Popular in American History from 1877 to the present
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History 105 Fry- Roots of Contemporary Issues
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Tara nolan on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 111 at Washington State University taught by instructor Atkins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see American History from 1877 to the present in History at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
History 111 Tuesday September 15 2015 851 PM History 111 August 21 2015 Black Activism Unions Many worked with whites and blacks together Organized by political interests and ideas Involvement in politics and political movements Women 0 Long term success African American women 0 Black women were not seen as threatening the way black men were 0 Educational movements Selfimprovement groups 0 Holy organizations 0 Voter registration drives 0 Accomplished more because they were able to go through society easier 0 Ida B Wells Journalist in Memphis African American newspaper Editorials Condemning violence Condemned poor schools Controversial editorials Fired from her teaching job because of the editorials Full time journalist which made her more open and honest 1892 friend lynched because whites wanted to shut down his store and he protested Attacked the evils of lynching in her newspaper and encouraged blacks to leave town Mob destroyed newspaper Took her anti lynching campaign to England where she was welcomed Embarrassed the US Eluidity of Race Relations 0 Were not static Segregation lynching problems 0 Some whites and blacks continued to work together and held cordial relationships Depended on time Depended on individuals 0 Some white individuals were willing to work with African Americans some were not The rise of Jim Crow 0 African American are politically and culturally losing their rights through Jim Crow laws Probably came from a minstrel show Stereotype of a particular kind of African American Mandated segregation How did this happen 0 White backwash Whites did what they could to undermine the participation of African Americans in society Concern of African Americans and whites mingling as equals 0 Severe economic depression was another concern for the whites Punished blacks and blamed them for the loss of the war Making Segregation By force Rhetoric of violence 0 By law 0 Laws were more voluntary in the North whereas the South had very strict laws segregating whites and blacks Plessy vs Ferguson 1896 0 Homer Plessy African American Bought a 1St class ticket Refused to leave his 1St class car was arrested and argued that he paid a rst class fare Went to Supreme Court Supreme court ruled that the railroad was not violating any of the amendments Jim Crow Laws 0 Separate but quotequalquot 0 1900 segregation was extended to almost all public facilities 0 Economic segregation Became segregated in the workplace as well Deskilling of black labor 0 African American men were excluded from good jobs unions lost their labor protections lost jobs Disenfranchisement Poll Tax 0 Required citizens to pay to vote Disenfranchises poor people 0 Secret Ballot 0 Changed colors on the ballots to confused illiterate people and made them accidentally vote for the wrong party 0 Literacy Clause 0 Made voters explain part of the constitution and decided then and there if they should vote or not Grandfather Clause 0 You can vote if you are over the age of Segregation by Consensus Stereotypes of African Americans that presented them as inferior The Growing UrbanRural Divide More people are living in rural areas than urban areas New Immigration 0 Ellis Island 0 New immigrants were catholic or Jewish 0 1901 1914 13 million immigrants came to the U S 0 Why did they come to the US To find freedom and prosperity Wanted to attain a new life 0 Religious freedom September 2 2015 Labor in the Age of Big Business 0 Class Divisions Rise and fall of the knights of labor Terence V Powderly Bring together workers regardless of skill level Emancipation from wage slavery Reform Focused on larger social reform Graduated income taX those who make more should pay more taxes Inclusiveness Gender 0 Equal pay and equal work for men and women 0 African American workers 0 Did not want Chinese workers Haymarket Riot May 1 1886 0 350000 workers walked off their jobs 0 200000 were successful in convincing their employers to lessen their hours 0 Growing confrontations between workers and police 0 Dangerous and unAmerican o No longer recognize unions Homestead Strike 0 399 American Federation of Labor 0 Samuel Gompers founder and leader of AFL Believed the only way the AFL would succeed was to hire the best workers Ignored unskilled workers Did not want racial minorities in the AFL Did not want immigrants Thought they would do more harm than good for the cause Believed women belonged in the home Paid men enough so wives could stay at home Farmers in the Age of Business 0 Southern Farmer s Alliance 0 Response to challenges farmers faced Organized chapters all along the south Bought cooperative stores and began to merchandise crops cooperatively Colored Farmers Alliance 0 Northern Farmers Alliance The People s Party Populists 1892 0 Platform Election of 1896 Populists quotFree Silver Populism s Last Campaign 0 William Jennings Bryan quotCross of Gold September 14 2015 josiah Anastasi Teddy Roosevelt Bully Pulpit Square deal Trust busting Essentially using the federal government to dismantle trusts and big monopolies Conservation Tripled the size of federal reserves 0 150 