia 0 France took over Syria and Lebanon 0 The entire Middle East was a European creation Most of the wars that took place after WWI were with groups trying to redraw the boundaries set by Britain and France Post WWI trouble for European Colonial Empires Woodrow Wilson against annexation of new territories helped created League of Nations to resolve international disputes through discussion 0 The areas taken over by Germany and Ottomans were actually mandates not colonies 0 quotWe are ghting for the liberty the selfgovernment anol the undictated development of all peoples No people must be forced under sovereignty under Which it does not Wish to live Woodrow Wilson inspired colonized people because they should have the right to determine their own forms of government self determination o This self determination doesn t happened the European forces do not give the colonies this right which led to frustration and disappointment in the colonies Result of WWI millions of nonEuropeans were incorporated under European rule but not a new age of expanded European hegemony Opposition to Western rule in the colonies increased dramatically after WWI Global Depression 1929 starts in US and Europe undermines economic strength of the West leads to rise of fascism in Europe which results in European civil war WWII Reforms and repression in British India 0 The Montagu Declaration 1917 the gradual development of self governing institutions with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empirequot basically promised India more self government after the war if India supported British war efforts 0 Montagu Chelmsford Reform Acts 1919 allowed creation of administrative counsels lled with Indians in the provinces Indians gained more control over the governing of their society on a local level BUT the chief British administrator of India still had the power to veto any legislation passed by Indian counsels o Rowlatt Act 1919 severely curtailed Indian civil rights Brit government had right to detain any Indian for 2 years without a trial for minor offenses o Amritsar Massacre 1919 peaceful protesters of Rowlatt Act were attacked by Indian army troops led by white Brit commander ten thousand demonstrators killed 400 people and wounded 1000 because of these events the independence movement in India exploded caused by BrigadierGeneral REH Dyer Britain occupied Egypt in 1882 and allied with great rural landlords and Turkish elite Britain faced nationalist movement in 1880s and onward 0 During WWI British rule in Egypt became harsh declared Marshall Law and conscripted Egyptian laborers by force seized goods and animals to help British was effort 0 End of war Egyptian leaders tried to travel to France to discuss post war Europe but British prohibited them from leaving Egypt 0 Egyptian insurrection within a year of insurrection British realized that keeping Egypt as a colony was not worth it 1922 British declare Egypt an independent state but kept troops in the canal zone King Fuad I became leader of independent Egypt Balfour Declaration 1917 Britain promised European Jews that they could settle in the Ottoman territory of Palestine when WWI ended sparks anger among local Arabs who see the Jews as white settlers Iraq Rebellion 1920 British attempted to levy taxes in Iraq British wage war to suppress rebellion and succeed but many people begin to question whether holding onto Iraq is worth it 0 quothow much longer are valuable lives to be sacri ced in the vain endeavor to impose upon the Arab population an elaborate and expensive administration Which they never asked for and do not wantthe foolish policy of the Government in the Middle East The Times newspaper in Britain 1920 0 Britain decides to create new king of Iraq Feisal alHussein Great Depression 1929 responsible for bringing Hitler to power 1931 there were 6 million people unemployed in Germany which contributed to radical atmosphere 0 People became willing to support radical political parties who promised to end the depression and return Germany to power 0 Causes of GD Chronic overproduction of agricultural products in 1920s Unrestrained nancial speculation due to easy credit European debt to USA Growth of protectionism o 1929 stock market crashed began domino effect massive unemployment devastates national economies governments around the world responded to GD by 39 J cutting government spending which made the situation even worse because it threw MORE people out of work O The spread of Rousseaulike principles across Europe and beyond quotSince no man has any natural authority over his fellow men and since force is not the source of right conventions remain as the basis of all lawful authority among men Rousseau 1700s quot50 soon as the people are la quly assembled as a sovereign body there is in the State no fundamental laW Which cannot be revoked not even this social compact Rousseau 17005 From the late 1700s to 1900 nations in the Americas and West and Central Europe USA Russia Germany Japan adopt Rousseau s principles by creating legislative bodies 0 Tsar Nicolas II was overthrown in Russia 1917 a provisional government prepares the grounds for a true parliamentary system The rise and spread of fascism Benito Mussolini became prime minister of Italy in 1922 lived 18831945 ideas stood in stark contract to political philosophy of Rousseau Fascism combats the Whole complex system of democratic ideology and repudiates it 0 Against quotmajority rulequot does not believe in democracy inequality is more bene cial Japanese Ministry of Education issued Cardinal Principles of the National Entity of japan to schools in 1937 o Since the days of the Meiji so many aspects of European and American cutureha ve been importedoyaty to the Emperor is our fundamental Way as subject and is the basis of our national morality excerpt from Cardinal Principles reorientation away from western political model rejects idea that power should come from people amp