verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Avery on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CIS 221 at James Madison University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
HIST 225 us History WEEK 2 4i 1600 s Colonial America New England Middle Chesapeake Lower South NEW ENGLAND Commercial farming dif cult Relied on shing and trading 0 Many families average 5 children Towns centered around church 0 Even wealth distribution amp balanced ratios of gender MIDDLE New York 0 Diverse Center of commerce 0 Wall at the end of the city becomes Wall Street Accessible to water Pennsylvania Named after William Penn 0 lnhabited by the Quakers gt Society of friends gt Simple minded gt Don t bow to royalty CHESAPEAKE Tobacco cash crop LOWER SOUTH 0 Small dark houses 0 Huge difference between lower amp upper class 0 Houses are sites of production quotmini factoriesquot Carolina Split into North amp South 10 years later Wealthiest colony 0 Rice made labor intensive cash crop o Malaria from mosquitoes 0 1st region to rely on slaves whites become outnumbered Georgia quotBuffer colonyquot between the South amp Spanishwho controlled FL Outlawed alcohol 0 Small independent farmers 0 Rice cash crop overtime became successful gt Savannah GA Outlined like a grid 0 All trees surrounded a small area for civilization Trade Favorable trade balance 1660 Navigation Acts Trade let to Consumer Revolution Colonies buyconsume more Excessive trade allows for cheaper goods l139 Continents who traded North America primary producer South America primary producer Europe primary consumer Africa Triangular trade wasn t a thing the way every continent traded looked like a bunch of scribbles a Re nement Addicted to consumption De ning food that separate elite from the rest Ridiculous items to show off wealth eg pickle holder AGE OLD QUESTION What de nes someone as British or American within the colonies British People who associate themselves with GB Great Britain Keep up the styles in GB Towns are named after ones in England Americans No monarchyaristocracy no one is born royalty Greater property ownership more voting Greaterclass diversity but easier class division Development of slavery in uences the shape of diversity 4 American Slavery V 12 million African slaves brought to New World on ships V 15 of Americans eventually are African V Population easier to control because distinction between slaves and slave owners is obvious with skin color V All about the economy V Slavery comes before racism gt Anthony Johnson Black save owner gt Eventually ALL blacks become inferior Before Slavery Indentured Servants Came before slavery Consisted of uneducated white men who struck deals in order to go to the New World They signed contracts promising to work for several years After serving their contract they were given clothes land or guns 40 died before their contract ended due to diseases etc Slaves soon replace indentured servants because they are known to live longer Bacon s Rebellion 1676 0 VA governor William Berkley told Bacon amp others not to go west amp into lndian territory 0 Bacon amp other settlers decided to burn city to the ground amp attempt to kill the governor o AFTERMATH elite saw freed indentured servants as the ones to blame amp decided they were a threat to society Slavery becomes the norm 0 Europe and Africa develop trading relationship with slaves Captured slaves sold mostly to Portuguese Sugar Comes lnto Trade 0 Dutch gure out how to re ne sugar cane Global demand rises more slave trade develops 0 Prices dip 0 At rst New World has least amount of slaves until the end of 1600 s Slave codes Written by slave owners Use of whipping becomes acceptable Sentences turn to lifetime Any offspring of slaves automatically become owner s property Seasoning process 0 Turning one into a slave o Africans treated poorly in order to nd out who is the ttest of the t 0 Weaker slaves were worth less NORTH Society with slaves Slaves are rst to go in the North 0 Colonies still function the same as South wo slaves SOUTH Slave societies Colonies wouldn t be the same wo slaves 1 Religion amp Philosophy Witchcraft o 1691 Salem Witch Trials gt Witch hunt 24 accused gt Deathly tests to determine is one was a witch if survived then they would be killed anywayseither way one dies Great Awakening 1730 s1740 s Rebirth 0 Jonathan Edwards gt Depicts people as loathsome spiders held over hell by the strings of God gt Made people afraid to stray away from a very religious life Age of Enlightenment quotAge of Reasoningquot 0 Life path constricted by God the norm 0 Ben Franklin amp others develop Dism God built the world but humans have civilized it 0 Scienti c reasoningjusti cation is scienti callybased o By 1750 gt 12 of men were literate 0 1st college is Harvard 1636 o 2rml college is William amp Mary 1693 Shaming 0 quotDuck stoolquot for women who gossiped o Criminals put on display to be shamed in Great Britain amp The