Music 80C Week 3 Homework Notes
Music 80C Week 3 Homework Notes MUSC 80C - 01
Popular in Hist Electronic Mus
Popular in Department
This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Elizabeth Garcia on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Bundle belongs to MUSC 80C - 01 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Polansky,L. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 171 views.
Reviews for Music 80C Week 3 Homework Notes
Detailed and well organized
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/07/15
Music 80C Week 3 Homework Notes Tape Delay Techniques 1969 by Pauline Oilveros Heads amp Signals there are 2 heads on a tape cassette the playback head amp the record head the space in physical distance of these 2 heads determines the amount of delay of signals from the playback head to the record head addition of the playback signal by means of feedback loop to the records head will cause reverbationquot resonance 37 the level of feedback signal determines the amplitude of reverbationquot 37 many home tape recorder now have switches which automatically direct the signal from channel 1 playback to channel 2 record headquot 38 This means that there will be less resonance The circuit acts as a PA system when the recorder is placed to the microphone which is placed in a concert space concert hall 38 Reverbation resonance occurs when the output from the playback head is fed backquot 58 a double feedback loop between channels can produce continuous reiteration of an attack until it decays a new attack occurs or a resonant mode is activated which results in a continuous crescendoquot 41 attack the extent to which the note is hitquot http wwwmusicarrangerscomstartheorytO8htm decay the time within the full duration of the note that the sound is madequot httpwwwmusicarrangerscomstartheorytO8htm crosscouplefeedback is quite effective with long sustained tones it produces reverbation amp effects timbre changesquot Introduction to Programmed Control By Robert A Moog classical studio recording technique sounds are recorded on magnetic tape amp then assembled into the finished composition by tape editing amp mixing 23 programmed control when parameters of an entire selection of sounds are specified by the composer prior to the recording operationquot 23 can save composer 90 of time 23 programmed music machinesquot multichannel perforated paper tape aka player pianos RCA synthesizers Classes of programmed control 1 2 3 4 the sequencer a device that initiate events one at a time in a predetermined order of sequences capable of eliminating as many tape splices as the number of events about 8 that it can initiate without repeatingquot the punched paper tape recorder detects either the presence or absence of holes along lines on the tape being fed through the readerquot the presence of holes along the line will trigger events The pros of this system is that the tape can be manipulated by the composer when run amp can be decoded on sight by the composer 24 The cons are that it takes a long time to process amp the speed at which things can be recorded is slow the hybrid system consisting of a small digital computer which controls analog sound generating amp modifying apparatus With this system the composer communicates his instructions to the computer in a simple easily understood notations amp the computer converts the instructions into the appropriate electrical signals amp conveys them to the sound generating amp processing instrumentsquot 24 The con to this system is that the computer is harder to manipulatequot 24 largedigital computer capable of generating with the aide of a digital analog converter an entire musical compositions from a set of coded instructions 24 This system generates an analog signal amp processes instruments entirely computing the sound material itself Here are some electronic music programming terms Direct DC electrical voltage constant in magnitude Alternating AC electrical voltage varying about zero magnitude Polarity the direction of the electrical force that the voltage produces is always referred to a convenient reference baseline voltage Ground voltage common baseline voltage for a system Quantum a small voltage difference the magnitude of which is fixed Function the pattern of the variation of quantity with respect to another changing quantity usually time Linear function a function in which the dependent variable voltage changes in direct proportion to any change in the independent variable graphically represented by a straight line Exponential function a function in which the dependent variable changes by a fixed ratio whenever the independence variable changed by a fixed absolute amount Logarithmic function the inverse of an exponential function Sine wave a periodic repeating function with only one frequency component Filter a signal processing device which reinforces certain frequency bonds while alternating others Band pass filter reinforces one frequency band amp strongly attenuates all other