no one has divine right 0 19205 and 1930s the retreat of democracy in Europe dictatorships established in Poland Austria Hungary Bulgaria Spain Portugal Greece Italy Yugoslavia Germany USSR while 1930s Japan saw dramatic rise in the power of the military 0 Economic hard time explain the collapse and weakening of the principles of parliamentary rule in Japan and Europe 0 Italy 19191920 in ation agricultural depression unemployment industrial strikes red leagues in the countryside 0 Great Depression strikes Germany in 1929 by 1931 6 million Germans were unemployed which radicalized Germans and looked to radical parties who promised change Nationalist Social Workers Party Nazi Party Hitler s political party fascist German version of Mussolini s political party dramatically increases its share of German electorate in the years after GD 0 Takes over government in 1933 and quickly assumes dictatorial power 1939 brings about another world war 0 Why did the rise of fascists to power bring another World War 0 A new drive for colonies 0 Japan economy hurt by GD and heavily dependent on foreign imports for oil copper other raw materials Japanese military invaded Manchuria in 1931 and went to war with China in 1937 dramatically increased Japan s control 0 Italy invaded Ethiopia 1935 success used poison gas gains new colonial space 0 Nazi Party believes Germany should acquire new colonies in Russia in order to feed the growing population quotGermany has an annual increase in population of nearly nine hundred thousand sous But if we talk about neW soil and territory in Europe today we can think primariy only of Russia and its vassa border states written by Hitler in Mein Kampf Germany then invaded Poland in 1939 and Soviet Union in 1941 Russia is Germany s Indiaquot 9 Glori cation of war and violence 0 Fascists loved war believed that war and violence gave life meaning life without con ict is empty O 14bove all Fascismbelieves neither in the possibility nor the utility of perpetual peace War alone brings up to its highest tension all human energy and puts the stamp of nobility upon the peoples Who have the courage to meet it Mussolini 1933 fascists have no use for eternal peace Believe eastern Europeans were animals their only role was to be slaves set out to Germanize Eastern Europeans massacred local populations and brought in German settlements relegated indigenous peoples to slaves quotthe Volltish View recognizes the importance of mankind in its racialy innate elements the Eternal Will that dominates this universe to promote the victory of the better and stronger and to demand the submission of the worse and weaker Hitler explains brutality carried out by Germans in eastern European territory Nazi racism meant that the Nazis that occupied eastern European as subhumans as a result they used systematic mass murder of women children and POWs German brutality also due to a need to overcome the humiliations of WWI and its aftermath 0 French use of black African soldiers to occupy German cities and towns caused anger and rage in Germany viewed as betrayal of the white race and reverse colonization Part of Germany s campaign to colonize eastern Europe the Germans carried out the Holocaust from 19391945 0 0 0 Nazis created concentration camps in eastern Europe to exterminate all Jews nearly succeeded Death camps and mass shootings killed 6 million Jews During WWII the Nazis undertook the colonization of Eastern Europe by enslaving much of the local population bringing in German settler and mass murdering the Jews Most famous camps AuschwitzBirkenau o Nazis did not plan to eradicate other Eastern European groups Jews were assigned a special place on the racial hierarchy Jews were exceedingly inferior and dangerous of all people they were the biggest threat to Germans believed to be archetypal enemies who were out to destroy Germans gt 39 I quotj 7 L 391 L I J m 1 i a 3 LL 2 4 V l I f 7 7 d 1 39LD I u l i all ll Li m Communism as a worldwide phenomenon 0 Karl Marx 18181883 quotscienti cquot socialism argued that capitalist system was going to collapse his studies of human history and economic revealed that history moves in certain direction and systems were destined to fall and socialism would rise o Socialism political philosophy that believes it is possible to engineer society with no class divisions with social justice everyone is happy and ful lling their potential 0 In place of the old bourgeois society with its classes and class antagonisms we shall have an association in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of allquot Karl Marx Marx believed that the industrial conditions will become so bad and wages so low that the workers must revolt in order to survive 0 quotBut not only has the bourgeoisie Middle classes forged the weapons that bring death to itself it has also called into existence the men who are to wield those weaponslts fall and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitablequot Karl Marx Adapting socialism to the conditions in Russia and China lrony socialism triumphed rst in those nations that had little industry and few proletariats Russia socialist revolution in 1914 before that it was characterized by poverty and illiteracy some industrialization but little compared to Western Europe only a small middle class Vladimir Lenin leader of the Russian Bolshevik communist party led a second Russian Revolution in 1917 overthrew the provisional government established communist dictatorship o Realized he could bring socialism to Russia even though it wasn t ready for socialism Russia could skip over bourgeois revolution in Russia and go straight from an aristocracy to socialism by using communist revolutionaries and creating a dictatorship of the proletariat China is second major country in the world to go communist but before the revolution was less prepared for socialism than Russia was China by the 1940s had smaller industrial base and smaller proletariat