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Date Created: 11/05/14
BIOL 110 Tutorials O2242014 Tutorial 6 Prokaryotes lll evolution and early metabolism How bacteria can be beneficial 400 different species living in gastro system Symbiotic relationships between prokaryotes and other life forms Host larger of 2 species Microsymbiont smaller of 2 species Mutualism both species benefit Prokaryotes that fix nitrogen into ammonium Rhizobium bacteria colonize on the roots of pea plants where they fix nitrogen plant provides carbon for the bacteria the bacteria fixes nitrogen Synthesizing vitamin K in intestines Bacteria get carbon we get vitamin K Bacteria to early infants Helps start immune system Parasitism one benefits at the expense of the others Pathogens Exotoxins Proteins secreted by prokaryotes Ex clostridium botulinum vibrio cholera Choera spread through contaminated water supplies Colonizes in intestines exotoxin stimulates the cells that line the lower GI tract to secrete massive amounts of excess ions into the lumen creates hypertonic state in the lumen Endotoxins Surface protein components of the outer cell membrane in some gramnegative bacteria Salmonella typhi Commensalism benign neither benefit nor harm Opportunistic infection A normally commensalistic bacteria becomes pathogenic in response to a changed environment Usually a weakened immune system Nitrogen use and the prokaryote Nitrogen cycle is crucial to life nitrogen fixation Almost all legumes are capable of housing nitrogen fixing bacteria Rhizobia species of bacteria that participate in symboioses with plants The plants secrete molecules that act as chemical signals to a select species of bacteria Bacteria migrate towards the plants root bacteria reach root and start nodule formation they live in nodule Oxygen and metabolic relationships Obligate aerobes require oxygen Obligate anaerobes do not need oxygen may be poisoned by them Facultative anaerobes can alternate their oxygen requirement Origins of metabolic processes O2242014 Subcellular architecture of the eukaryotic cell Subcellular organization in eukaryotic cells Nucelous Central role in providing genetic information to the cell Surrounded by nuclear envelope Nucleolus Contains very active group of genes that encode and transcribe ribosomal RNA Smooth ER Synthesizes lipids and degrades toxins Rough ER Houses ribosomes many proteins are targeted for export outside the cell are synthesized Protein targeting Newly synthesized proteins destined for export have a unique signal sequence that directs them to the rough ER Then binds to the signal recognition particle binds to the growing peptide The SRP facilitates association with the rough ER and the complex docks to the rough ER at a specific receptor site Growing peptide is then inserted through the pore polypeptide now inserted into the lumen of the rough ER as it is synthesized Specific peptidases inside the lumen recognize the signal sequence and this short stretch is removed Once translation is comolete the translational complex dissociates leaving the newly synthesized protein inside the rough ER Golgi apparatus Where carbs are added to proteins in the process called glycosylation O2242014 Proteins enter on the cis face leave from the trans face Lysosomes Break down material Contain hydrolytic enzymes initially inactive but when reach lysosome become active Only material in lysosome is degraded Vacuoles In animal cells primarily storage organelles for proteins and lipids that are to be exported from the cell Plants large central vacuole Filled with water that exerts pressure against the cel wall turgor pressure Helps provide structural support Mitochondria Converting food energy into ATP Muscle cells may contain thousands Double membrane Inner has cristae for extra surface area Own genetic material in circular DNA Only get from mothers Trafficking of proteins throughout the cell Above under rough ER Role of the cytoskeleton in cell structure and function Microfilaments O2242014 Smallest fibers Polymerized subunits of protein actin strung together like beads Cell motility facilitate cellular migration muscle cell contraction Intermediate filaments Medium size made of fiborous proteins wrapped around one another to form a thick cabe like structure Important role in supporting cell structures and anchoring organelles in correct position within the cel Relatively static within the cell Microtubules Largest cytoskeleton Hollow tubes made of rows of paired tubulin molecules Important to mitosis and major structural role within the cell The endosymbiotic theory Mitochondria evolved from prokaryotic cells that inhabitated other large prokaryotes One organism began living within another Chloroplasts Evidence Mitochondria Resemble bacteria that exist replicate like binary fission Own DNA circular plasmid Machinery to transcribe and translate their genomes Lack histones Cynanobacteria Use h2o and co2 to make organic molecules with the help of solar energy O2242014 Protists protists with modified mitochondria kingdoms euglenozoa and alveolata O2242014 General characteristics of the protists Singe celled Membrane bound nuclei and organelles Most have sophisticated locomotion Photosynthetic or heterotrophic Basic classification of protisits Monophyletic Eukaryotes all ancestors arose from a single common ancestor Paraphyletic Protists does not contain all of its