million acres of reserve land 0 Wildlife refuges William Howard Taft Easily won republican nomination Taft pursued trust busting Federal income taX 16th amendment made it possible to expand the power of the government Election of 1912 Bull Moose Party 0 Teddy Roosevelt wanted to be president again Did not take this lying down Started a progressive party Said he felt as strong as a quotbull moose Ambitious platform Party stood for Women s suffrage 8 hour work day Prohibition of child labor Minimum wage for women Regulation of large corporations World War 1 Final reform movements of progressivism The causes of world war 1 Making the world safe for democracy Woodrow Wilson New Freedom 0 Political platform 0 He wanted to reduce the in uence of big corporations and government 0 He didn t want to trust bust He wanted to use the government to more powerfully regulate the economy FTC Federal Trade Commission Maintained regulated prices Federal Reserve 0 Created by Wilson Reorganize the nation s banking and currency systems through the creation of 12 national banks Regulate currency Lent money to private banks 0 Central bank that loans money to private banks 0 Reduced the power of private banks to make sure there was a central governing bank Tariff Tariff reform Tax on imported goods 0 Made it very difficult for people to buy foreign goods 0 Reduced the tariff to create a more free market place 16th Amendment Implemented the 16th amendment 0 First personal income tax 0 1 tax on people who made 400020000 a year 0 Rose gradually to 6 if you made more than 500000 a year Foreign Intervention Dollar Diplomacy As American corporations expanded abroad they would have a positive outcome Moral Imperialism Using Americas moral righteousness to transform other nations Believed the US should recognize latin America Mexican Revolution Pancho Villa Emerged as a symbol of de ance in America 0 Bring the US and Mexico to the verge of war The Great War Origins Triple Alliance 0 Central powers 0 Germany Austria Hungary and Italy Triple Entente Allies Great Britain France Russia Archduke Franz Ferdinand Heir to the throne of the Austria Hungarian empire Assassinated while visiting Bosnia Killer was a Serbian nationalist Germany told them they need to retaliate American quotNeutralityquot Trench warfare Soldiers would dig trenches Unrestricted submarine warfare Zimmerman Telegram Instructed the German ambassador to work with the Mexican government to declare war against the US Making the World Safe for Democracy Speech was the most effective in American history The challenge was the win over the American public that they needed to go to war September 23 New Mass Culture 0 Leisure 0 More and more money on leisure activities 0 Consumer Goods 0 Buying a lot more consumer goodsmore than americans had ever bought before 0 Advertising the American Dream 0 Participating in the American Dream means buying stuff Radio Broadcast shows 0 Radio took off in 1923 o 600 stations 0 600000 Americans had bought radios o Brought Americans together for the rst time Film and Hollywood 0 192039s lm changed 0 Labor Unions 0 Star System 0 Making of famous people Producers got smart and got people to invest in famous peoples realees 0 Also created more stars such as sports players 0 Babe Ruth New Morality o Flapper Young women who wore short skirts bobbed her hair more assertive con dent outgoing basically the opposite of the women who stayed at home quotHomosexualityquot 0 Used this term for the rst time in the 192039s 0 The rise of gay sub culturessan fran Chicago 0 Post Suffrage Feminism League of women voters a National women39s party 0 Alice Paul 0 Equal rights amendment 0 There is no difference between men and women and women should not be discriminated against based on sex September 28 2015 o The basic programs of the New Deal 0 The New Deal39s successes and failures 0 The remaking of American Liberalism The Coming of the Great Depression Depression on the Farms 0 Because of the war there was so much demand for american goods 0 Over produced by the 192039s and there was less demand 0 After taking of ce hoover tried to address these problems Began in the 2039s The Stock Market o If every american invested in common stocks every american could be rich Mad speculation The stock market didn39t relfect the pro tsa number of american industries began to slow down but their stocks didn39t so there was a growing gap Banks used their money to invest into stocks Banks had access to the federal reserve In the 192039s people could buy stocks on margininstead of paying full price you could pay 1015 0 Oct 23 19296 million shares 4 billion dollars was wiped out in value c Oct 24more stocks changed hands ticker was running 4 hours behind Oct 29the stock market 16 million stocks were exchanged A third of the value of the stock market was wiped out by November Bank Runs 0 People began losing faith in their banks because the banks were starting to have nancial problems Banks started running out of money Panic because some banks were mismanaged American Union Bankprivate bankcosed down but spread panic because of its name Unemployment Reached 9 by 1930 193220 unemployment Some of the main industrial cities had unemployment rates of 50 Different than unemployment todayno unemployment insurance Sense in the 193039s that if you were unemployed it was your own fault A lot of people also had their hours reduced What Caused the Great depression Abuses on Wall Streetundermining peoples con dence in American business 0 Banking system was poorly run and poorly regulated which lead to