frequencies Envelope of a signal is a contour of the amplitude of the signal versus time Envelope generator generates a slowlyvarying nonrepetitive function voltage which is subsequently used in a system of voltage controlled instruments to impact an envelop to a steadysignal Gate a switching circuit that passes or shuts off a signal response to a control or gating voltage Limiting amplifier modifies the envelope of a signal usually by limiting the maximum amplitude or by sharply the signal whenever the amplitude falls below a certain preset level Potentiometer aka POT an electromechanical device the output of which is a percentage of the input Whisper arm of a POT is its moving element the position of which determines the ratio of output to input voltage Relay an electromechanical device that switches one or more voltages upon the application of an energizing voltage Latching relay a relay which remains in the energized state even after the energizing voltage is removed amp must be deenergized by the application of a second deenergizing voltage Mercurywetted voltage a relay whose switch contacts are wetted with mercury amp therefore able to switch extremely rapidly with a minimum extraneous switching noise Computer a device which receives information usually in coded form then processed it in a prescribed way amp delivers it for further use Digital computer processes information by counting electrical pulses Analog computer processes information by measuring the magnitude of electrical voltages Hybrid computer utilizes both digital amp analog computation Digitalanalog converter converts information in digitalform to essentially the same information in analog form Controlinput an instrument input to which programming information is fed Controlvoltage the voltage bearing the programming information Function generator any generating instrument Synthesizer a specialized analog computer like instrument for generating audio material Parameters variable quantities that are measurable Input accepts information for either processing by that device or for determining the mode of operation of the device Data information for processing by a computer Program instructions specifying data is to be processed Program instructors specifying how data is to be processed Subroutine a logical subsector of program embodying a distinct amp complete sequence of operations Locally defined subroutine a subroutine which is not a permanent part of the program but is written by each user for his own application Output processed data Inputoutput devices of a computer written recorded or otherwise coded information to appropriate sequences of electrical pulses The Early Works By james Tenney Ch 2 Collage 1 Blue Suede amp Monody By Larry Polansky Both pieces written about 19591961 around Tenney s stay at the University of Illinois Collage 1Blue Suede a tape collage of Elvis Presley s Blue Suede Shoesquot essential to this piece is the backbeat is compressed almost exclusively of sloweddown tape sounds focusing on the instrumental background on the record particularly the drumsquot 145 Monody for solo clarinet 1959 In uenced by Carl Ruggles Am in a Sitting Room We hear 32 repetitions of the text amp with each repetition the syllables are drawn out amp resonated By the end we cannot distinguish where one word ends amp another beingsquot Speech is the main component of the piece Music as a Gradual Process 1968 From Steve Reich Writings About Music By Steve Reich Music as pieces that progress to each other The material suggests the form of music running this material through this process I completely control all that results but also that I accept all that results without changes 35 compositional processes amp the sounds music have no audible connectionquot 35 Listening to minute details can allow tour 0 notice the gradual changes This is especially true for modelmusic that has a center keyquot Early Works From Steve Reich Writings About Music By Steve Reich It s Gonna Rain 1965 Reich was interested in working with recorded speech This song is a loop ofa pastor s speech in 1965 about The Floodquot Reich took the editing process of the recording as it was He let sound take their natural place For example in this piece he had an idea for the structure of the phrase it s gonna rain but the tape got messed up in the process He left it because he liked the outcome Come Out 1966 essentially a refinement of It s Gonna Rain quot 22 This song is the voice of Daniel Hamm describing a beating he took by the NY police amp how they did not make him bleed so he had the open up a bruise they gave him in order to receive medical attention Come Outquot refers to the blood from the bruise Melodica 1966 almost exactly the same structure as Come Outquot 22 an example of how one rhythm process can be realized in different sound to produce difference pieces of musicquot 22 Piano Phase 1967 Last piece made of purely tape composed of musical pitchesquot 23 Violin Phase 1967 An expansion amp refinement of Piano Phasequot 