descendants because the fungi plants and animals are recognized as separate kingdoms makes protists paraphyletic Modified mitochondria Diplomonads Mitosomes lack functional electron transport chains and unable to perform cellular respiration get energy from glycolysis Lack golgi but always have flagella Giardia disease giardiasis Attaches to intestinal epithelium causing severe diarrhea and intestinal cramps Few can cause severe infection Parabasalids Anaerobes Hydrogenosome may be a degenerate mitochondria O2242014 Have functional golgi and flagella T vaginalis STD Polyphyletic Major characteristics of taxonomic groups of protists Kingdom euglenozoa Heterotrophs and autotrophs 2 groups euglenoids primarily photosynthetic all have flagella kinetoplastids one large mitochondrion and an organelle called a kinetoplast stores extranuclear DNA live in symbiosis with host organisms number are pathogenic African Sleeping sickness trypanosome From teste fly Chagas disease transmitted from kissing bugs Chronic infection that causes acute symptoms between 1020 years after infection Kingdom alveolata Most familiar and exologically interesting protists Build coral reefs causes malaria algae that causes red tides O2242014 Monophyletic and recognizable by their alveoli Small cavities enclosed in membranes that hug the internal cell surface 3 groups dinoflagellates distinct shapes from frames of cellulose within their walls ridged cell wall with perpendicular groves that house a pair of flagella beat within grooves causing them to rotate as they move photosynthetic phytoplankton that floats near surface of ocea some are heterotrophic can exploit chloroplasts from photosynthetic protists becoming autrotrophic for a time bioluminesce make own light by luciferin same chemical in fireflies noctiluca float under surface of ocean can produce glowing tides burglar theory coral reefs reefs engulf but do not digest them zooxanthellae live out their lives within the tissues of the corals corals composed of exoskeletons provide corals with energy to build reefs bleached when loose their zooxanthellae impact of humans on environment red tide harmful algal blooms release toxins into the water killing animals harms humans pfiesteria uses toxins to kill fish stunning them apicomplexans parasites live and reproduce in tissues of animals apical complex cluster of microtubules and organelles located in the apex of cells that are in the infectious stage penetrates host cells malaria ciliates Different Ways in which protists impact humans O2242014 Protists kingdoms Stramenopila rhodophyta chlorophyta and the slime molds O2242014 Kingdom Stramenopila Monophyletic group All have hair like projections on their flagella stramen Diatoms Responsible for 20 of annual global carbon fixation Encased in glasslike silica shell lined with perforations to allow gas exchange at the cell surface Diatomaceous earth consists of microscopic fragments of glass from silica shells Used as pesticide animal feed cleaning products etc Water molds phylum oomycota Unicellular or colonial Most heterotropic decomposers feed on dead decaying matter Some attack living plants and animals Sexually reproducing oomycetes Similar to fungi May form hyphae diploid cells similar to fungal hyphae Cell walls of cellulose not chitin Convergent evolution with fungi Unrelated organisms that occupy similar environments evolve similar functional traits Impact on humans Downy mildew French wine disaster Phytophthora infestans potato blight O2242014 Irish potato famine Brown algae phylum phaeophyta Largest of protists Giant multicellular species compromise kelp forests Seaweeds Stip stem Hodfast secures to substrate Blades leafs extension of surface area Golden algae phylum chrystophyta Plantonic maily freshwater organisms Golden color due to carotenoids and xanthophylls Predators using pseudopodia to prey on smaller organisms Can have population explosions similar to HAB Kingdom Rhodophyta red algae Pigments phycobilins produce pink red shades that they approach black Phycoerythrin red pigments allow rhodophytes to photosynthesize at water depths that only high energy blue and green light can penetrate Kingdom Chlorophyta green algae Closely related to plants Store fixed carbon as starch and have walls of cellulose Very diverse kingdom Slime mods member of kingdom amoebozoa With fungi because of heterotrophic feeding and appearance Plasmodial slime molds Unicellular bizzare beautiful Cellular slime molds Most of lives in amoeba single cells Join together when resources are scares tutorial 10 Mitosis 02242014 The role of mitosis in the life cycle of singe ceed and multicellular organisms tutorial 10 Mitosis 02242014 Single cells reproduce Muticeluar grow 13 hours to complete The phases of the cell cycle Continous phase M phase Mitotic phase lnterphase other 3 phases G1 growth phase 8 phase synthesis phase DNA is replicated G2 growth phase Replication of cellular components can occur throughout these phases The major chromosomal events of each stage of mitosis Prophase Condensation of chromosomes 2 replicated identical chromatids attached at the centromere Prometaphse Nuclear envelope disassembles Metaphase Chromosomes move to metaphase plate tutorial 10 Mitosis O2242014 Important checkpoint cells will not move to next stage unless they are properly positioned This stage takes in the longest in most cells Anaphase