Li Dazhao head of Marxist study group in 1919 at Peking University communist articulated to socialists and communists how to apply Marxist theories to China s situation 0 The contemporary world economy is already moving from capitalism to socialismthe direct capitalist oppression suffered by the working classes of the various capitalist nationsquot Li Dazhao 1919 China is like an exploited worker when you consider the ways that capitalism has affected the world 0 Although china didn t have factories or workers the communists must turn to other oppressed group in China the peasantry 0 Our China is a rural nation and most of the laboring class is made up of peasants If they are not liberated then our whole nation will not be liberated their sufferings are the sufferings of our whole nationquot Li Dazhao must win over the peasant classes to get them on the communists side went against Marxist ideas because he thought the peasants would side with the capitalists Because the Chinese and Russian communists didn t wait for socialism to happen naturally both of their communist revolutions involved war and violence 0 Emperor Puyi abdicated in 1912 caused 4 decades of unrest in China Communists in power restructuring society Lenin and the communists concentrated all state power in their hands and prohibited competition in parliamentary elections created and authoritarian state and began to nationalize large industry Lenin s tactical retreat from socialism was the New Economic Policy in March 1923 drive towards socialism restated with Stalin 0 Stalin o Nationalization of large scale industries government takes over major industries 0 Collectivization of agriculture via rst 5 Year Plan began in 1928 caused destruction of kulaks and relocation of peasants onto staterun farms 5 Year Plans designed to quickly industrialize Soviet economy quotWe are 50 or 100 years behind the advanced countries We must catch up this distance in ten years Either we do it or we go underquot Stalin o Industrialization 19241934 there were 9 million people moved into industrial production becomes the 3rd most industrial country in the world 0 China 0 Mao Zedong s communist party forcibly redistributed land from large landowners to peasants in 1953 began its own 5 year plan to develop industry and agriculture under the government s direction 0 Stop arranged marriages make it easier to get divorces create more rights for women in order to gain power 0 Collectivize agriculture in 19505 and 1960s political repression one party system that does not allow political opposition o The creation of communist governments led to the Cold War the division of the globe into two competing systems communism vs capitalism O O Lenin created the Comintern Communist International in 1919 to organize and assist revolutionary parties elsewhere around the world Led to paranoia in capitalist western powers which increases after WWII o The start of the Cold War 0 The Cold war affected everything economics politics culture 0 Duck and Cover lm shows how the Cold War affected life in America even in schools 0 Causes of Cold War 0 Clash of communist and capitalist ideology communism advocated the destruction of the middle and upper classes via the end of private property in land Soviet occupation in Eastern Europe refused to evacuate after collapse of German war effort after WWI in 1945 placed communist governments in Eastern Europe 0 Why did Stalin think US was against them 0 0 Reaction to policies of communist west US was aies with Soviet Union during WWI US used atomic weapons against Japan and refused to share the technology with the Soviets Soviets became suspicious Stalin believed Western powers had deliberately delayed their invasion in Europe in order to let Germany weaken SU 0 Harry S Truman in 1947 announced the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan which increased Stalin s concerns about West Under Truman Doctrine the US allocates 1005 of million to the right wing Greek government to ght a communist rebellion Under Marshall Plan USA gave over 12 billion in aid to Europe to rebuild an squash appeal of communism Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 0 Before that both USSR and US had been stockpiling weapons for years USSR caught up in 1988 with 33000 nuclear weapons Major Cold War crises Berlin Airlift 1948 Germany was divided into zones of occupation Americans British French Soviet Union 0 Berlin in Soviet zone was also divided into zones with American troops 0 July 1948 Soviets attempts to kick American occupying forces out by blocking land routes in Eastern zone to capital city to cut off Allies supplies 0 US and Allies institute airlift landing planes in Berlin to bring food to forces and citizens lasts 11 months 0 Soviets back down May 1949 Western Berlin remains under American occupation with capitalism Berlin Wall 1961 Soviets in communist east Germany and US in capitalist west Germany become their own countries Berlin is still divided Germans had been eeing Soviet zone to the US zone 0 25 million Germans ee from 1950 to 1961 existential threat to new government in communist east Germany 0 Soviets create barbed wire fence along border soon replaced with concrete wall to physically divide the sides 0 lmprisons east German citizens within their own country wall dramatically increased tensions between USSR and US Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 In 1959 Cuban Revolution creates communist country three years later the US discovers Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba US demands the Soviets remove missiles from Cuba 0 Estimated 3350 chance of nuclear war between USSR and US 0 Kennedy orders Navy to blockade Cuba Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev agrees to remove weapons Korean War 1950 Korean communists from the north invaded the South shooting war between capitalists and communists 0 Korea originally occupied byJapan after WWI Japan is