General Semester Notes
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Notes Tuesday July 14 2 15 958 AM Thursday homework Find an article and bring to class this day Federalist No 39 4748 Federalist 39 0 What it means to have a Republican government Madison 0 Gives inaccurate examples of a republic 0 He defines a republic as a government that derives its powers from the people 0 Page 237 0 How each part is republican 0 House of Representatives people 0 Senate states 0 Executive branch mixture of two 0 All gov positions have set period of tenure 0 Says state constitutions does the same thing 0 Because of mixed features has both features 0 National individual citizens in their capacities 0 Gov cant be national wholly since gov and states have jurisdiction on different affairs 0 Constitution also a mixture of both national and federal Federalist No47 0 Arguing against claim that executive jud and leg is not separate 0 Breaks down the british constitution 0 Powers in british constitution is not separate 0 Also makes treaties 0 Quotes Montesquieu 0 quotthere can be no liberty where these branches are intermingledquot 0 Checks and balances 0 Continues on british constitution O Judges has no checks on executive or legislative 0 Looks at state constitutions O In all not only there is one branch is completely separate 0 New York I Doesn39t explicable state seperation of powers I But is in there 0 By going through state constitutions constitutions made well Questions How can we decide whether power is appropriated properly between the powers of government 0 Trial and error 0 Look at states constitutions 0 See what works and what doesn39t Concept of complete separation of powers not possible Federalist No48 Honors Political Science Page 1 0 Goes into detail about checks and balances 0 Must be able to check each branch39s powers 0 Are parchment barriers enough to separate the powers 0 Monarchy 0 King has all say 0 Republic 0 Legislative branch more dangerous bc less limits I Virginia judiciary and executive dependent on legislator I Pennsylvania appointed counsel of sensors if constitution was being followed Contitution was flagrantly violated by legislator III Laws was passed without power of people III Judges salaries were not fixed when supposed to Questions If parchment barriers not enough to prevent abuse of power what is 0 Checks and balances 0 Abuse is inevitable Constitutional Foundations 0 Differences between state constitutions but many similarity 0 Need to adopt model treaties with other nations since new nation 0 Navigation Rights in order to cross the United States 0 1777 Articles of Confederation o Enforced 1781 1789 0 Weak central gov O No formal chief executive 0 Each states FECElVES on vote 0 Legislative branch should be the strongest I Hold too much power I Not many limits 0 What would happen if states enforce their own diplomacy I Conflict I Lots of undermining How are you going to get these states to agree need a national government 0 Like shay39s rebellion 0 Articles of Confederation 0 Many weaknesses I Annapolis convention lead to the need for a consensus and a convention How Democratic is the American Constitution 0 Direct democracy the people have a say versus representative democracy 0 Country is a republic 0 Representative Democracy 0 Had to work hard to distinguish between an aristocracy and a republic The Enduring Debate Honors Political Science Page 2 The Creation of the American Republic 0 Ideas of neutrality 0 Republicanismliberalism schism 0 Why I People trying to come to terms of a republic I Versus liberalism I Articles of Confederation liberalism I Constitution mix of both How important is the public good The only thing holding the country together is this public good Want national foreign policy Public good against this aristocracy or new layout Derived from republic The Need for Virtue 0 Public virtue Equality 0 The equality of opportunity not equality of an individual The Nature of American Constitutionalism from the Origins of the American Constitution 0 Why do we need to understand this constitutionalism 0 To be able to make decisions for our government 0 Concern of anti federalists 0 Fear of unrestrained powers 0 Legacies of American constitutionalism 0 Philadelphia convention exceeded its authority Honors Political Science Page 3 N otes Wednesday July 15 2 15 112 4 AM Andrea Delumpa at 7152015 956 AM I Federalist 41 o Tries to make two points 0 Talks about structure of states and governments 0 First views I What dangers would there be for the states I It39s necessary for the public good Mentions six views How government could declare war and gain militia Better to be prepared than to be caught off guard f states are split then government to be unintact Places like New york vulnerable to attacks 0 Constitution actually quite similar to the articles of confederation I Federalist 45 and 46 o No power to the government is dangerous Not focusing on what is needed Way to guard against guarded factions People need the voice better protect people Notes feudal system I Rivalries is what lead to downfall Not just central governmet taxes everyone 0 Constitution is external object I Not focusing on local laws I Maintaining relationships with other countries I Invigoration of powers I States use to be taxed but now people are being taxed 0 Need stronger central government 0 States vs government 0 States would care more about local laws I So much as like people care more about families o If fed gov ever passed an unfair law I States will riot I Will always be outnumbered by states Prove to the people against the constitution Sounds like a step up from the articles of confederation Madison sounds like a supporter of state rights Sincerity 00000 O O O O O 0000 Questions At what point can states say that their federal government is going overboard I When laws made by national gov specify certain states I When powers are not clearly defined At what point can the federal government step into the state I When one state is infringing on another state Liberalism vs Republicanism I Liberalism states have more power I Republicanism federal government has more power Antifederalist 6 and 7 Antifederal 6 0 Would prefer a constant civil war vs a national government I Prefers anarchy I Lets have anarchy I Hobbes and Locke would be in angst I What was the motivation behind these papers I Blowing out of proportion 0 Madison uses a lot of ethos and pathos and logos Antifederalist 7 0 While we are destroying one another Of all the plagues that infest a nation a ciiil war is the v oi39st Famine is severe pestilence is dreadful but in these though men die they die in peace The father expires without the guilt of the son and the son if he survives enjoys the inheritance of his father Cities may be thinned but they neither plundered nor burnt But islien a civil war is kindled there is then forth no securit c of propert c nor protection from an law Life and fottune become precarious And all that is dear to men is at the discretion of pro igate soldieijc doubly licentious on such an occasion Cities are exhausted bf heat contributions or sacked because they cannot answer exorbitant demand 0 People used fear to get their point across 0 Not even logical Antifederalist 47 Honors Political Science Page 4 Suppose a govemmem could be formed and supponed on such principles would it ansver the great purposes of civil society if the administrators of even government are actuated by views of private interest and ambition how is the welfare and happiness of the community to be the result of such jarring adverse