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Exam 2 Notes

by: Desiree Clark

Exam 2 Notes Bio 101

Desiree Clark
GPA 2.0
Into to Biology

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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Desiree Clark on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Bio 101 at Iowa State University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Into to Biology in Biology at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 10/07/15
The Biosphere The biosphere is the envelope of life on earth life is found in the lower atmosphere earth s surface lithosphere hydrosphere 0 Distribution of life on land depends primarily on climate Important aspects of climate temperature and rainfall patterns Biomes Relationship between climate of a region and the type of vegetation found there 0 Biome broad geographic region with characteristic plants and animals identified by dominant vegetation type Biomes Forests Evergreen temperate deciduous tropical rain 0 Grasslands Deserts Tundra World Map of Biomes Relationship between Climate and Vegetation Temperature and rainfall patterns in a region determine what biome will be there Why it is warmer at the equator Sunlight rays strike more directly and with more heat energy at the equator Sunlight rays strike obliquely near the poles and thus heat energy is not as intense in any one place Why there are seasons The tilt of the earth on its axis of rotation means that at any location the intensity of the sun s rays changes as the earth rotates around the sun Global air circulation patterns Belts of warm air rise from the tropics and cool and lose their moisture then fall as dry air at 30 degrees north and south latitude creating deserts there Local Topography Effects Rain shadow effect Moist winds off the ocean hit mountains and rise losing their moisture Dry air falls on the other side of the mountain creating dry or desert conditions Climate change long term Periodic ice ages Climate change short term El Nino Global warming Biomes again Forests 30 of earth s surface Tropical forests Species rich 75 of earth s species Soil low in nutrients high turnover Slash and burn agriculture causing extinction Deciduous forests Coniferous evergreen forests Soils of forest biomes Biomes cont Grasslands 30 of earth s surface Lower rainfall Fire adapted Deserts 30 of earth s surface 30 Degrees n amp s latitude global air patterns Rain shadow Tundra northern latitudes eg upper Canada no trees permafrost Soils of grassland and desert Aquatic Ecosystems Aquatic 75 of earth s surface Marine Freshwater Estuaries Marine Marine Salt water Life zone determined by limit of light penetration 2 of ocean s volume Phytoplankton zooplankton Life zone also affected by nutrient supply Coastal waters rich in nutrients and life Hydrothermal vents Estuaries Also rich in nutrients and life Mix of salt and fresh water Aquatic Ecosystems Cont Freshwater Rivers streams lakes ponds wetlands Lakes life at the surface Nutrient overload leads to eutrophication Acid rain leads to death of plant and animal life Wetlands Marshes swamps Important for ood control filtering water Impact of Humans on the Environment Air land and water Air pollutants and their causes Pollutants 1 photochemicals smog 2 carbon dioxide greenhouse effect 3 sulfur nitric oxides acid rain 4 CFC s ozone depletion Causes 1 car emissions 2 burning of fossil fuels deforestation 3 coal burning car emissions 4 refrigerants Air pollution effects smog Especially common in large cities and industrial areas combination of dust soot smoke emissions from vehicles other airborne chemicals in some cases sunlight alters chemicals and make them more toxic responsible for respiratory diseases cancer deaths Air pollution effects global warming Greenhouse gases Carbon dioxide methane others Greenhouse effect Global warming Melting of polar ice Rise in sea level Climate changes Effects on vegetation Effects on agriculture Increase in C02 40 increase since mid 18003 20 over the last 50 years The greenhouse effect C02 in the atmosphere acts like the glass in a greenhouse Sunlight penetrates the atmosphere and turns to heat when it hits the earth This heat is prevented from escaping into outer space by the C02 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere Air pollution effects acid rain Normal rain is slightly acidic pH 55 plain water is pH 70 0 Acid rain has lower pH than 55 Sulfur and nitric oxides form sulfuric and nitric acid Comes from emissions by power plants and cars 0 Results in Death of fish in lakes 0 Damage to plants Destruction of buildings Acid rain in North America Air pollution effects ozone layer damage Ozone layer in stratosphere protects living things from UV