divided with Soviets in north and US in south 0 Was an attempt to impose communist rule over all of Korea 0 Division still remains Vietnam War 19601971 originally a French colony French withdrew because of nationalist rebels and communist movement Viet Minh rebels in the south 0 US sponsored creation of anti communist government in south Vietnam communist government in north Vietnam 0 US becomes involved in ghting communist rebels in north 58000 Americans died yet they lost the war 0 US withdrew troops in 1971 Vietnam fell to communists in 1975 DeStalinization under Khrushchev Why did the communist alternative to western capitalism and democracy last so long Why didn t these systems collapse under their own brutality Stalin s purges Ukrainian famine Mao s Great Leap Forward 0 Mao died in 1976 Stalin died in 1953 o The people who succeeded Stalin and Mao weren t as brutal and instituted important changes that softened communism Khrushchev instituted deStalinization released millions of prisoners from Siberia prison camps in 19505 called Stalin a criminal o Other leaders experimented with greater freedom of expression tolerance of political dissent Deng Xiaoping led Chinese communist party after Mao instituted reforms that allowed for limited capitalist activity in communist China market reforms and free enterprise 0 Increased stability and prosperity The bene ts of communist rule to communist citizens Under communist rule women advanced living standards improved scienti c achievements skyrocketed 0 Free healthcare education literacy rates increased 80 built mass transportation system constructed apartment complexes subsidized family housing maternity leave guaranteed employment women could advance in typically male elds Marxists wanted to bring about socialism through communism Communist systems softened over time and millions of lives did become better under communist rule Franz Fanon and the theory of cultural alienation quotColonialism is not satis ed merey With hiding a people in its grip and emptying the native 5 brain of all form and content excerpt from The Wretched of the Earth by Franz Fanon 19251961 0 Franz Fanon born in middle class Martinique became head of French psychiatric hospital in Nigeria analyzed colonialism from perspective of psychiatrist o Believed colonialism effects were mostly psychological colonizers changed the selfimage of the people they colonized convinced them that they need to be colonized and without the colonizers they will fall back into barbarism and bestiality phenomenon called cultural alienation People wanted to address cultural alienation by addressing the value of Asian and African American cultures and customs occurred between the World Wars 0 Negritude af rmation of black history and culture invented by Aime Cesaire 19132008 in poem Notebook ofa Return to my Native Land Praise for those who have never invented anything free of the desire to tame by familiar with the plat of the worldquot Cesaire 0 Leon Damas I feel ridiculousin their bowler hatsquot Rejected white cultural values and embraced black values created community of African Americans 0 Some argued that people of African descent were bonded by biological essence seemed to mimic racebased thinking of racist whites Disillusionment with the West in India Rabindranath Tagore from Calcutta and won Nobel Prize for literature in 1913 western educated elite criticized European civilization for being too materialistic o Criticized technological advancements like the railroad alienated people from rhythms of nature Mohandas Gandhi spokesman for decolonization leader of Nationalist Movement in India 0 Admired Britain moved to British South Africa to be a legal advisor realized how horribly Indians were treated o quotmy loyalty to the British rule drove me to participation with the British in the warquot Gandhi explaining his support for Britain during the Boer War 18991903 in his autobiography o Eventually calls for complete Indian independence after he becomes disillusioned with Britain o 1921 Gandhi was in control if Indian National Congress association of westernized Indian elites created as a way for welleducated Indians to discuss grievances with British Gandhi makes it more radical Gandhi rejects outward manifestations of westernization stops wearing European clothing campaign promoting passive resistance satyagraha drew in masses Hind Swaraj self government 1908 pamphlet that attacked modern industrial civilization 0 It would be folly to assume that an Indian Rockefeller would be better than the American Rockefellerhave to learn to live consciously and religiously and deliberately the simple life of a peasantquot radical philosophy Mass civil disobedience campaigns 0 Labor strike 0 Boycott of British made cloth 0 1931 boycott of salt tax protest British control and monopoly on the production of salt Feminism The Feminine Mystique novel by Betty Friedan Many similarities between Feminist movement and Colonialist movement 0 Bring freedom and equality of oppressed group of people 0 Argued for need to liberate oneself psychologically need to see themselves as deserving equal rights and not inferior to white men o The importance of the colonies to Britain and France during WWI Used colonies to acquire men and materials necessary to ght against Germany 0 Africans were 9 of French armed forces by June 1940 British conscripted 100000 workers to produce rubber and tin in its African colonies Colonies proved to be very useful during the war caused retention of colonies to be extremely important following the war Netherlands wanted to hold onto colonies in East Indies saw them as key to rebuilding their economy Britain and France saw retention of colonies as a way to counterbalance the postwar power of the US and USSR 0 European intentions to hold onto their colonies after WWII 1947 Britain withdrew from India 19405 Britain withdrew from Sri Lanka Burma and other places in Asia 19505 and 