interests7 I Remember we are talking about the good of the people I People39s public virtue I Federalist are saying we need to have a check on powers I Still see the anti federalist federalist fight today 0 State vs national I Antifederalist only really want a ruling legislative branch quotThe three political culturesquot What39s political culture I Summation of persistent patterns of underlying political attitudes and characteristic responses to political concerns that is manifest in a particular political order I Individualistic political culture 0 The conception ofthe democratic order as a marketplace o Gov utalitarian reasons 0 Gov is a business 0 Public officials committed to giving the public what it wants are normally not willing to initiate new programs or open up new areas of government activity on their own initiative 0 Gov satisfies people but hands off I Sounds like texas 0 Moralistic Political culture 0 Wants gov to strive for ideal utopia 0 Doesn39t see a problem w expansion of powers 0 Idealistic I California I Michigan I Oregon Reject party ties Emphasizes the commonwealth coception as the basis for democratic government Extremely independent Liberal o Majority rule majority driven I Traditionalistic Political Culture 0 Utah 0 Clintons and Bushs OOOO Strengths and Weaknesses of a strong central government 0 Efficient legislation S 0 Economic independence S 0 Self sufficiency I National defense S 0 Uniform foreign policy S I Tyranny of the majority W I Inflexibility W I Struggle for power W Honors Political Science Page 5 Notes Thursday July 162 2 15 Federalist 10 1 2 1 AM 0 Be wary of factions 0 Popular gov which follow factions will fall by them 0 Criticizes factions 0 Too unstable 0 public good not considered 0 Policy decided by majority with no resepect to the minority 0 Madison argues two ways to remove factions 0 Remove causes Destroying liberty Controlling popular opinion Causes for factions III Sown into nature of man I Diff opinions Most common disagreement in gov Is over distribution of property III Two kinds of people 0 Those w property 0 Those without property Cannot always trust there are impartial legislators within us 0 If faction is less than majority nothing to worry about 0 If more than majority steamrolls government 0 Republics tend to be larger than democracies 0 Because republics have faction control Lets be a republic lets be federalists What would Madison consider of the two party system today 0 Goal is to get constitution through 0 Need to control factions O Theres no structure for them 0 Seems like they39re not planning for parties How do we get third parties in 0 Swing states 0 Internally divided 0 Social media helps Federalist Paper No 15 0 A bit more inflamed 0 Makes sense its hamilton 0 Being a union is important Talking about politics is hard 0 Necessary 0 We must act to not define anarchy WE should be ashame to ourselves 0 We owe debts O No one takes us seriously 0 We39re a joke to other countries Honors Political Science Page 6 0 Confederation made to serve the states not the people 0 States have the power to accept or reject anything the national government does 0 In order to be less like a league of nations like europe need to give national power to the individuals 0 All 13 states must be in agreement in order to get anything Questions How does a strong central government better help individuals 0 More unity 0 Goal is to empower people Tyranny of the Majority 0 Tocqueville O Frenchman lived in America shortly after the American Revolution 0 If we have a King who is as Justice with his people 0 Wouldn39t that be tyrannical 0 Why don39t we say for majority rule 0 If you want a leader to have unlimited power must have an unlimited leader 0 It39s strengths are what cause it39s tyranny 0 Not enough liberty in US 0 Makes a distinction O Tyranny exercised by the law 0 Arbitrary good of the people 0 Majority has power both physical and moral 0 King only physical 0 America has perfected despotism 0 Democracy carry favor to the majority O A problem 0 He ends w Jefferson Question What does the tyranny of the majority do to our society 0 Suppress minority views There is a large fear of participating against the majority Honors Political Science Page 7 I eeirl day 11 an inhabitant ei39 Penneylivenia quotBe en grind ee 11 explain te me hew it happens that in e State reminded flay Quekiere and eellehreted fer ite t eleratien i reer39l ibleeke are net alllewerli ten emereiee eiyil righite They pay taxee ie it net Fair that Iltey eheullrl have a metequot 39T eu inerult ue replied my interment quotify tu imagine tiltat eur legieletere seeullrl have eemmitterli ee greee an eel el39 irij and imeleraneequot quotWhat Illten the hilaelre p Ill1e right if tting in tltie mumyquot 39With ut the emaileet denimquot 39lfllew ieemee it tillera that at Ill1e pulling heath tltie meeting I did net pereeive a eirtgle itegrea in the whele meeting 39Tltie is net the Fault eftihe law Ill1e negreee have an umliepute frigiht riveting but they v lu t n ily abetair Frem melting Iiheir appearancequot 39A very pretty pieee Eelquot medeety en their pane rejeieed I Federalist No 54 0 Huge dispute on how many members there should be 0 How much representation we should have Federalist 84 0 Hamilton writing 0 We don39t have a bill of rights but we don39t need one 0 Gov too far from people Federal Farmer 0 Lets put limits on rights 0 Lets put limits on government because can39t trust that everything is going to be okay Bill of Rights 0 First amendment congress cant make any laws An economic Interpretation of the Constitution 0 Constitution an economic document based on the concept that the fundamental private rights of property are anterior to the government and morally beyond the reach of popular majorities 0 Property is everything Was the constitution a conspiracy against those who are disfranchised Honors Political Science Page 8 Paperl Wednesday July 15 2015 957 PM Fer this essay an are linlltine the theergir we been studying te the sun at tint reel need in seleet arr ariiele trent a reliable and nted senre a hale a hint a elath that inearnraiies er represents a Ell li39li saneent er belief that we ve been stnying and explain litewthy riate in each ether The terntat is iEneirrtt ent euhle seaweed iinellt ntareinsn The length is 2 age pins reternees De net use eelllequiaiisnts silaney r tirst nersn This is net an inninirr paper hunt a Iii39lti39ltEi39itaF ji an editerial an essay hut net an ltihinllc I sane l ineliee planar egin with art lntrednetiierr then nese a thesis statement ea Jehn Patient in his rele et Secretary at State sh tea the insthntin at th aeenthre bran eh is just as intneriant in internatinal affairs and the Franters anticipate it wenld hat er a an stin ties why tie taetiens still nernteate elur nliiieal eastern t Fellew he esiainine the thesis er addressing the nu estien use lanetes trent the theeretieal se tree and the eenternnrare senree as needed and th draw sern erreliusiens The assignment is Elite three heme1m rt er hetere Sunday July lie E t at titi ennt The turn it in linlet er suhrnittine yenr essay is inside this their httpwwwgaupcompol175181americanswarvfederainfuencepublicschoolsaspx Americans wary of Federal Influence in Public Schools 0 Use of logos 0 Like Madison 0 Liberalism vs republicanism argument 0 Federalist No 46 Grade 85 will be revising 0 Federalist antifederalist argument instead 0 Federalist strong national government 0 Anti federalist weak national government 0 Stronger state government Honors Political Science Page 9 Notes Monday July 2Q 2 15 1 z 3 AM