light UV light is a mutagen and carcinogen Ozone damaged by CFC s 0 Potential increase in skin cancers Global treaty to reduce CFC use Water pollutants 1 Nutrients Cause phosphates nitrates from agricultural fertilizer runoff sewage animal feed lots Effect eutrophication of lakes Nutrients feed algae algal bloom algae die oxygen is removed from the water as dead algae are decomposed fish die Effect nitratescontamination of drinking water 2 Pesticides Cause agriculture Effects contamination of drinking water biological magnification Water problems Irrigation Reduce aquifers Salinization Ogallala and other aquifers Land degradation Desertification 1 Overgrazing 2 Overcultivation Loss of topsoil Iowa from 16 to 8 3 Deforestation 50 of tropical rain forests gone Loss of biodiversity Reduces precipitation Slash and burn Sustainability Must take care of wastes energy and food so that resources will continue to be available in the future Wastes Solid wastes Paper 40 Yard waste 20 Plastic 10 Options Landfill Compost Burn Recycle and reuse Hazardous wastes Safe storage Sources of energy Fossil fuel reserves Oil and gas about 100 years Coal about 300 years Effects of mining Nuclear Once seen as hope for the future Interest cooled because of safety concerns Chernobyl meltdown Nuclear waste disposal Fusion Solar Wind Food How to provide for population growth 1 Increase the amount of land in production already near limit loss of land due to desertification 2 Increase the productivity of the land currently in production Green revolution productivity nearing limit 3 Eat lower on the food chain Grain for people or livestock 10 times more people can be fed on an acre of grain if the grain is eaten directly rather than feeding it to cows and then eating the cows Basic Chemistry Matter made of elements Carbon nitrogen etc Elements composed of atoms Unique atom for each element Atoms composed of protons neutrons both form nucleus and electrons spinning about nucleus Atomic structure 0 Periodic Table Chart showing elements by increasing number of protons and electrons Bonding Atoms join bond With other atoms to form molecules Ability of atoms to bond depends on number of electrons in outermost shell Atoms seek to have outermost shell contain maximum number of electrons innermost shell is filled when it has 2 electrons additional shells are filled When they have 8 electrons Bonding Atom With outermost shell filled not reactive eg helium Goodyear blimp Atom With outermost shell not filled Will react With atoms that Will fill shell eg hydrogen Hindenberg blimp bleW up Atoms may share electrons With other atoms covalent bonding or pick up electrons from other atoms or lose electrons to other atoms to produce an outermost shell that is filled ionic bonding Examples Ionic Bonds Bonds based on transferring electrons from one atom to another Salt Sodium Chloride NaCl A sodium atom With 1 electron in its outermost shell gives that electron to a chlorine atom that has 7 in its outmost shell Now both atoms have filled outermost shells But the sodium atom has a positive charge because it has given up a an electron Which is a negatively charged particle and chlorine has a negative charge because it has picked up an extra electron The charged sodium is now attracted to the charged chlorine atom creating an ionic bond Covalent Bonds Bonds based on sharing electrons Example A molecule of hydrogen consists of 2 hydrogen atoms bonded together Each hydrogen atom has one electron but would like to have 2 in its outermost shell By sharing each other s electron the 2 atoms are satisfied and become bonded together by a covalent bond Polar covalent bonds In some covalently bonded atoms there is unequal sharing of electrons producing a molecule with one end positively charged and the other end negativelycharged Example In a water molecule H20 the larger oxygen atom hogs the electrons that it shares with the 2 hydrogen atoms Consequently the oxygen side of the water molecule is negatively charged and the hydrogen sides are positively charged Hydrogen Bonding When polar covalent molecules with hydrogen atoms get together they are attracted to each other because the positive ends of one molecule are attracted to the negative ends of another Example Water molecules are attracted to each other by hydrogen bonding The hydrogen bonding among water molecules is responsible for water s unique properties because it takes energy to pull them apart Takes much heat to get water to boil Surface tension on the surface of water allows insects to walk on water Good solvent Acids and bases pH Plain water has a certain concentration of hydrogen ions corresponding to a pH of 7 Acids have a higher concentration of hydrogen ions than plain water and have