this Unequal distribution of wealth Greatest concentration of wealth in history 0 Changes abroadEurope was experiencing economic issues as well Hoover and the Depression Associative State 0 Voluntary nd ways to get people to cooperate to make a better nann 0 Do what was best for the American people 0 More active vision for what the government could do 0 Hoover was sensitive to that he recognized that this was a big deal there were deeper underlying problems that need to be addressed a quotThe way we can get through this is if we maintain production and maintaining wagesquot Less money to spend less stuff to buy less to produce then they39ll cut hours and cut wages o Pledged for high levels 0 Hoover convinced the railroads to expand their industries 0 Put together partnerships with local governments to expand jobs and to build better infastructure By 1930hoover was convinced his efforts were a success 0 Believed that things were going to get better 0 He did not have the kind of information a modern president has today Lacked data that was up to date too hard to get data 0 For years and decades he was demonizedredeemed himself Hoovervilles Shanty towns called Hoovervillesto mock the presidentto scorn the president for not doing enough 0 Makeshift towns homeless River Rouge Protest 0 American communist party Organized protest Marchers went towards businesses private businesses had their own security when the marches refused to turn away from the businesses they were tear gassed 4 marchers died Farmer39s Holiday Association 0 Wanted to Raise prices on their crops 0 Iowa farmers began to stop production turned back trucks that were going towards the markets 0 Blocked the road so farmers couldn39t bring their goods into the markets Bonus Army 0 Former soldiers Premature payment of a bonus they were promised in return for their service in the military in WWI Needed the cash 0 Hoover said no you have to wait 1314 years 0 Soldiers didn39t want to wait Took them back to their camps the camps were torched President hoover was widely disliked Majority of voters elected roosevelt Congress agreed to do something after the war for soliders 1000 bonus Came in the form of a bond and had to wait until 1945 o In 1932 the vets decide they cant wait until 1945 c 20000 people showed up 0 Hoover and congress refused to give them their bonuses Sent out the army to send them home 0 PR disaster for hoover Franklin Delano Roosevelt 0 Born in 1882 0 Senior year of Harvard got engaged to Eleanor Roosevelt o 6 children were born c FDR Had an affair with his secretary Eleanor moved out of their bedroom 0 He was 39 when he was stricken with Polio couldn39t walk or stand without heavy braces or assistance 1921 0 Created a public facade of being recovered although he wasn39t o FDR was sensitive to never be photographed in a wheelchair Campaign 1932 o FDR was popular in NY Immigrant voters 0 Also able to appeal to voters in upstate NY Told the american people quotpledge to you pledge to myself pledge a new deal to the american peoplequot a quotThe New Deal39 FDR was vague about what this meant didn39t lay out specifics The First New Deal 0 Making the New Deal 0 Brain Trust Took advisors to Washington DC The First Inauguration o quotThe only thing we had to fear was fear itselfquot 0 Don39t panic be cool a If you39re afraid to try you39ll never go anywhere Inspired the american people and boosted con dence Celebrated more for not what he did but for who he was 0 Excellent communicator March 4 1933 Inauguration date 0 Series of reform measures he pushed through congress are now called Liberal Using the federal government to solve problems 0 Classic Liberals Limited government free market economics individual rights 0 Modern liberals individual rights markets are never free because corporations are too powerful Roosevelt believed that individual rights were no longer be threatened by the government The First 100 Days 0 Bank Holiday 0 4 day bank holiday so they could get the banks reorganized 0 Emergency Banking Act 0 Signed immediately that day 0 Only healthy banks were able to reopen Came under per due of the treasury department 0 Day before banks reopened Roosevelt gave his rst reside chat Encouraged the American people to trust their banks o It worked 0 Monday when banks reopened hundreds of thousands of people showed up to put their money back into the banks 0 Showed the Power of radio and that the American people trusted their president FDR and the Press Knew that it was extremely important to have the press on his side Held press conferences 2 times a week every week Roosevelt did not need questions ahead of time Talked to reporters off the record told them things he didn39t want them to know 0 That way the journalists knew why he wasn39t sharing things with the public 0 This ensured trust between the press and the president allowed journalists to see behind the scenes and in turn the journalists were more loyal to the president Economy Act Asked the government to cut 5 million dollars from funding 0 Cut employee pay stop paying veterans March 16 Roosevelt pushes the Agriculture Adjustment Act AAA 0 Try to salvage the farms Roosevelt and the brain trust believed the main problem in the economy was that farmers didn39t make as much money as other workers made Believed that if you could x the problems of the farms you could x the problems of the economy 0 Paid farmers to not grow stufftoo much production not enough demand Considered radical in the 193039s 0 Problem wasn39t passed until may 12 Farmers planted their crops anyway Roosevelt and his