Federalist No49 0 Madison 0 Going against Jefferson39s argument 0 Whenever any two of the three gov of branch of gov page 310 0 Four objections 0 First objection providing constitution convention for 23 not a good idea 0 Second objection people constantly changing and constitution won39t be stable 0 Third objection disturbing public tranquility through public passions 0 Fourth objection greatest objection leg branch has most reps reps most tied to people so most influential gt would disrupt the balance I Ex and jud branch would be left out 0 Even if a convention would be called the influence would put them back into the convention 0 Same people would come and work 0 May be a better option Federalist No50 0 Periodic appeals 0 Power should go back to the people 0 This system doesn39t make sense 0 Period checks less impartiality amongst the people 0 Won39t be efficient as having a fresh mind 0 Second risk long periods of time between appeals won39t be adequate check 0 Concludes state of pennsylvania had a council who met to make a constitution 0 Failed bc couldn39t be impartial Questions Why that form of structure 0 First and foremost need to fix the constitutional imbalance Article V 0 States can call conventions 0 23 of both houses propose Constitutional Structures 0 Fourstructures O Federalism O Presidentialism O Inequality in Representation O The electoralcollege 0 Within our framework if we had a divided government would the supreme court play a more prominent role 0 Yes 0 Ideally in a unified gov don39t need supreme court as much 0 Always need the supreme court to look at the legitimacy of the law Honors Political Science Page 10 Notes Tuesday July 212 2 15 955 AM The Texas Constitution 0 Federal constitution of the mexican united states 0 Mexican war of independence I Severed tied w spain I Stephen f austin drafted 0 Title 1 I Mexican nation declares it39s independence I Declared their territories I Declared religion to be roman catholic 0 Title 2 I Federal republic I Lists what states are part of new formed country I Maintaining checks and balances 0 Title 4 I President is established What were the similarities and differences between US and Mexican Constitution 0 Maybe religion was much more diverse in US 0 National religion in new state is catholic 0 Similarities both declare presidential powers 0 Create a republic 0 Differences o Explicitly states states rights 0 Bill of rights 0 Didn39t specify freedom of speech or assembly 0 Constitution of the State of Coahuila and Texas 0 Santa Ana wanted to centralize the government 0 Idea of checks and balances in article 29 O People39s choice in legislative and executive I More representative Title 2 I Governor president Section 4 I How we elect the governor vice governor and councillors Title 6 I Education required to create a free government 0 Constitution of the State of Texas 0 1833 Declaration against Santa Ana Interested in having all the power vested into the people When Santa Ana came a lot of their rights were taken away Want the power to the people Exact names as US constitution O O 0 00000 Where Texans justified in declaring independence Was their motivation for freedom or slaveholders Honors Political Science Page 11 0 Republics can be abused 0 We see that now 0 Declaration of the people of texas 0 Since santa ana took their rights away they can fight against him 0 The republic of Texas 0 Mexico ignored their independence 0 Constitution of the Republic of Texas 0 Preamble sounds a lot like US preamble 0 State Constitution 1836 0 Development of checks and balances 0 Account for subgovernments 0 Similar government again w names except now president now instead of governor 0 Article 2 I Legislatives powers I Army and militia required for a government I Sounds a lot like US constitution 0 Article 3 I No electoral college 0 Article 4 I Supreme Court and Judicial Court I Congress makes inferior courts I Department ofjustice is under article instead of the executive branch 0 Article 5 I Ministers of the gospel I Seperation of church and state 0 Article 6 I President and vice president I Our article 2 in US Constitution 0 Declaration of Rights I All political power is inherent in the people I All free government found in their authority I naienable rights I A lot are in the US Constitution 0 Very careful and worried about vesting too much power in government 0 Early Statehood O Slavery I Pro slavery O Secession I Some parts had slaves and some didn t I Joined confederacy I In out in out I Damn texas stay put 0 Constitution of 1845 Kept a lot of rights from beforehand Still central towards US Fixed judiciary Preamble for Constitution I Changed again I Now shows that they39re officially a state Not a republic a state now I What39s important now The people Rights are important 0 000 O O Honors Political Science Page 12 Constitution of the State of Texas 0 1861 0 Places restriction on legislature from ever passing a law emancipating slaves 0 Most of the things stay the same 0 Except for preamble The Civil War constitution of 1861 0 Texas supports view that US government was a confederacy Constitution of 1866 0 Reconstruction that occurs 0 Quick integration of the south 0 Texas slow and painful process of reestablish their relationship w the Union The constitution of reconstruction 1869 o 1866 one was invalidated O Radical reconstructionism I The north comes in and helps the south after the civil war evven tho the south won I Radical republicans III Blacks entitled to same political rights and opportunities as whites I Highly centralized public education system was incorporated I Corruption because unstable gov III Those w money have more power III Less checks and balances I Edmund davis III Supported sam houston III Robert e lee asked him to not violate his oath of alliegance III Defeated for reelection III Refuses to leave office 0 The constitution of 1876 0 Reaction of this radical reconstructionism Wanted a constitution that didn39t give the governor a huge amount of power Foundation of our state government Social contract back again Independent judiciary I Independent as in elected by the people Texas has two supreme courts 0 Weaknesses and Criticisms I Unitary executive III Elect a governor a lieutenant governor etc III Plural executive III Limits the powers on the government I Governor has no authority over the other elected states executives I Public education I Local control I Balanced budget I Individual rights III Restrictive voting laws limited 0 What should a constitution look like I Limits governed but lots of affirmation from the governed O Constitutional change and adaptation I Change through court interpretation 0000 O Honors Political Science Page 13 Honors Political Science Page 14 Notes Wednesday July 22 2 15 952 AM Federalist Paper No 68 0 Mode of electing a president 0 Electing a president is the only thing that hasn39t been highly objected to 0 What people desire O Wants people to have choice in the presidency I By having reps choose fulfilled 0 Election should be made by men best made by the qualities needed I They want people to be well educated while still representing the population 0 They don39t want disorder I By having several electors it would break the disapproval of the citizens of the US I Less chance for violence would be voting win their own states 0 Every possible obstacle to stop need to be taken into reason I Men voting need to be a new body I Can39t be reps and senators 0 Goes into the plan 0 Each state will have the of electors equal the reps and senators 0 Process of elections 0 Whoever became president needs to