1960s Britain withdrew from Africa By mid1960s most large colonial empires had crumbled British foreign secretary Herbert Morrison stated in 1951 that quotgiving African independence would be like giving a child of ten a latchkeyquot 0 Three major factors that led to decolonization External pressure from outside empires 0 World opinion had turned against the idea of colonies 0 US and USSR two new superpowers are both anticolonial Roosevelt was very anticolonial and believed all people should have right to choose own form of government believed unlike Wilson that the right should be extended to nonwhites 0 Atlantic Charter document that gives the right of all people to choose their own form of government pledge to decolonize o 1945 United Nations is against colonialism and those countries who still have colonies are pressured to release them 0 Legacy of WWII colonialists who justi ed their control by arguing that Africans and Asians are inferior cannot justify without sounding like Hitler Internal pressure from inside empires 0 European actions during WWII fueled nationalist movements by adding to the grievances of indigenous people 0 BritainFrance s treatment of colonies during WWII A reevaluation by the colonizers of the value of their colonies o By late 19505 development costs in the Belgian Congo pushed its colonial budget into a de cit o The pressures that colonizers had applied to colonized people during the war had built up resentment in order to hold onto the colonies the powers need to win over the hearts of colonized peoples through massive development became too expensive 0 Decolonization India Leaders of Indian national congress pledged to support Britain in ght against Nazi Germany in return for certain demands granted more governing power 0 Instead Britain used the war to crack down on Indian civil liberties arrest Gandhi and other members of Indian National Congress 0 quotQuit Indiaquot resolution 1942 passed by INC calls for mass scale nonviolent struggle against Britain 0 Protests do not remain nonviolent Gandhi s arrest sparks rebellion towards police and army British authorities arrested 90000 Indians 0 British leaders realize they won t be able to retain control over India without violent control Winston Churchill staunch colonialist wanted to use mass violence to hold onto India voted out of of ce at end of war by Clement Atlee in 1945 Clement Atlee politically left not willing to use violence to retain India gives political power to Indian National Congress and India becomes its own nation state 0 Decolonization Gold Coast Ghana 0 First African colony to become independent Kwame Nkrumah created United Gold Coast Convention in 1947 later formed more radical Convention People s Party after his arrest and imprisonment 0 Forms strikes civil disobedience which are successful in convincing British authorities to grant concessions 1951 British allow a constitution and a legislative assembly in Ghana Convention People s Party wins majority of seats and Nkrumah becomes Prime Minister 0 1954 Nkrumah creates universal suffrage 1957 Gold Coast gains independence and is renamed Ghana 0 Decolonization Kenya and Algria Violent uprisings in French Algeria and British Kenya 0 19521956 the Mau Mau Rebellion occurred in Kenya 0 Militant Kenya nationalists who resented the British settlers seizing the best farming land British authorities ght full scale war in Kenya very violent 0 12000 Kenyan s killed British created mass concentration camps to crush the rebellion arrested 80000 people 0 14 common game in Rira had been to bury a man naked in the hot sand he would snatch the Whip from the warders and apply it himself Ngugi 5 excerpt from A Grain of VVheat 19505 and 19605 the Nationalist Liberation Front fought for independence in Algeria 0 composed of Arabs and Berbers 0 French were recently embarrassed by being kicked out of Vietnam were determined not to be kicked out of Algeria 0 Use torture regularly o 1962 French Prime minster Charles Degaul allows Algerians to vote whether to leave French Empire 0 White Algerians ee back to France r i 1 inagahda i Modi ers1 Iirits 5 l ii w s wit 39T39Fm i3 ii WEE rm tihesi q I z i f i t 39 and 39ani l39jsez thatquot quot quot i quot r MES E p gmiir i anti mi 77 WE i lll39 peaganda poster diLiIEi39ii il 39 E Is simiws tin E J L i J r r s a r 5 7 I a i i r i i E i 1 UI UK N i 1 H a L 7 I 39i 7 l i a fr i I quot i i H i i J in 7 i r i i I a I 7 i994 i r1 7 quot ii quotI i i i 1 i a Ii i L i 39 i J n39 a 173 iIE E V l J i r x r i t i m 1 i H i z i F 4 in E g E i J i r rL k 5 J 5 1 quot s n 1 i39 1 Maui agyupjris i yaris m5 iEiril t concentratiin i t 39 hair I o o Disappointing results from decolonization Ghanaian author Ayi Armah 1968 criticized Nkrumah s government o quotThe net has been made in the special Ghanaian way that allowed the really big corrupt people to pass through it Ayi Armah The Beautiful Ones Are Not Yet Born Why did so many postcolonial states experience so many problems 0 Poverty political instability ethnic con ict civil wars 0 7O leaders in African countries were overthrown by violence between 19571982 0 Reasons for a dif cult start to independence The boundaries of the new states were the same as the boundaries of the colonies which were arti cial creations dawn up by Europeans in 1880s who were clueless about the situation on the ground 0 The Belgian Congo had over 200 ethnic groups and 200 languages spoke within its borders and this diversity still exists today 0 The way that Europeans divided up Africa laid the groundwork for civil and international wars after independence 0 Britain created Kuwait as a British colony in 1899 after Wll Iraq claimed that Kuwait was part of its territory Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990 o The Islamic fundamentalist group ISI is contesting the boundaries of Syria and Iraq which were drawn up by Britain and France after WWI 0 Three wars between India and Pakistan