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Exam 1 Notes

by: Desiree Clark

Exam 1 Notes Bio 101

Desiree Clark
GPA 2.0
Into to Biology

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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Desiree Clark on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Bio 101 at Iowa State University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Into to Biology in Biology at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 10/07/15
Introduction Biology the study of living things Characteristics of living things Cells Energy Reproduction Heredity Responsive to environment Cells All living things are composed of cells Unicellular organisms Bacteria and protists Multicellular organisms Plants Animals Fungi Energy All organisms acquire and use energy Metabolism Energy used Within cells Energy used to build molecules Requires enzymes to help chemical reactions Reproduction Organisms produce offspring like themselves Asexual reproduction single individual parent Offspring are clones identical to parent Sexual reproduction two parents Offspring a combination of traits of both parents Growth and development Heredity Genetic blueprint determines an organism s characteristics DNA genetic material Genes section of DNA determine traits Rules of inheritance Mendel Response to environment Vital to any organism Escape predators Find food Move to light Move away from toxins Find mates Sensory receptors Homeostasis Most organisms maintain their internal environment despite changes in the external environment Example body temperature regulation in humans Too hot sweating Too cold shivering Levels of organization Atoms Molecules Organelles Cells Tissue Organ Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere Role of the sun in life and the interdependencies among organisms Producers Plants some bacteria and some protists Autotrophs make their own food Use sun energy photosynthesis build sugar molecules Breakdown sugar molecules as an energy source Consumers decomposers Animals some protists fungi Heterotrophs consume other organisms for food Breakdown food as an energy source Underlying themes of biology Unity Within diversity 6 Kingdoms Bacteria Archaebacteria and Eubacteria protists fungi plants animals Cells Common genetic code Evolution Change in species over time due to natural selection and other mechanisms Adaptations result of natural selection traits that improve success in an environment Example of adaptations hummingbirds and owers they pollinate Speciation and extinction Evolution explains both unity and diversity Scienti c method Establish causal relationships using logic Components of scientific method Observation Develop hypotheses Hypothesis testing making predictions and testing them Experimental group control group Theory hypothesis that has stood up to many tests Eg Cell Theory Theory of Gravity Theory of Evolution Example of scienti c method Why redWinged blackbirds have red Wing patches Observation red Wing patches but just on males Hypothesis red patches involved in territory defense Experiment blacken the red patches on some birds and examine their territory defense abilities Ecology Study of the interactions of organisms with their environment Environment includes the abiotic portion physical factors such as temperature rainfall etc and the biotic portion other organisms Levels of organization Individuals Populations Groups of individuals of the same species living in an area habitat Community Populations of all species that occupy a habitat Ecosystems Communities and their interactions with the physical environment Biosphere Envelope of life covering the earth Population ecology Populations individuals of same species living in an area One feature of populations of particular interest is whether they are growing declining or staying at about the same number of individuals Second how fast are population changes occurring Growth rate Growth rate birth rate br and immigration death rate dr and emigration net number of individuals added to the population in a given time period Ignoring immigration and emigration If br gt dr then population will grow If br dr then population will remain at constant size ng zero population growth If br lt dr then population will decline Bucket analogy Growth with unlimited resources Unlimited resources in the environment Example one individual female gives birth to 2 female offspring which in turn each have 2 female offspring etc 1gt2gt4gt8gt16gt32gt64etc In this case the population doubles every generation Exponential growth J shaped growth curve Doubling time time for the population to double in size Growth with environmental limits Limited resources in the environment Densitydependent limiting factors as population increases the death rate increases due to Predators Competition Limited space Limited food Disease Populations are also limited by densityindependent factors Bad weather Growth with densitydependent factors Logistic growth Sshaped growth curve Population grows until it reaches the carrying capacity then remains at that level Carrying capacity K is the population size that can be supported by the resources in the environment Overshooting the carrying capacity Response to overcrowding increased death rate starvation reduced birth rate increased emigration leave area When no emigration possible such as on islands population may overshoot carrying