be qualified 0 Picking the vice president 0 Some people said the senate should pick the VP 0 But bc the VP might need to substitute the president 0 Need to go thru the same channels Question 0 Interesting that house of reps choosing if there is a tie 0 House of reps better represents the people 0 Page 412 and 413 Federalist Paper No71 0 The duration relates to president39s firmness 0 The longer the person is in office gets more comfortable tests limits 0 The shorter the person is in office doesn39t get comfortable takes risks won39t care about job 0 Can39t go w every whim and passion of the people 0 When there39s differences in opinion 0 Need to be the person that finds the logic 0 British House of Commons 0 Why worry Question Why four years A good in between ground for them to be fully effective Two sessions of Congress makes sense Also can work with the house effectively What does good behavior of the president means A duty to the people Honors Political Science Page 15 N otes Thursday July 23 2 15 955 AM Powers of the President Federalist 73 0 Hamilton 0 Page 440 o If it were necessary so necessary 0 The legislative body cannot change his salary I President has his fixed balancy I Power to veto 0 Parchment barriers not enough 0 Makes it harder to pass bad laws 0 Discusses bad laws being passed 0 As well as good laws 0 Even tho monarch has problems 0 Justices work too closely with the executive branch Question What do you think of Hamilton painting the legislative body as a luring menace Federalist 74 0 The president is the commander and chief 0 Army and navy 0 Authorized to give pardons except for impeachment What do u guys think of the idea of it only being up to the president to pardon Federalist 75 0 Treaty making power of executive 0 Power of making treaties need 23 consent 0 Correct for president to have this 0 Page 448 0 One ground of objection 0 Power does not entirely to eiher legislative or executive O Fits better w executive 0 Monarch has too much at stake 0 President has too much personally involved 0 Less likelly to do something that is bad for the country 0 If give power to the senate O Won39t give power to president at all 0 In response to leaving out the house 0 Body too great 0 Wouldn39t make sense to call all of them 0 He thinks the best way is to use the concurrent power of both senate and executive Federalist 76 77 Honors Political Science Page 16 0 Appointing power of the executive 0 Can nominate by the consent of the senate 0 Can fill up vacancies in recess of senate 0 One man is best suited to make this judgment 0 Page 454 0 President can39t make mistake of ruling by sentiment or whim 0 Compares to british console 0 Need for mutual consent between president and senate Is this a true sense of a republic It39s really the president39s negotiation with the states Federalist 67 0 Hamilton 0 First paragraph 405 What is the real character of the executive The executive department further considered Federalist 70 0 Ingredients which constitute safety in the republican sense 0 Unity 0 Duration 0 An adequate provision for its support 0 Competent powers 0 You don39t weaken the institution you put checks on it 0 Pluralism in the executive branch 0 If a man consulted on an issue opposes it it becomes an opposition to duty of self love 0 The interest of society would be sacrificed because of one person 0 In the legislator 0 Need multiple people 0 And take time 0 Executive Not necessary Individual person is better Or problems arise like breaking of powers f ou have multiple people in executive making decisions I Becomes finger pointing situation I No one takes the responsibility I Better to have one person in responsibility 0 Numbers just a source of danger 0 The only way from keeping parties forming 0 Do what they want instead of what people want 0 In essence better to have just one person in charge 0 Having a large executive would also be too expensive 0 000 Do you agree with the idea of pluralism is bad Honors Political Science Page 17 Energy in the executive 0 With unity accountability responsibililty persuasiveness POWER 0 Duration experience stability knowledge POWER 0 Competent powers foreign policy treaties vetoes commander and chief pardon power appointment formal powers 0 Adequate provisions for support cabinet executive office agenda setting strengthens president39s power Honors Political Science Page 18 Discussant Day Saturday Juiy 25 ZDlS 225 PM Federalist No 60 0 Hamilton begins where he left off in Federalist 59 with the fact that the power over elections to the federal government could not be committed to the state legislatures 0 He now talks about what the dangers will be if the national government held power over it39s own elections 0 Addresses the issue that the election would be privileged towards a certain class of men by O Confining the places of election to particular districts and rendering it impracticable to the citizens at large to partake in the choice I Of all reasons this is the most unrealistic of all I Could never happen because would create an immediate revolt I Basically the citizens would not tolerate this kind of structure of voting in the government 0 Addresses issue of how the national government could conspire against the states I Discusses how there is such a difference in the formations of each branch of government and how they were made to be III Disrupts any means of schemes of corrupting the elections I Biggest reason and influence of all the different modes of government III The House of Representatives being elected immediately by the people III Senate elected by state legislatures III President by electors chosen for that purpose by the people I The probability for every there to be a common ground or interest biased towards a certain elite group of class of electors is very unlikely 0 Senate election 0 State legislatures cannot be influenced by another group of people and a sort of attempt could not occur 0 Hamilton basically claims what could possibly influence the Senate something in which it isn39t included in the matter 0 The composition of one would counteract the other which reminds me of a sort of check and balance 0 So if this is this case Hamilton claims it39s unrelevant who holds the power Whether it be their hands or the Union 0 Hamilton basically claims if the federal government could favor one class of men over others which class would be selected 0 Is there a discriminations between I Different departments of industry I Different kinds of properties I Or between different degrees of property 0 Lean in favor of I Landed interest I Moneyed interest I Mercantile interest I Manufacturinginterest I Will it favor those who are wealthy and well born III Excluding basically everyone else 0 He suggests that the field would narrow to only landed men and merchants of which one should feel less danger from the former 0 He says many of the states agriculture is dominant in most states and that is reflected in the Honors Political Science Page 19 compositions of their governments I In few commerce divides them while in most it has great influence 0 It would be less appropriate to be bias towards either of them than to be representative of every state 0 Hamilton claims that an improper bias towards the mercantile class from even at least the house of representatives is not expected 0 Even if our country is made primarily from cultivators of the land 0 Hamilton addresses the question is there not danger of an opposite bias in the national government which may arrange it to attempt to secure a monopoly of the federal administration to the landed