since 1947 continuing clashes along the border today Divideandrule strategy tactic where colonizers recruit from ethnicreligious authority and use them in militaries and enforce European rule created new tensions and aggravated tensions between groups 0 Democracies in the postcolonial states often fell victim to tension between rival ethnic groups politics often dominated by parties representing a particular ethnic group and its interests frequently resulted in military dictatorship and ethnic con ict Europeans transformed colonial economies so they revolved around a few cash crops after independence the locals were very dependent on world market prices for only a few agricultural products 0 1970s and 1980s cash crop product value collapsed 0 Little economic development few factories large disadvantage Former colonies had little industry which meant few employment opportunities yet had a large and growing population 0 Different routes to postcolonial development 1 MarxistLeninism Angola Ethiopia Vietnam collectivism control of all industry and commerce sovietstyle 2 Alternative Socialism African Socialismquot popular in African countries Tanzania Ghana oneparty system collectivized villages o quotThe justi cation of socialism is Man not the state not the ag Socialism is not for the bene t of black men nor brown men nor White men quotJulius Nyerere 1967 rst president of Tanzania declared that he will follow socialism of a different kind 0 am convinced that the only key to the solution of the world 5 problems anol of India 5 problems lies in socialism Jawaharial Nehru rst Indian Prime Minister democratic socialismquot private farmland private enterprise and free local markets nationalized banks 3 Capitalism Kenya embraced free markets farmland commercial activity pro t incentives The examples of Ghana and India 0 Two examples of socialiststyle approach to postcolonial development 0 Heavy government ownership of means of production and heavy government direction of economy 0 Often failed because too expense not enough educated people to implement the plans ethnic tension population growth negated advances Ghana nationalized private rms African Socialism scholarship funds that allowed people to go abroad and study 19605 largest export crop cocoa prices collapsed and the government revenue dried up 0 Started to borrow large amounts of money large government debts o Nkrumah had to abandon many of his plans for development became an authoritarian ruler instead of a hero Ghana becomes one party state and government National Liberation Council overthrew him in military coup in 1966 0 19805 Ghana near bankruptcy famine political stability returned in 19905 with democratic constitution India had the advantages of early leaders committed to civil rights and democracy had a largermore educated middle class and good infrastructure 0 By 1900 Indian railway network was one of the largest in the world Britain saw India as it s most important asset never saw Indians as low on the racial scale as Africans x Barack Obama 0 2012 reelected as President rst term in 2008 Remarkable considering the sad economic political and civil oppression of African American rights 0 quotWe the people declare today that the most evident of truths that all of us are created equal is the star that guides us still just as it guided our forebears through Seneca Falls and Selma and Stonewall Barack Obama 2013 The long history of racial oppression and white supremacy in the US 0 Despite the end of slavery in the US racial oppression continued due to discriminatory laws and practices that kept racial minorities from voting running for of ce and having equal access to public facilities 0 jim Crow Laws forbid interracial marriage integrated schools trains and public places 0 Violence over 2000 African Americas were lynched by white mobs between 18801930 Civil Rights Legislation 0 President Obama was born 1961 three years before President Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and four years before Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 o Outlawed state laws that enforced racial segregation 0 Gave government oversight over voting segregation in states that had a history of racial problems 0 The Civil Rights movement changed the US 0 NAACP National Association for Advancement of Colored People SNCC Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee 0 Adopted Gandhi s strategy of nonviolent protests bene tted from atmosphere of Cold War Other liberation movements Decolonization Feminist demand full equality for the sexes Gay rights 19605 demands equal rights for gays and lesbians Seneca Falls 0 Town in upstate NY that the rst feminist convention was held in 1848 women met and drafted statement called Declaration of Sentiments o Demanded that women and men are in fact equal 0 Denounced status quo in US women were not allowed to vote or be elected excluded from institutions of higher learning Selma Alabama city where a civil rights movementmarch took place with black marchers in 1965 o Beaten by white police and state troopers as they attempted to cross a bridge to Montgomery 0 Meant to protest practice of preventing black people from voting peaceful march o AKA Bloody Sunday Caused PresidentJohnson to pass Voting Rights Act gave federal government to supervise voter registration practices throughout the south Stonewall 0 Gay male club in NYC 19605 one of the few places where gay men could openly socialize with each other 0 Under constant surveillance by police frequently raided 1969 the gay patrons fought back with 5 nights of rioting Stonewall Riots A year later the LGBT community instituted rst gay parade in 1970 0 These movements crystallized into powerful agents of change rights were interrelated and in uenced one another 0 Right to an equal education right to vote right to serve equally in armed forces right to marry signify civic equality Defense of Marriage Act DOMA 1896 Plessy v Ferguson