1 because there are voices moving against eachother 2 melodic patterns resulting from the combination of 2 or more identical instruments playing same repeating pattern one or more beats out of phase with each otherquot Slow Motion Sound 1967 Extreme slow motion dialogue of a young African girl learning English Recorded at 10 times its original length never completed as a tape piecequot 29 structure used to create Four Organs 1970 amp Music for Mallet Instruments Voices amp Organs of 1973 My Name Is 1967 Exists as a verbal score only never publishedquot H A person records people entering the hall saying My name is amp then go backstage amp edit sounds to create phase relationships After the song would be played as the second half of the concert Pendulum Music 1968 Collaboration with Wein Twirled microphone cord like a lasso amp recorded it feedback as it passed the speaker Synchronism 3 Cello 1 964 from Chambers by Mario Davidovsky Listen to it here httpswwwyoutubecomwa tch vXR2szG4D Ws Davidovsky was born in Agentina in 1934 He is an ArgentineAmerican composterquot ynchronisms is a series of twelve musical compositions for solo or ensemble live instruments and prerecorded m composed by Mario Davidovsky at the ColumbiaPrinceton Electronic Music Center the first dating from 1963quot Thanks Wiki httpsenwikipediaorgwikiSynchronisms Davidovsky I Am in a Sitting Room by Alvin Lucier Listen to it here httpswwwyoutube com wa tch vfAXHILK30yk I am sitting in a room 1969 is one of composer Alvin Lucier39s best known works featuring Lucier recording himself narrating a text and then playing the recording back into the room rerecording it The new recording is then played back and rerecorded and this process is repeated Since all rooms have characteristic resonance or formant frequencies eg different between a large hall and a small room the effect is that certain frequencies are emphasized as they resonate in the room until eventually the words become unintelligible replaced by the pure resonant harmonies and tones of the room itself The recited text describes this process in action it begins quotI am sitting in a room different from the one you are in now I am recording the sound of my speaking voicequot and the rationale concluding quotI regard this activity not so much as a demonstration of a physical fact but more as a way to smooth out any irregularities my speech might havequot referring to his own Stuttering 1 https enwikipediaorgwikiIAmSittinginaRoom Alvin Lucier born May 14 1931 is an American composer of experimental music and sound installations that explore acoustic phenomena and auditory perceptionquot quotMuch of his work is in uenced by science and explores the physical properties of sound itself resonance of spaces phase interference between closely tuned pitches and the transmission of sound through physical mediaquot httpsenwikipediaorgwikiAlvin Lucier The Art of Tape by David Mther Listen to it here httpswwwyoutube com wa tch vwt3R9mpFw7o Bye Bye Butter y by Pauline Oliveros Listen to it here https wwwyoutube com wa tch vDM C TxkF wLHw Pauline Oliveros was born in 1932 in Houston Texas She was afaculty member at UCSD She is an American composer and accordionist who is a central figure in the development of experimental and postwar electronic art music httpsenwikipediaorgwikiPauline Oliveros Songs of MiIarepa by Eleana Radigue Listen to it here httpswwwdramonlineorgalbumselianeradigue songsofmilarepa Eliane Radigue born January 24 1932 is a French electronic music composer She began working in the 19503 and her first compositions were presented in the late 19603 Until 2000 her work was almost exclusively created on a single synthesizer the ARP 2500 modular system and tape Since 2001 she has composed mainly for acoustic instrumentsquot1 httpsenwikipediaorgwikiC389lianeRadigue Come Out by Steve Rieche Listen to it here httpswwwyoutubecomwatch vg0WVh1DON50 Come Out is a 1966 piece by American composer Steve Reich He was asked to write this piece to be performed at a benefit for the retrial of the Harlem Six six black youths arrested for committing a murder during the Harlem Riot of 1964 for which only one of the six was responsible Truman Nelson a civil rights activist and the person who had asked Reich to compose the piece gave him a collection of tapes with recorded voices to use as source material Nelson who chose Reich on the basis of his earlier work It s Gonna Rain agreed to give him creative freedom for the projectquot httpsenwikipediaorgwikiCome0utReich Stephen Michael Reich Z39rall Ill born October 3 1936 is an American composer who along with La Monte Young Terry Riley and Phili Glass pioneered minimal music in the mid to late 1 9 6 0 httpsenwikipediaorgwikiSteveReich Collage 1 Blue Suede by ames Tenney Listen to it here httpswwwy0utubecomwatch vXC7sdH2vaU James Tenney August 10 1934 August 24 2006 was an American composer and in uential music theoristquot https enwikipedia0rgwikiIamesTenney
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'