class 0 First less likely that any decided bias would prevail in the councils of the union than in those of any of its members 0 Second no temptation to violate the constitution in favor of this landed class bc this class would enjoy as much greatness and importance as possible and as it could desire 0 Third men use to investigating these sources of public prosperity on a large scare will know well of the usefulness of commerce to allow an infliction against it 0 Discusses about bias and wealthy 0 Although their wealth is a necessary consequence of how small the rep body is o Effecting a large body of people by inhibiting them from the ability to vote 0 Hamilton asks the question now quotare the wealthy and well born confined to particular spots in several states Have they found a common place to live Or are they scattered all over the country Can the wealthy regulate the places of elections 0 Gets really snarky and says as any intelligent man knows they are scattered throughout the country 0 Therefore the only means to ensure their selection would be through qualifications for holding office I Qualifications of men chosen are defined in the constitution and cannot be altered by legislature I Tho this forms none of the national governments conferred powers I The regulation of the time place and manner of the elections are restricted 0 What if the federal government was able to populate itself with the wealthy and well born over the objections of the people I To subdue the people in that case it would take a military force of considerable size and in the hands of such rulers why would they merely execute election laws to favor a particular class of people I Would they not rather perpetuate themselves in office by a decisive act of usurpation I These rulers would suffer the consequences when the citizens quotconscious of their rights would flock from the remotest extremes of their respective states to the places of election to overthrow their tyrants and to substitute men who would be dispose to avenge the violated majesty of the peoplequot Federalist Paper 61 0 Hamilton addresses the critics who suggest that the constitution should require that all elections should be done in the counties where the electors reside 0 Such a declaration would be harmless but it would quothave afforded little or no additional security against the danger apprehendedquot 0 Hamilton argues against this suggestion by looking at how the states currently hold elections and noting that there is little complaint concerning the regulations which do not include such a requirement Honors Political Science Page 20 0 New york is singled out because this is where Hamilton lives 0 If albany could for example be appointed as the sole place for the election of the county and district I Would not albany39s inhabitants soon become the sole members of the senate and assembly for that district 0 Citizens living at remote locations within the district would not travel the distance necessary to vote 0 Similarly the federal government could make NYC the sole place to elect representatives and thus ensure that only New yorkers would be represented and elected 0 But existing state laws do not allow such invasions on the freedom to vote so there is no reason to expect that federal law is required to prevent like invasions He concludes the entire discussion of regulations of the elections by noting that this clause in the constitution 0 Which is also repeated in paper number 59 O Allows for uniformity in the time of elections for the Federal house of Representatives which is a positive advantage Assume there is a faction with an quotimproper spiritquot controlling the house and every state elected new members at random times during the year 0 As the new members trickled in they could be assimilated into the existing mass providing no change 0 Uniform time of change would eliminate this probability 0 Similarly the rotation of the senate should also be synchronized Paper talks about Hamilton39s faith in a republican form of government and primacy of separation of powers Questions Hamilton thought that the American government is unlikely to fall into a control of a single class of citizens because there are numerous branches of government that must share the power Do you think people today have more influence over the government especially since there is social media and television and etc How can our government make sound decisions with a larger influx of information and needs from the people How can they make an impartial decision Is there really uniformity Federalist Paper 62 The Senate Will Discuss the qualifications of senators the appointments of them by the state legislatures the equality of representation in the senate the number of senators and the term for which they are to be elected and the powers vested in the senate Qualifications consist of more advanced age a 30 years of age at least b 9 years of citizenship c quotthe nature of senatorial trustquot which requires greater extent of information and nature Appointments of them by the state legislatures a It is unnecessary to explain why senators are to be chosen by state legislatures b It favors a selection of competent senators and gives the states an agency in the formation of the federal government and secures the authority of the state governments The equality of representation in the senate a The fact that all states have equal representation in the senate is obviously a compromise between the desires of the large and small states Honors Political Science Page 21 b He makes the distinction between the house which represents the people bound together in one nation and the senate which represents the individual sovereign states c A government formed to benefit the larger states would not likely satisfy the smaller states which might seek a government more unfavorable to the former than the one proposed which quotpreserves the sovereignty remaining in the individual statesquot d An interesting point is made about this form or government that quotno law or resolution can now be passed without the concurrent first of a majority of the people and then of a majority of the states IV The number of senators and the term for which they are to be elected a First consider why there is a senate and what the quotinconveniences which a republic must suffer from the want of such an institutionquot i First having two different bodies protects that people from schemes of usurpation where the corruption of one would otherwise be sufficient ii Second the senate guards against a single or numerous body from being swayed by passion of the moment or eloquence quotby possessing great firmness and holding its authority by a tenure of considerable durationquot iii Third the current government under the articles lacking a senate is embarassed by all the frequent repeals amendments and impeachments of its laws and regulations 1 quotA good government implies two things first fidelity to the object of government which is the happiness of the people secondly a knowledge of the means by which that object can be best attainedquot 2 Although most governments fail to provide either or both of these requirements the proposed constitution solves the second quotwhich increases the security for the firstquot iv Fourth there is a requirement for stability in one body of government Without stability there will be no respect and confidence from other nations as is the current situation he states 1 Madison presents another pearl of wisdom quotIt will be of little avail to the people that the laws are made by men of their own