said racial segregation was legal 1954 Brown v BOE overturned the 1896 decision 0 President Clinton signed DOMA in 1996 in which prevented the federal government from recognizing same sex marriages 0 US Supreme Court ruled DOMA as unconstitutional in 2013 after Obama s inaugurate Feminism The belief in the social political and economic equality as the sexes o Freidan quotMy de nition of feminism is simply that women are people in the fullest sense of the word Who must Who must be free to move in society With all privileges anol opportunities anol responsibilities that are their human anol American right 0 First wave feminism struggle for basic legal rights rights to vote to attend university to keep one s wages to represent themselves in court 0 Began in 18005 until early 19005 in many places around the world was successful 0 Second wave feminism movement to get society to rethink gender norms and conventional notions about proper male and female social roles o Argued against wisdom that women should stay at home and men should be breadwinners fought for more equality and equal opportunities 0 Third wave feminism began in 19905 until present ongoing struggle to combat social and economic inequalities that oppress women ghting to roll back previous decisions made with women s rights Betty Freidan quotOver and over women heard in voices of tradition that they could desireno greater destiny than to glory in their own femininity Experts told them how to catch a man and keep him how to breastfeed children and handle their toilet training how to buy a dish washer bake bread how to dress look and act more feminine They were taught to pity the neurotic unfeminine unhappy women who wanted to be poets or physicists or presidents They learned that truly feminine women do not want careers higher education political rights A thousand eXpert voices applauded their femininity All they had to do was devote their lives from earliest girlhood to nding a husband and bearing children women are still being brain washed to think of themselves as second class citizens Simone de Beauvoir quotIt is often said that she a woman thinks with her glands Man superby ignores the fact that his anatomy also includes glands such as the testicles and that they secrete hormones He thinks of his body as a direct and normal connection with the world which he believes he apprehends objectivey whereas he regards the body of woman as a hindrance a prison weighed down by everything peculiar to it n1 7 l Religionbased politics in the 20th century Sayyid Qutb wrote Milestone s published in 1964 leader of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt one of the founding documents of modern Islam 0 14ny system in Which the nal decisions are referred to human beings and in Which the sources of all authority are human dei es human beings by designating others than God as lords over men believes that religion should govern politics political systems must be ruled by God 0 Muslim Brotherhood created in 1928 dedicated to enforce God s rule in Egypt believed that Egypt had strayed from Islam and become too secular wanted to make politics and society conform to what they saw as true principles of Islam Hassan AlBanna founder of Muslim Brotherhood o 7b reform the law in such a way that it Will be entirely in accordance With Islamic legal practice quotGovernment Will act in conformity to the law and to Islamic principles o quotThe Quran is our constitution the Prophet is our Guide Death for the glory of Allah is our greatest ambition Muslim Brotherhood never came to power in Egypt in 20th century 1952 military coup caused Gamal Abdul Nasser to come to power cracked down on Muslim Brotherhood o Executed Qutb in 1966 hundreds of Brotherhood leaders arrested in 1990s 0 MB represented the resurgence of religion based politics after WWII in Egypt and other parts of the world Pakistan declared self an Islamic state in 1947 Iran 1979 secular government of Shah Mohammad Roza Pahlavi is overthrown by Islamic fundamentalists Afghanistan 19905 taken over by Islamic fundamentalist Taliban Christian fundamentalism in US American politics since the 1970s re ected the growing in uence of Christian fundamentalists who want private and public life to be informed by Christian principles 0 Christine O Donnell evangelical Christian and Republican candidate who advocated for religion in schools How this went against expectations of the most important thinkers and philosophers of earlier generations Secularism reduction of religious control or in uence over major spheres of life growth in the separation of the state from religion 0 Conventional wisdom for many was that science will end the need to seek supernatural causes for natural phenomenon and material wellbeing will end the need for a comforting religion Karl Marx ideas religion will wither away and soon be gone Friedrich Engels worked with Marx 0 quot7o primitive man the forces of nature were something aien mysterious superior Engels view on religion s demise religion as receding as an intellectual and political force Why did religionbased politics surge in the 20th century Ayatollah Khomeini became supreme leader of Iran in 19805 head of fundamentalist regime 0 quotIslam is a religion of those who struggle for truth and justice of those Who camor for liberty and independence o Denounced the Jewish and western colonialism Secularism is often associated with the West as a western import forced by colonial masters and as a western import forced by local authoritarian rulers against the wishes of the people Mustafa Ataturk replaced Turkey Sharia law with secular law codes and dissolved Islamic courts Globalization integration of economies cultures and government policies around the world characterized by the rapid global movement of goods peoples and money 0 The interdependency of the world result of interdependency of globe as a result of close interaction on a regular basis 0 Not a modern