Chromatids separated Centromeres dissolve Newly freed chromatids move rapidly toward poles Telophase Nuclear envelope reforms Chromomes decondense Cytokinesis Cytoplasm divides Animal cells Cell membrane pinches inward Forms cleavage furrow between two halves Plant cells Divide by forming a new piece of cell wall in their center Vesicles deposite wall builidng material along the central area of the cell Chromosome movement during the cell cycle define diploid versus haploid cells diploid 2 copies of each gene one from mother and one from father hapoid only 1 copy of each gene in gametes summarize the role of mitosis in eukaryotes be able to diagram and label the stages of mitosis be able to explain why mitosis results in daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell explain the differences between karyokinesis and cytokinesis karyokinesis separation of chromosomes cytokinesis organielles and other cytoplasmic components are separated tutorial 11 hererdity and life cycles O2242014 Asexual and sexual reproduction tutorial 11 hererdity and life cycles O2242014 Asexual produce identical offspring Binary fission Fast requires less energy avoids potential for creating a bad combitnation of genes Disadvantage lack of genetic variation may be determental if conditions change and genetic variation becomes valuable Sexua genetic material from parents combine to form offspring that are genetically distinct from parents More energy and time provides offspring with unique genetic makeup may provide advantage in an unpredictable environment Sexual life cycles Sometimes may engage in sex without reproduction Bacteria can undergo conjugation sex without dividing and reproducing Chromosomes Inheritance of traits is due to transmission of genes from parents to children Genes heritable unit that codes for production of a protein More then 1 form of a gene may exisit allels Formation of slightly different proteins and enzymes that result in differences between individuals Meiosis Formation of gametes which are haploid When formed together form a diploid cell that will grow into a child 3 phases pairing of homologoys chromosomes synapsis of chromosomes together tutorial 11 hererdity and life cycles O2242014 segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells chromosomes replicate forming sisterchromatids and nonsister chromatids 2 divisions The two sources of genetic variation during meiosis Independent assortment Metaphase 1 homologous chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate Orientation is random wheter the maternal or paternal chromosome goes to what cell is random Combinations is 2quotn nhaploid number in humans is 2quot23 Crossing over Exchange of geneteric material between maternal and paternal chromosomes Recombination In prophase 1 when paired together in bivalence pieces of 1 chromosome may be exchanged with the identical portion of the other chromosome Occurs 23 times per chromosome pair bettwen nonsister chromatids nly Random fertilization increases variation greatly Discuss sexual versus asexual reproduction Identify the major features of an animal life cycle Gametes are only haploid cells Describe the role of meiosis in eukaryotes and its effect on chromosome number Draw the major features of meiosis Diagram the process of independent assortment and calculate the number of different chromosome combinations independent assortment can produce Diagram crossing over in a homologous pair of chromosomes Demonstrate how events in meiosis affect heredity Tutorial 12 Fungi 1 Evolution Diversity Phyla Chytridiomycota and zygomycota O2242014 Fungi Tutorial 12 Fungi 1 Evolution Diversity Phyla Chytridiomycota and zygomycota O2242014 Mostly dicomposers assist in recycling nutrients Protists are sister group to fungi and animals The roles and importance of fungi in the biosphere Decomposers releasing carbon from plant walls Plant and human pathogens Mycorrhizae symbiosis with plant roots Produce spores that can be dispersed in water air ground etc Basic fungal nutrition Heterotrophic prolific decomposers Recycle carbon trapped mostly in plant cell walls Absorptive nutrtion Digested externally then absorbed into their cells Produce large amounts of organic acids to acidify their local environment followed by digestive enzymes to break down their food source Almost unlimited in what they can digest Basic morphological diversity within the kingdom Filamentous vegetative structures hyphae Chitin as cell wall Group or mass of hyphae mycelium may be seen as fuzz on moldy bread Extensive networks of mycelim give fungi big surgace area Hyphae may be separated into separate cells septa Tutorial 12 Fungi 1 Evolution Diversity Phyla Chytridiomycota and zygomycota O2242014 Or be continuous coenocytic hyphae Haustoria used to invade plants and absorb cellular contents of plants they are parasitic to plants Basic reproductive features of fungi Can produce asexually or sexually Referred to as or Sexually reproduction Compatible mating types fuse pasmogamy fusion of membranes Produces heterokaryon mycelium with multiple nuclei from 2 mating types can divide in growing mycelium Unique dikarytic stage gives genetic flexibility 2 haploid nuclei fuse karyogamy to form a higly transient diploid state meiosis follws after and produces haploid spores Identify the general characteristics of the fungi Based on molecular data from DNA sequences