choice if the laws be so voluminous that they cannot be read or so incoherent that they cannot be understood if they be repealed or revised before they are promulgated or undergo such incessant changes that no man who knows what the law is today can guess what it will be tomorrowquot And one other 2 quotwhat prudent merchant will hazard his fortunes in any branch of commerce when he knows not but that his plans may be rendered unlawful before they can be executedquot Federalist Paper 63 0 The Senate continued 0 The paper begins with a continuation of the last discussing the number of senators and the term of office 0 It is probably the longest one yet encountered so the opposition to the subject must have been pretty considerable 0 Halfway through the paper he summarizes the criticism as quotthat a senate appointed not immediately by the people and for the term of six years must gradually acquire a dangerous preeminence in the government and finally transform it into a tyrannical aristocracy 0 He then picks up the discussion from the fourth paragraph of the last paper v Fifth the senate as a select and stable member of the goernment will be aware of the opinions of the world a Being attentive to the judgement of other nations will ensure that our plans are perceived as wise and honorable policy b And if debate on internal policy is unresolved the opinions of impartial nations might be a Honors Political Science Page 22 prudent guide to follow vi Sixth a government to effectively serve the people must have a body that is in office long enough to link operations together to form a train of events extending over a period of time longer than that of the term of representatives in the house 0 He then departs from the discussion of the circumstances that necessitate a wellconstructed senate to provide a few additional reasons to have a cool and deliberate body of government 0 Certainly not the people he is addressing who are not blinded by prejudice or corrupted by flattery but some who will be quotstimulated by some irregular passion or some illicit advantage or misled by the artful misrepresentations of interested men may call for measures which they themselves will afterwards be the most ready to lament and condemn O The cool deliberate body will save them from themselves quotfrom the tyranny of their own passionsquot if this were to ever happen 0 History tells us that there were no long lived republics that did not have a senate 0 Only Sparta Rome and Carthage fit having a senate and a long life 0 Demonstrates that it is necessary to have some institution that will blend I Stability and liberty 0 Having a second body dissimilar to another will protect the people better than having the whole legislative trust In the hands of one body of men that could betray the people 0 Main question will the senate turn into a tyrannical aristocracy 0 He gives many examples of senates designed similarly to the federal proposal that have shown no such tendency 0 First is Maryland w a senate very much like the federal senate 0 British senate instead of being elected for 6 years is actually a hereditary assembly of opulent nobles and the house is elected for seven years by a small portion of the population 0 Here we should have seen the aristocratic usurpation and tyranny I Instead senate has barely been able to defend itself against the encroachments of the house elected by the people 0 The example of Britain is the same as the examples from history 0 More likely that the body of gov elected by people will eventually take power from the senate 0 It happened in sparta I Where the Body annually elected by the people overmatched the senators for life as did the tribunes of rome also elected by the people and a similar fate was in store for the senate in carthage I Drawing on these facts and previous arguments he concludes that the senate will never be able to transform itself into an independent and aristocratic body ad if attempted the force of the representatives of the people will restore constitutional authority Question Do you think a bicameral legislative branch is representative of the people and the public good And is it efficiently getting done the needs of the people Honors Political Science Page 23 Paper2 Sunday July 262 2 15 122 PM Divergent and Federalist Paper 10 0 Faction system in Divergent O Amity belief in kindness O Candor belief in the truth 0 Dauntless belief in courage O Abnegation belief in selflessness o Erudite belief in knowledge 0 Government ran by Abnegation because they are the quotselflessquot O are they tho 0 Erudite believes the should run government because they have the knowledge 0 Property 0 What is property 0 What is the argument over the property Causes of a faction system What is a solution Republicanism Representation Grade 98 Honors Political Science Page 24 N otes Monday July 272 2 15 1 2 9 AM Federalist 52 0 House of representatives 0 Qualification 0 25 years 0 Citizen for 7 years 0 At time of year must be an inhabitant Terms of representatives 0 Biannual elections are safe 0 Elections in Ireland 0 Discretion of the crown 0 Parliament lasted for 35 year s Mayhew From Congress The Electoral Connection 0 What are their motives 0 Lets create a framework 0 What would motivate everybody 0 Why would they be self interested 0 How important are the committees 0 Allow a representative to say that they are an expert on a subject 0 Decisions are done to be made by committees 0 Bring in expert 0 Bring in proposal 0 Become and expert 0 Learn an issue 0 Committees are self serving Honors Political Science Page 25 Notes Tuesday July 282 2 15 1 2 6 AM A Constitution Against Parties 0 There is a strong tendency for a two party system 0 Americans didn39t look at British political parties positively 0 They relied on the doctrine 0 AF and F agreed that an effective consitution is what can bring 0 Madison was against parties 0 Thought it was necessary to balance the forces that made up societies 0 Views came from religious tolerance 0 William Livingston O For as we are split into a variety of professions and qualities 0 Page 58 0 Religious groups living in peace and harmony 0 While all authority will be derived from this society 0 Broken into so many parts 0 Rights of individuals little danger from culminations of the majority O The degree of security depends of the number of sets of parties 0 Fed 10 0 Must control the effect of parties but can39t remove the cause of parties 0 Here he says that legislation andgovernment cannot go on without parties 0 Faction of the majority I Looks to a rep of a republic I Works in an extended territory 0 Criticizes madison39s model 0 Failed to see a tyranny of a minority O Majority coalition with the majority 0 Country needed a cohesive form of majorities 0 Pluralism 0 Thought it was with parties 0 But pluralism within parties Question Do you think the constitution would be effective without parties 0 The organization that people provide What are some things that predispose the colonists to be against the idea of parties 0 The idea of factions 0 But cannot become factions 0 Much more organized How do political parties reinforce liberty What do minority factions look like 0 Lots of wealth 0 Will win at all costs What39s the difference between a faction and a party Honors Political Science Page 26 Is there a difference JEFFEHEi HAMILTIJH Hail faith in the peepile eilieued tint eummen peeple uttem Hete eelme lty tiJt isiltily nial privilege Tlmught the rieh1 5de and mlll m peeple will sheul mile w l l te tum queli eetiene Wanted Iii tt lllflg que i tieetiime Hi the ej em