phenomenon globalized world economy existed in late 1500s with Africa Europe Asia and the Americas connected by trade 0 Increased dramatically in 20th century more integrated now than ever before result of modern developments Important aspects of globalization in the modern period 0 Labor migration second half of 20th century laborers moved voluntarily to nd work in the more af uent parts of the globe 120 million migrants across 152 countries by year 2000 most are AsianAfricanLatin American Britain West Germany France and US experienced heavy labor migration post WWII Driven by economic boom in 19405 and 19505 needed manpower for their booming industries quotguest workers 0 Economic integration increased in 2nOI half of 20th century as goods and capital owed around the world with increasing speed and ease world trade doubled in value from 1980 to 1990 spurred by movement after WWII among politicians businesses and nancial organizations in capitalist countries Neoliberalism the belief that the key to economic growth and prosperity is the unfettered movement of capital lowering tariffs deregulating business transferring stateowned enterprises to private hands 0 See the world as a single market that needs liberation from government interference ie regulations 0 Powerful international organizations and agreement that promote neoliberalism offered loans to developing nations with the guarantee that the new nations will be based on neoliberalism 0 International Monetary Fund 1944 0 World Bank 1945 0 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT composed of 23 nations in 1947 overtaken in 1995 by World Trade Organization WTO that emphasized reduces barriers to free trade Transnational corporations push economic globalization and bene t from neoliberalism and deregulation 0 Sets up shop anywhere in the world wherever wages workplace and environmental regulations and the lowest ie Mattel 0 Treat the world as if it were a single market and the nation state no longer existed 0 Apple Company designs products in US and uses cheap labor in China to manufacture its products I Major problems of 20th century persist Neo colonialism transnational corporations restructuring economies of poor regions to suit their needs and to supply wealthier people with cheap goods and labor determines local wages weakens environmental laws and regulations on businesses O Reshapes the value of poorer regions in ways that serve the interests of transnational corporations that are often based in the former colonial powers Critics of globalization also point out that the integration of world s economies has increased the divide between rich and poor regions Climate change and environmental degradation 0 0 Population of the world has exploded over the past 100 years from 16 billion in 1900 to 7 billion in present day due to worldwide decline in child mortality rates and rise in life expectancy Food supply issues feeding additional billions had led to deforestation and deserti cation rapid decline in sh populations and a shrinking supply of freshwater Ogallala Aquifer one of the largest stores of underground water in the world rapidly losing its water Level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increased dramatically since industrial revolution carbon intensi es effects of sun rays fossil fuels oil coal and natural gas China has a much larger population than USA consumes far less oil a day worry that the Chinese want to live like Americans and will start using more oil China as the center of the Old World economy in premodern times The Chinese city was quota place of great commerce and eminent for its manufacturers Raw silks produced in great quantities 0 Marco Popo s description of a Chinese city back in the 12005 Silk Road of the medieval times focused on goods from Asia mostly Chinese silk Christopher Columbus there was one large town in Espanoa of which especialy took possession situated in a locality well adapted for the working of the gold minesquot motivated to plug himself into international trade China passed Japan as the world s second largest economy in 2010 behind the United States Chinese economic growth and in uence today Two graphs from the front page of Washington Post 121010 showing growth in China s carbon emissions due to Chinese economic development 0 China today use 100x as much carbon emissions as it did in 1950 0 Second chart shows carbon emissions per person individuals in China emit less carbon that the US even though their population is much larger Authoritarian capitalism tremendous capitalist development yet no liberalization of politics China is still a oneparty state with tremendous political repression leads the world in state executions but not in the size of the prison population Tiananmen Square Massacre Gigantic prodemocracy protests in Beijing in 1989 met with armed force by the state 1005 of people killed around Tiananmen Square 0 China s return to global dominance is also felt today in Chinese investment in and trade with areas formerly colonized by the west or historically subjected to western in uences Caribbean 0 China is now funneling aid to Africa 10 billion dollars 0 Secretary General of the Chinese Communist party Hu Yaobang 1984 0 Do not fear prosperityquot how china rose to power economic reform 0 1970s created special economic zones giving foreign investors preferential tax rates allowed more land to be farmed privately allowed private business to keep more of their pro ts News reports on Al Weiwei Artist and political critic of the Chinese government Ai Weiwei was arrested by the government in 201 and imprisoned for 3 months with no charges released and charged with tax evasion Documentary Young and Restless in China Follows life stories in Chinese teenagers who have bene tted from the economic reforms returning turtlesquot people who leave China and come back to nd economic opportunities


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