and life cycle Explain how the body of the fungus is adapted for its mode of nutrition Diagram the general fungal life cycle and describe the difference between plasmogamy and karyogamy Summarize the basic classification of fungi Describe the different types of symbiotic relationships that fungi participate in For each taxonomic group of fungi identify the major characteristics of that group and be able to discuss representatives that demonstrate the diversity of the group Microporidians Intracellular parasites of animals or protists mainly affectiving invertebrates Do not have mitochondira but have mitosomes No means of locomotion able to form spores that can live outside host for long time Tutorial 12 Fungi 1 Evolution Diversity Phyla Chytridiomycota and zygomycota O2242014 Chytridiomycota Many are aquatic Some possess flagellated spores Not monophyletic Zygomycota Most terrestrial and saproves in soil Common bread molds Coenocytic hyphae Life cycle Gametangia form on and then fuse to form heterokaryotic state heterokaryotic zygosporangium developes zygosporangium developes a rough and thickened cell wall resistant to harsh conditions When conditions are favorable sygospore germination the nuclei fuse karyogamy and diploid is briefly formed then meiosis occurs and millips of haploid zygospores are formed in the sporangium by mitosis Zygosporangium germinates and releases the spores the the cycle begins again Glomeromycota All participate in mycorrhizal relationships with plants Monophyetic Ascomycota Most diverse Form 48 spores in a microscopic sac ascus Bear fruting bodies called ascocarps Can produce enormous amounts of spores called conidia Basidiomycota Tutorial 12 Fungi 1 Evolution Diversity Phyla Chytridiomycota and zygomycota O2242014 Gilled fungi gilled mushrooms Club fungi cells that have sexual spores resemble a club Excel at breaking down large plant cell wall polymers Fruiting bodies basidiocarps Gils provide large surface area Fruiting bodies mushrooms Explain different ways in which fungi impact humans either directly or indirectly Animals 02242014 The general characteristics of all animals Motile heterotrophic multicellular The origin and early evolution of animals Originated from colonial protists similar to choanoflagellates Share some basic fetaures The major early branching points in the phylogeny of animal evolution Ancestrial protest Muti celuarity No true tissues True tissues Body cavity incompletely lined by mesoderm Bilateral symmetry triploblastic true muscle tissue Mouth forms first Body cavity Mouth forms secondly Body cavity enclosed by mesoderm The basic steps involved in animal development Those who do not have true tissues and those who do not Parazoans lack true tissues Eumetazoans have true tissues Characteristics of organisms in the phyla Porifera Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes Animals 02242014 The different types of body cavities found in bilateral animals Eumetazoans Radial symmetry Multiple mirrors can be sliced through like cutting pizza Bilateral symmetry Only 1 mirror plane can separate into identical halves Body cavities Endoderm Lining of the digestive tract liver and lungs Ectoderm Outer covering central nervous system Mesoderm Muscles and most of the internal organs including the heart and kidneys How certain flatworms can cause disease in humans Have hooks that can attach to hosts and suckers to suck out food Affects human host flukes mature in blood vessles of intestine fertilized eggs pass out of feces and develop into larvae larvae penetrate snail asexual reproduction in flugs produce larvae that penetrate skin and blood vessles of humans Summarize the general characteristics of animals Review the evolutionary history of animals and their relationship to protists Define tissues symmetry cephalization Describe the early stages of animal development including tissue and gut formation Cell differentiation how a cell diverges from its early morphology into a more specialized morphology Animals O2242014 Morphogenesis how an organisms shape is acquired Pattern formation how cells tissues and organs are arranged in an organism Protostomes Have blastomeres developmental fate is determined early determinate development Deuterostomes Indeterminate development Differentiate between radiata and bilateria diploblasts and triploblasts Discuss the role of Hox genes in animal development Determine the pattern formation of the body during embryo development Code for transcription factors control the expresson of other genes Found in a linear sequence along the chromosome Discuss the reason for the basal position of sponges in the animal phylogenetic tree and the characteristics of sponges Explain the characteristics of the Radiata Diagram the three different body cavity types found in the bilateria Coelomats have a body cavity Acoelomates do not Gut fluid filled cavity that separates Describe the characteristics of the flatworms and some examples of diseases they cause Phylum porifera sponges Lack true tissues Radiate phylum cnidarian Organisms with radial morphology Jellyfish corals Have true tissues Can be polyp or medusa Have hox genes Lack mesoderm Gastrovascular cavity both mouth and anus Have cnidocytes contain organelles called cnidaee Can sting called neamtocysts can immobilize fish for capture and use for defense
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