Farmed 1 weak central gnvemment Favered 1 eienhral gnvemment Strung Hate gevemmenlzi Pth 1 111mm demner tie gnvemment Theugght the gnvemment he en the British water Wanted l39 reduce number nil Wanted l39 in ame number Farmed 1 eh39iet interpretetjen uli the 3 lens inlerptelntjtm nii l he Cemtitut m39 Cemtitut m39 Letiemre tint individual liberties must Thuugght individual liberties much as preteete by law n l lepeeehT sheuld he 39reetiieteti Theught agriculture eheul he the 1 menum3 n lz39 gfieultme trade hmlthene uf the anti munuthetming net hipped giving gnvemment aid Favered giving gnuemment aid in trade mnee tn trade finenee and mahuli39eelming uu39il munuthetizlring the mlmt i urm Ufa netier l hank E39il hlhf39il39ljs a hatienel hunk Wanted l39 eliminate tn I39l tl l ll intem ll Wanted it 1113 n l T the netiumil debt tn uee the tn establish credit G1 FW W Le ieue tint America eIJI igated te i39EHjI the help Frame JetT eemmjem muemtie Hepuhliean Pe y Hemiltnniens 1quot Party Mantle up ut39 C eneiete gimme 39manulhelm mereh hlzi frentier ee ltilere and email farmerzi prelimiimul peeptei and 1eII39sIeEilhpr Wee attengezit in in the Hat mt in New and 1len5g em en frmtier the Atlantis Now states and federal governmnet have to begin working together Now that there is no antifederalist party Honors Political Science Page 27 Honors Political Science Page 28 Notes Wednesday July 292 2 15 946 AM Political parties created democracies Political parties are creations from the politicians Used parties to win elections Is an institution in itself Created based on historical setting at the time Parties are diverse coalition They are diverse and they can differ in how they wanna go a bout a problem Important part of a party 0 Have interests 0 Gather 0 Act Another view of a party 0 Responsible parties 0 Criticizing parties in this manner 0 Look at commitments made I Did they crate alternative solutions When parties quotlike thisquot are in office 0 If they were to hold long time majority 0 Lots of time to make up solutions If accountability is being weakened and seen this way 0 Less trust and belief in the institution of the party Parties 0 Make sure there is a competition 0 Back and forth of ideas Parties tool to be used to win elections 0 Most talked about 0 How parties make policies to win elections not win elections to create elections 0 Brings up more problems I Winning election and maintaining office I More individuals want that position I Goes back to tyranny of the majority Touches on the weakening of the parties 0 Helps explain voting behaviours When parties are decentralized 0 Shows lack of control in the government Whoever is in office and is less party centered 0 May act on their own individual beliefs and whims When he talks about the fundamentals of the parties 0 Indogenous Created by political actors Can shape and alter it to how they want it Who are these political actors in the first place First thing comes to mind office seekers Second thing benefit seekers all the supporting actors of the initial office seekers I The people that provide media data resources 0 Actual people I Don39t influence parties much at all OOOOO Honors Political Science Page 29 0 Parties produce something voters are the producers O Politicians can change and adapt it to what they want it I Why would you do it in the first place I It39s in their interest to do so 0 Why were political parties created d O Nominations for a position when there are multiple people that want to compete for that I Party would help w who would hold the office 0 Making decisions I Shows an example when an individual or position 0 Parties serve as a way to make your choices I Social choice theory 0 Mobilizing supporters I Taking collective action I Theory of public good and collective actions 0 How parties serve to elect party seekers o Durable O Gaining a majoirty 0 Win more bc large group of like minded people 0 Even tho parties are used to solve problems 0 It39s not the solution for everything 0 The theories are for politicians wanting to seek their goals 0 There are other ways Question IS the purpose of a party is to win an election Parties a way or channel to serve information to the public People are self interested Political Parties The Decline of Collective Responsibility in American Politics 0 The social involvement is declining BE Careful what you wish for 0 Rise of responsible parties 0 Instead of responsible people to the electorate more powerful now but just dividing government 0 What39s the diff between getting policies and getting the votes Polarization 0 Are people polarized 0 Primaries mainly for these polarized issues How Divided are We 0 Polarization is real Public choice rational actor Its almost impossible for a legislator to make a single choice Honors Political Science Page 30 Notes Monday August 32 2 15 1 2 AM Judiciary Federalist paper 80 0 Hamilton 0 Powers of the judiciary 0 Five arguments 0 First laws on the US itself I wo the judiciary I No power to enforce the law I Since there are laws that states can39t do there should be a force to enforce that 0 Second cases to constitution I Judiciary be coextensive 0 Third when gov involved I If there is any issues between nation and its citizens I Tried at national courts 0 Fourth when gov at stake I Peace of confederacy I Peace of whole aught not to be at disposal of a part I One state should be able to effect the public transquility of a whole I National judiciary have power is better I Gives an example of germany I Final authority given to national court I The role of the gov not only in cases regarding their own law or constitution or gov itself gov has a role to maintain public transquility I Rights of citizens III Citizens have all same rights and immunities III Some kind of power to enforce of this I Judiciary should have no bias towards any states 0 Fifth national judiciary has maritime juridiction I No problem w this I Any problems in jurisdiction should be submitted to federal jurisdiction I 0 Moves on to actual powers court is composed of I All cases in law and equity arising in constitution I And laws of united states 0 Anything that affects other ambassadors and other representatives I Talks about natural peace Extension cases of maritime jursidiction US as another party Controversies between two or more states Between states and another citizen Or between two citizens I Or between those of same states OOOOO Question judiciary should be coextensive What does that mean 0 Need to make sure that if the legislature has authority to make laws judiciary should be able to analyze it Honors Political Science Page 31 0 Following one in the necessity to analize Federalist 81 0 Distributions ofjudicial authority 0 Hamilton addresses judicial power to supreme court 0 He states that the idea of having supreme court couldn39t be contested 0 Should it be separate branch 0 Or its own branch 0 The reason why people thought judiciary shouldn39t be part oflegislative branch 0 Would want to mold laws to what they want 0 The idea of having court part of leg branch comes from britain 0 Hamilton constitution drafted 0 Constitution should be standard for the construction of laws itself 0 When there is an obvious opposition to this 0 The federal judiciary should be able to over turn the laws 0 Another objection 0 People don39t understand the need for inferior courts 0 Comes back to this sep of powers 0 If the court itself is part of the leg branch then factions would arise 0 Certain states have its own separate judicial department 0 Massachussetts 0 This idea of reversing a judical senate