team had a problem In the midst of the depression Roosevelt paid farmers to destroy their crops Civilian Conservation Corps Purpose to get young men who didn39t have jobs and give them work 0 Rural areas 0 The CCC hired more than 3 million young men 0 Paid them 30 a week 0 Building bridges trails roads 0 They didn39t get to pocket 30 they kept 5 and the 25 was sent home to their families 0 Helps the families not just the young men Federal Emergency Relief Administration FERA This was for short term relief basically charity Wasn39t made to change the economy Previously relief had been handled by local governments Roosevelt recognized that this was a good programcontro makes people dependent on the federal government and made them trust them Faith in the government 0 His enemies hated him for thissaw it as a political move not just as a move to do whats best for american citizens For Roosevelt it was both BeerWine Revenue Act 0 Set the stage for prohibitions Made it legal for people to buy alcohol Taxed it Tennessee Valley Authority TVA Issue of public utilities 0 Problem Rural America 0 Wanted to nd a way to help Rural Americafarmers Thought this was a problem because farmers didn39t have modern technology Believed all americans should have access to electricity job was to generate electricity from dams To build additional dams for ood control To oversee the number of side projects helping agriculture develop When asked to rationalize his plan he said if we are successful here we can march on step by step Industrial Workers and the Depression National Industrial Recovery Act NIRA Section 7a 0 Maximum hours and minimum wages Gave the right for industrial workers to organize unions National Recovery Administration NRA Controls over the economy 0 Voluntary programdidn39t have to participate However if you did it regulated prices wages and Roosevelt suspended antitrust laws Essentially have a monopoly o If you do what the government wants the government will let you do what you want 0 Blue Eagle 0 Symbol of the NRA FDR said this is not a free market 0 Creation of Public Works Administration PWA Build roads 0 Rural and urban americans had jobs and wages October 2 2015 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation FDIC Make sure americans had faith in their banks Money was insured by the federal government FDR didn39t like it Summarizing the rst 100 days FDR created new institutions focused on structuring the nations economy New deal also OK39dauthorized the biggest public works program PWA Designated billions of dollars to the nations unemployed In creating the TVA it expanded what americans thought the government was capable of doing Americans believed in FDR and believed in what he was doing Democrats LOVED FDR The New Deal was random it was pragmatic Voices of Protest American Liberty League Organized by a group of corporate leaders including executive from Dupont and GM 0 Supported by republicans and conservative democrats Heyday of American Communism 0 quotPopular Frontquot 193039s 0 Fought against lynching Communist would organize and create a front 0 Would support roosevelt as far as he would support their policies Upton Sinclair Promoted socialism Changes party af liation Democratic party 1933 wrote a political tract l Governor of California Announced he would run for Gov of CA Advocated government and state should take over all unused lands and take over factories that weren39t doing well Heavy graduated income tax Believed you should take money away from the wealthy and give it to the poor Pensions for the disabled 0 Made dangerous miscalculation Suggested the Gov should run the lm industry a Inadvertently went to war with Hollywood Hollywood made lms to discourage people to vote for Sinclair Lost the campaign Francis Townsend Went to Longbeach Retired doctor Wrote a letter to a newspaper that struck a chord and changed into a huge movement The old age revolving pension plan Everyone over 60 should quit their jobs In return the gov would give them 200 a month It had to be spent Wanted to circulate the money instead of letting them save it Helps the economy Why do you want them out ofjobs To hire more and younger workers and to reward old people for their work 0 The origins of Social Security Father Charles Coughlin Priest of a church in Detroit Had a radio station 40 million people listened Controversial Taken off the radio because of his controversial views Went back to just being a priest Huey Long 0 Governor of Louisiana quotKing Fishquot Populist Leaderof the people The most gifted had the most potential 0 Had brains money 1928 governor Called for a radical redistribution of wealth Very effective Signi cantly improved education LSU is good because of him Built hospitals Won over the states poor workers and the farmers Elected to senate in 1930 did not give up his position as gov Supported FDR at rst Share Our Wealth Purpose was to break up monopolies 0 quotevery man a kingquot Assassinated by a political opponent The Second New Deal 0 1935 moved towards longer rage reforms Ensure there isnt another depression 0 Long term economic security 0 Social Security Act of 1935 Provoked a lot of debate 2 parts payments to the elderly Unemployment relief Roosevelt suggested that the nation should develop a national health care system Was dropped didn39t happen until Obama Payroll tax on workers to create a fund where unemployment could be drawn Psychology on SS tax Excluded farm workers and domestics Many african americans were not covered by SS
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