New World Healthy Salutary Neglect GB let colonies do their own thing 0 New World survives on its own 0 18th century GB becomes more involved 1754 Ben Franklin creates Albany Plan of Union gt Says that colonies should cooperate to create informal union for things like defense gt Colonies disagree but 2 centuries later American Rev begins WEEK 3 a American Revolution Life is terrible enough that it demands great action Started by rich white men living in a relatively free gov t already WHY Salutary neglect 0 Mini parliament Homogenization 1754 French amp Indian War aka 7 Years War although it lasted 9 0 Indians attack George Washington in Ohio 0 GB comes in to save the day 1763 Treaty of Paris Proclamation Line 0 GB gains more of French amp Spanish territory 0 Doesn t let colonies settle in new territory so that peace can be sustained with American Indians Colonies ignore GB s orders 1764 Sugar Tax anyone caught avoiding put on trial by GB 1 765 Quarterly Act 0 British soldiers were allowed to sleepeat at any colonist s house 0 Competed with colonists forjobs Stayed there even after the French amp Indian War ended Caused violence Stamp Act 0 Required a stamp on virtually ever hard good Colonists stop paying and avoid British goods 0 United colonists MAIN ARGUMENT direct relationship bw Taxation amp Representation 0 GB had virtual representation had their best interest at heart Colonies wanted actual representation to be involved in GB gov t Declaratory Act repeals Stamp Act GB is still convinced they have the right to tax Things boil down until 1770 Boston Massacre Started by kids throwing rockssnowballs at GB soldiers Gun shots red 5 Americans killed Propagandamedia blows event out of proportion amp people start ghtingorganizing committees 1773 Tea Act didn t raise taxes on tea but made it cheape 0 British company doesn t have to pay tax on tea so they can sell it cheaper to colonists But colonists don t like this because it hurt American tea companies The results 1 Boycott 2nd disallowed GB tea boats to dock 3 Boston governor allowed one GB boat to dock but wouldn t unload it Boat became prisoner 4t Colonists dress as Mohawk Indians amp throw tea off boat Parliament not happy 1774 IntolerableCoercive Act 0 Parliament reduces Massachusetts s ability to govern themselves Forced Boston to close harbor Coonies form Continental Congress At rst they are far from considering a revolution they just want to be on better terms with GB But Before their 2rml meeting shots are red in MA amp revolution beginS an The American Revolution 1775 The Beginning Battle of Lexington amp Concord 0 2rml Continental Congress Colonists develop own paper money 0 George Washington becomes Commander In Chief 1776 0 quotCommon Sensequot by Thomas Paine c 45 of colonists start to consider independence gt Factors money property intellectuals republicanism Court v County in GB 0 Instead of British constitution being improved colonists decide they want a whole new constitution SOVEREIGNTY where does the power lie Power needs to be split up amp not uni ed Popular sovereignty amp Common wealth Although people are not always goodgt limited government quotA necessary evilquot Paine ldea of Meritocracy opposite of Aristocracy came about from John Locke 1776 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE The wealth of the south did nothing for the war because it came from tobacco First gov t doesn t taxmoney worth nothinginsane in ann End of 1776 Colonists out of suppliesnot doing well 0 Turn of tide George Washington plans surprise attack on Christmas Eve in Trenton 1778 Battle of Saratoga another turning point FRANCE acknowledges colonist s success amp aids them with supplies mainly because France hates GB 4 End of the war Eventually France recognizes the colonies as independent US amp joins the war Spain amp Netherlands join too GB recruits slaves amp loyalists from the South 1781 Formal surrender by GB 0 Ben Franklin convinces French to sign Treaty of Paris 0 Ben becomes a 75yearold whore the ladies in France love him Historians question if the war was in fact a revolution 0 20 loyalists No huge changes in societyway of life 0 Slavery persists amp even grows What happens after the war with Slavery Some northern states slowly start to write laws abolishing slavery amp begin to free their slaves George Washington frees his slaves in his will Women 0 Take on greater responsibility during war because the men go off to ght 2nCI class citizens removed from politics 0 John Adam s wife writes a letter saying she wishes men would remember women unlike their ancestors o quotAll men would be tyrants if they couldquot Nationalism What is America about Revolution came before patriotism Webster starts an American English dictionary What happens now WEEK 4 Before Constitution 1777 Articles of Confederation adopted 4 years after signing Weak federal government No executive No taxes no way for gov t to get money so they borrowed amp