capacity Reindeer on Alaskan island Polynesians on Easter Island Reproductive strategies Life history patterns r selected species Populations of some species are usually well below K Population kept down by disturbances such as bad weather These species are rselected Focus on rapid reproduction Quantity over quality Many small babies frequent reproduction Egs Many insects weedy plants K selected species Populations of other species are almost always near K Population kept near K by competition for resources These species are K selected Focus on having competitive offspring quality over quantity Few big babies infrequent reproduction Egs Elephants cardinals Populations Human population 39 Current population size about 7 Billion 39 Historical growth pattern exponential Year 1900 16 billion Year 2000 6 billion Rate of Growth Though the global population is still growing the RATE of growth has been slowing Growth rate differs for different countries Low for N America Europe actually declining Russia and China High for much of Africa Latin America and Asia except for China Birth per woman lt 2 for Canada Europe declining China Births per woman high for much of Africa Demographic transition 0 Growth rate birth rate death rate 0 1 Early in human history Low population growth rate due to high birth rates but similarly high death rates 0 2 Developing countries Death rate lowered but birth rate remains high high growth rate 0 3 Developed countries Death rate low and birth rate declines low growth rate 0 Change from 13 called demographic transition Age Structure 0 One way to gauge present and future growth trends in a country is to look at the age structure Proportion of individuals in each age class 3 main age groups prereproductive reproductive and post reproductive 0 Broadbase pyramid shaped rapid growth 0 Narrowbase pyramid shaped slow growth 0 Straight sides at bottom no growth ZPG 0 Narrower at bottom declining population 0 Baby booms 0 Can illuminate social conditions and help us plan for the future Declining populations have a large percentage of elderly Population projections Increase to about 93 billion by 2050 20502100 Level off at about 10 billion and remain steady or perhaps decline Global Carrying Capacity 0 Just how many humans can the biosphere support 0 What is the carrying capacity of the planet for humans Ecological Footprint The ecological footprint concept Summarizes the aggregate land and water area needed to sustain the people of a nation It is one measure of how close we are to the carrying capacity of Earth 0 Average footprint for the world is over 2 ha per person ha hectare 25 acres 0 There are about 17 ha available per person So the world is already in ecological deficit Human population limiting factors 0 Food Agricultural productivity reaching a ceiling land being degraded 6 million deaths a year are malnutrition related Water Over a billion people do not have adequate amounts of clean water 0 Disease AIDS epidemic emerging diseases 0 Resources Nonrenewable one being used up 0 Energy Running out of fossil fuels 0 Wastes Pollution global warming ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES Definition Group of species living in the same habitat E g for a New Guinea Forest we might be interested in the ALL the species or a subset such as the Tree community Bird community Stream insect community Characteristics of a species Habitat Where a species lives its address Niche What a species does for a living its occupation Physical environment tolerances Example buffalo Habitat grassland prairie Niche grazes on grasses Able to survive in the winter Species relationships Possible relationships between species Competition Spl Sp2 Commensalism Spl Sp2 0 Predation and parasitism Spl Sp2 Mutualism Spl Sp2 indicates that the species is negatively affected by the interaction indicates that the species is positively affected by the interaction 0 means unaffected Coevolution When 2 species affect each other all relationships except commensalism there is coevolution adaptations in one species lead to adaptations in the other species E g prey get faster then predators get faster Competition Occurs when there is overlap in the niche of two organisms Intraspecific competition within a species very intense because niches overlap completely Interspecific competition between species less intense partial niche overlap Types of competition Exploitative effect felt through the depletion of shared resources e g 2 straws in a glass of water Interference fight for resources Aggression Territoriality intraspecific Consequences of competition Competitive exclusion principle Gause Two species with same niche cannot coexist Consequences of competition Loss of one species E g experiment with Paramecium species E g When nonnative species are introduced such as honeybees and house sparrows native species may disappear Resource partitioning Niche differences that allow coexistence Eg Kangaroo rats that eat different sized seeds E g chipmunks that live at different elevations Fundamental niche what a species could be doing Realized niche what a species is restricted to doing because of competitors Commensalism Benefits one species no effect on the other Eg Cattle egrets cattle Predation Predator prey Predator larger than prey Eg Lynx and hare Parasitism Parasite host Parasite is smaller than the host Prey strategies How prey organisms avoid being eaten Camou age