a pH of less than 7 Bases have a lower concentration of hydrogen ions and have a pH of greater than 7 Organic molecules Important elements for living things CHNOPS Organic molecules contain carbon Essential for life Properties of carbon Why carbon 4 Electrons in outermost shell half filled can bond With other atoms CHNOPS Especially important bonding With other carbon atoms to form chains and branches Linking small units monomers together to form a large unit polymer Four important biochemical groups Carbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids Carbohydrates Sugars starch glycogen Important source of energy Cellulose plant skeleton Carbohydrates simple to complex Simple sugars Monosaccharides glucose fructose 6 carbon sugars Monosaccharides link to form disaccharides and polysaccharides Disaccharides 2 simple sugars e g sucrose glucose bonded to fructose Polysaccharides many simple sugars bonded together Polysaccharides Polysaccharides In plants starch energy storage cellulose fiber rigid structure In animals glycogen energy storage in liver and muscles chitin in insects forms exoskeleton All of the above are polymers made from glucose Lipids Fats waxes oils steroids phospholipids Not soluble in water Fats subunits are fatty acids Fatty acids long carbon chains Saturated hydrogenated solids Come from animals Unsaturated oils Come from plants Steroids Sex hormones estrogen testosterone cholesterol Phospholipids Important in cell membranes Proteins Functions Structure hair skin fingernails tendons connective tissue collagen Enzymes help biochemical reactions occur Receptors neurotransmitters hormones 39 Subunits amino acids 20 Important amino acids 3dimensional structure shape very important for proper function Structure maintained by hydrogen bonds between different amino acids in the protein Nucleic acids DNA and RNA important in genetics Subunits called nucleotides 5 Types AGTC and U Nucleotide essential to metabolism ATP cell s spending money energy Cells Basic unit of life Cell Theory middle 1800 s 1 every organism composed of cells 2 cells are the smallest unit of life 3 new cells come from existing cells Cell structure and function How do we know what is in cells Light microscope Electron microscope TEM SEM Contents of cells All cells have DNA genetic information and ribosomes for making proteins Contents of cell packaged differently in 2 major groups of organisms Prokaryote bacteria Eukaryotes everything else Prokaryotic cells Bacteria No nucleus no organelles Eukaryotic cells nucleus and organelles Kingdoms Protists Fungi Plants Animals Activities of cells Activities of cells are much like the activities of multicellular organism they may be part of Take up and digest nutrients Take up oxygen get rid of carbon dioxide Homeostasis Growth Reproduction Response to environment Organelles Organelles Within the eukaryotic cell perform specific functions Like a factory Administrative offices nucleus Assembly line endoplasmic reticulum ER Physical plant energy mitochondria Packaging and distribution Golgi complex Waste removal lysosomes Storage and transport vesicles Animal cell Plant Cell Plasma membrane Surrounds the cell Barrier regulates exchange With environment Lipid bilayer With proteins embedded Surface markers identify cell Nucleus Genetic control of cell activities Home of chromosomes DNA Surrounded by nuclear envelope membrane With pores Also contains nucleolus plural nucleoli makes ribosomes RNA Organelles in the cytoplasm Structures With membranes that perform specific functions Prokaryotes can perform most or all of these functions though they lack membrane bound organelles Endoplasmic reticulum ER Rough RER has ribosomes involved With protein synthesis Smooth SER no ribosomes Golgi complex Packages material for domestic use and export Work With vesicles Vesicles are small membranous sacs used to shuttle materials Within the cell and to the outside secretion Secretion Pathway Lysosomes Garbage disposal of the cell Sac containing strong chemicals For digestion of molecules Within cell and selfdestruction of entire cell Vacuoles Central vacuole of plants Large vesicle for storage and support Warehouse Mitochondria Powerhouses of the cell Make ATP energy packets used by the cell Sites of aerobic respiration Chloroplasts Only found in photosynthetic cells Sites of photosynthesis capture energy from the sun Green contain chlorophyll Other structures Cytoskeleton Keeps cell shape Mesh of fibers Involved With cell movement Cilia hairlike around the cell involved With movement Cell walls Found in plants fungi Outside of cell membrane Made of polysaccharides Cellulose in plants Chitin in fungi Make cells rigid


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