printed money leads to in ation 13 states each state has own power c Any change to the AOC required all states to agree North West Ordinance of 1787 0 Background gov t was afraid the people in North West territory would unite with the Indians so they split up the territory 0 Gov t will allow any piece of territory on the North West to apply to statehood but only if they abolish slavery in that territory a Changes in America Slavery goes down States change their constitution add executive Alex Hamilton NY lawyer becomes huge advocate for constitution to be made gt Bastard child from Caribbean gt Never t in with American elite 1786 Shay s who was a former general Rebellion o Becomes turning point for a constitution to be made 0 Farmers get their land foreclosed if they don t pay the new tax on it 1787 Philadelphia convention Led by George Washington Called by Hamilton amp others 0 Group of all white educated men 0 Meet on almost daily basis for the summer JAMES MADISON Father of constitution 0 Tiny awkward shy stubborn 0 Born 1751 in VA Went to college of NJ Becomes Princeton 0 Fear of public speaking Federalist papers routed for strong central gov t amp power ultimately retained by the people US Constitution Slavery not mentioned because of controversy 0 Approx 4000 words 3 HUGE Aspects of American Gov t Representation House of Representatives Senate came from the Great Compromise Update on Slavery o 20 years after constitution no slave trade 0 Slave population grows without importing more slaves because of reproduction Electoral College How it works 0 Each state has electors that directly vote for candidate 0 Electors normally vote for the candidate who won popular vote 0 Most states are winnertakeall whoever wins popular vote gets all the electoral votes from that state 0 Bene ts small states Electors can decide what s best for the people who were illiterate back in the day but does it make sense to have them now 0 Dif cult to change because it requires amendment which the small states wont vote for a Federalists vs AntiFederalists Deal struck to allow Constitution to be written If the states ratify the Constitution then a set of amendments will be added afterwards 1787 Constitution rati ed 1789 George Washington is asked to be president 0 He doesn t want to be this leads to people wanting him to be president even more because he doesn t have unwanted pride 0 Ends up running and wins unanimously 0 No political parties yet GW presidency Creates cabinet Jefferson as Sec of State Hamilton as Sec of Treasurer Advocate of separation of powers 0 Sets precedent by leaving after 2 terms it is not a law yet Jefferson vs Hamilton Jefferson Rural Farming No bank Strict interpretation of the Const ProFrance for their democracy Each state has individual debt Wants DC to be capital ilton Urban Merchants US center of production Precapitalist notion Bank Loose interpretation of the Const Const is baseline living document ProEngland prime trade partner Ha VVVVVVVVBVVVVVVV gt All of US should have debt put together Building of DC 0 Capital Hill Representatives 0 No one lives there 0 Georgetown is originally wasteland Fun Fact White House was originally called the Executive Mansion until the war of 1812 when it was destroyed and had to be repainted so it was painted white 1792 0 GW refuses to run again 0 Jefferson runs against John Adams Hamilton has same views as Adams 0 Hamilton doesn t run because people hate him gt Remember he wasn t born in the US so he never really t in John Adams becomes president 0 Alien amp Sedition Act gt Anyone who talks bad about Adams is punished 0 VP is Jefferson Jefferson talks bad about Adams 0 Political parties begin to form WEEK 5 at 1800 Rematch for presidential election jefferson v5 Adams Jefferson gt Forgets what the revolution was about gt Electors used to have two votes 1 for President amp 1 for VP gt Now there is only one so technically no distinction between who runs for P or VP Ex Aaron Burr VP nominee ties with Jefferson for votes Hamiton in uences vote towards Jefferson when Burr amp Jefferson tie 1804 Burr and Hamilton have been publicly ghting so Burr challenges him to a duel 0 Hamilton refuses to shoot Burr duels usually credited but people don t have to die 0 Burr shoots amp kills Hamilton amp ees to Europe 0 Burr comes back when 70 amp fathers 2 children gross D Present day politics Presidential candidates strategically pick VP so they can take in more votes but they don t necessarily think that the VP would be a good president Jefferson Wins Presidency Cuts size of army amp wants gov t to be small amp nonintrusive Advocate of meritocracy Great lasting effects of Jefferson 1803 Marbury v Madison extended power of Supreme Court UnJeffersonian Act Jefferson sends Monroe to Paris in order to buy FL amp New Orleans so that US can be safer aka THE LOUSIANA PURCHASE However FL afterwards is still Spanish territory
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