weapons toxins warning coloration mimicry Mimicry Resembling something inedible Moth looks like bird dropping Resembling something toxic Batesian Model is distasteful and has warning coloration Mimic is tasty Mullerian Nonrelated poisonous species resemble one another Eg Viceroy and monarch butter ies Predator strategies Camou age stealth special behaviors Aggressive mimicry wolf in sheep s clothing eg mantis that looks like a ower Mutualisms Two organisms benefit each other Facultative 2 Organisms can survive without each other Obligate 2 Organisms cannot survive without each other egs yucca and yucca moth lichen algae and fungus Examples of mutualism Pollination Seed dispersal Plant protection Mycorrhizae fungi that live on plant roots Mutualism combined with aggressive mimicry Cleaner fish and imposter Community change succession Following disturbance Colonization by species resulting in changes in species composition until a stable set of species is reached climax community Primary succession Begins With barren habitat e g rockslide lava ow glacier retreat Secondary succession Begins With disturbed area with some species remaining eg treefall abandoned field burned forest or grassland Eg Sand dune succession Process occurs because of differences in dispersal and shade tolerances Climax community stable community no change in species tolerant of own shade Community change succession Some species require periodic disturbance to maintain species composition E g role of fire in some forest communities and in grasslands Some communities do not recover from disturbance Plowed prairie Community organization How many species What kinds of species Determining factors 1 How many resources are available More species in tropical than temperate latitudes 2 Competition Limits the number of species that can be present 3 Predators Effect on competition E g periwinkle predators and algae species diversity 4 Disturbance Highest species diversity With moderate disturbance Ecosystems Community and its physical environment E g Pine forest marsh lake prairie Key Components Physical environment Abiotic nonliving Resources nutrients and energy Conditions temperature rainfall etc Community Biotic living Focus on materials that ow within and between biotic and abiotic Nutrients eg Carbon nitrogen Energy Features Common to All Ecosystems Trophic Levels Producers Autotrophs plants and some bacteria Consumers Primary plant eaters herbivores Secondary and above carnivores Mixed level omnivores Detritivores Consume larger dead material detritus Worms insects etc Decomposers Consume wastes and small dead material Bacteria and fungi Energy and Nutrient Flow Food chain who eats whom species Food web interconnected food chains Energy ow is one way Must be continually supplied by the sun Most energy lost as metabolic heat Nutrients may recycle Energy Pyramid 0 Amount of energy that ows through each trophic level 0 About 10 of energy in one level is transferred to the next higher level Usually have more energy owing from producer to detritivores and decomposers than to herbivores and carnivores Recycling of Nutrients Most important nutrients CHNOPS Carbon hydrogen nitrogen oxygen phosphorus sulfur Gaseous cycles Involve atmosphere Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Sedimentary cycles Involve soil and rocks Phosphorus cycle Hydrologic cycle Water hydrogen and oxygen Water Cycle Primary reservoir ocean Key processes inputs to atmosphere through evaporation and evapotranspiration plants output from atmosphere by precipitation Precipitation over land returned to ocean through streams and rivers Phosphorus Cycle Plants pick up phosphorus as phosphates from soil Other organisms get phosphates When they eat plants or other organisms Phosphates returned to soil by decomposition Some phosphate enters the soil When rocks are eroded Phosphorus in fertilizers runs off of fields into lakes and the ocean and causes excess algal growth eutrophication Carbon Cycle Carbon cycles through the atmosphere as C02 carbon dioxide Land component Plants pick up C02 When doing photosynthesis Carbon converted to carbohydrate Other organisms pick up carbon when they eat plants or other organisms C02 returned to the atmosphere when organisms break down carbohydrate for energy respiration Burning plants or fossil fuels puts C02 into the atmosphere Ocean component C02 dissolved in ocean water Exchange of C02 between ocean and atmosphere Carbon enters ocean organisms when they take C02 from the water during photosynthesis Carbon gets to other organisms when they eat something Some carbon tied up when it is used in the shells of marine organisms Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen cycles through the atmosphere as nitrogen gas Only certain soil bacteria can use nitrogen gas They convert the nitrogen to forms that plants can use Other organisms get their nitrogen from eating things Certain bacteria can convert the forms of nitrogen in the soil back to nitrogen gas Nitrogen in fertilizers runs off of fields and causes excess algal growth in lakes and the ocean eutrophication Movement of Toxic Chemicals in an Ecosystem 0 Biological concentration Accumulation of toxin within an organism Biological magnification Increase in toxin dose for animals higher on the food chain 0 Example DDT chemical stored in fat reduced osprey reproduction


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