isn39t forbidden in this proposed constitution 0 Sometimes the court will make a recommendation to congress about how the law should look 0 Danger ofjudiciary encroachments 0 Judicial authority split between 0 State cases should be given to national courts 0 Talks about jurisdiction of supreme court 0 Answers question about whether Question How do you think ourjustice system would look if our judiciary was involved with the leg branch 0 No such shocking cases ofjudicial review 0 No impartiality Federalist 82 0 Concurrentjurisdiction 0 Before he delves into 0 He notes that entire judicial O Consisitent and whole 0 The situtations have fed courts have authority 0 When an exclusive authority I Granted to union 0 When a specific authority granted to fed gov prohibited to states 0 When states can39t exercise the laws 0 Looks at mechanics of constitution 0 Judicial power invested in on e supreme court 0 You can interpret in two ways 0 Supreme and inferior courts have jurisdiction 0 Supreme court can hear matters 0 Supreme court is simply allowed to have inferior courts Honors Political Science Page 32 I As to who can hear the cases III Ambiguous 0 Hamilton says second view is favorable 0 First view excludes states by implication 0 Not specific that states can39t rule over the matters 0 We should ignore any implications That the courts could be like inferioiur courts and still hear cases about federal law 0 States will always have jurisdiction over their own matters 0 Whatever they have enforced still protected 0 Laws coming from congress 0 These should have jursidiction from supreme court 0 Constitution is separate from states 0 The federal and state courts are part of one whole system State courts also have right to hear their own state cases Appelate juridiction Object of appeal not where they originate Supreme court has final say over any appeals Question does concurrent jurisidiction does that protect or limit state jurisdiction Federalist 83 trial bt jury 0 Bc a trial by jury isn39t allowed in civil cases Therefore its abolished O A specification of generals 0 BC its not there 0 Hamilton should be done by common sense 0 Proper way to interpret law 0 Is it being applied the way it aught to be applied 0 Its common sense that trial byjury can be done in civil cases 0 Legislature should be able to decide whether trial by jury whether it happens or not because theyre the one that constituttes it Leg can39t review cases 0 Creates a hypothetical O A married woman is not allowed to move or alter her property 0 If the legislature wants to have trial by jury in the law they can make it happen 0 Trial by jury protects against oppresive taxation 0 A jury can39t affect anything about taxes I All under legislature Legal maxims And taxation issues 0 Can39t generalize the judiciary between the states and the government 0 The best judges don39t wory about trial byjury 0 Trial byjury shouldn39t be used in every case Types of Law 0 Public law federal gov is it guilty of exceeding its authority 0 Courts have their limits Honors Political Science Page 33 Honors Political Science Page 34 Notes Tuesday August 42 2 15 213 AM Federalist 78 0 As long as the judiciary branch is separate from the other two branches 0 People have nothing to worry about 0 Judicial review 0 If part of leg branch 0 Then there would be no jud review There would be no way for them to enforce that the laws are constitutional 0 If no jud review then congress would be superior branch 0 The power of the people should be superior to leg and jud 0 Tenure based on good behavior then men are more likely to be honest O Federalist 79 0 Regards judiciary Anit federalist 7879 0 Thinks judiciary branch is going to be most powerful 0 Can determine th extent of th powers of congress 0 Makes things look like everything is fair but it39s not because judges won39t have go against king 0 True policy of a republican gov is that everybody is accountability for everybody O Worried judges are too powerful and won39t be accountability Queestion how effective would supreme court be ifjudges were to be elected 0 Adversarial system 0 Why justices vote the way they do The Enduring Debate 0 Judges have to vote based on the opinions of the people 0 How powerful are courts 0 They are the people39s voice 0 When are judges constrained and when are they activists 0 Are judges constraine 0 Yes 0 Come in constrained 0 So ifjudges are constrained then courts in general and by nature are constrained Honors Political Science Page 35 Notes Wednesday August 5 2 15 1 2 9 AM Calder v Bull 0 Connecticut legislature changed the restriction solution 0 Article 1 Section 10 0 Ex post facto laws 0 It39s not that they are changing their laws but they39re interpreting it differently 0 While all ex post facto laws are retrospective not all retrospective laws are ex post facto 0 This sets the foundation for marbury v madison 0 Initial questioning of the courts authority Marbury v Madison 0 1803 0 Background 0 Adamsn disgnated marbury as justice but was not sealed until after adams was over 0 Three questions 0 Has the applicant a right to the commission he demands I Yes marbury has the right to the commission he demands I Adams used his executive constitutional power I Order from adams granting marbury was supposed to become effective when adams signed and secretary of the state john marshall sealed the commissions 0 If he has a right and that right has been violated do the laws of this country afforded him a remedy I Since he has a right and right has been violated therefore should grant him a remedy I If he was refused right violating the law I Secretary of state seal designates the completion of the appointment 0 If they do afford him a remedy is it a mandamus issuing from this court I Mandamus writ or formal order issued by an authority III From a superior court to an inferiour court III In this case supreme court telling the inferior power to do something wrong 0 Could not force madison to commence marbury 0 Marbury did get the authority there was no jurisdiction National Bank 0 Not gonna let states stay in debt but must find some sort of authority Creation of national bank was something constantly argued about Necessary improper laws Jefferson is against the bank How much power does the nat gov have Civil Liberties 0 Did federalist think that presidents should make diff decisions Train to crystal city 0 Really made people supressed their heritage 0 The fact that he was german justified his detention 0 What do you do when the land of your heritage and your home are on conflict 0 quotThis is america they don39t put innocent people herequot Honors Political Science Page 36 0 There39s direction in policy 0 Why would the president stop the writ of habeus corpus O No unified government 0 Lincoln chose to act against the constitution 0 Ex post facto validates what presidenet did 0 You cannot violate the geneva conventions Honors Political Science Page 37 Notes Thursday August 6 2 15 214 AM Plessy v Ferguson 0 Browns Opinion Declare separate is equal Finding enough coaches Peple would have to sit Rules are rules I Or elsse fined or imprisoned 0 13th amendment not violated 0 If you use the 13th amendment to argue 0 Running slavery to ground 0 Est citizenship for african americans 0 Laws permitting and even requiringdo not necessarily imply Exercise of the police powersquot quote 0 Up to police power of state 0 Argues that because there39s no prohibition O Took advantage of this grey area 0 If he be a white man and assigned to a colored coach 0 Colored race badge of inferiority O Chooses to put it on themselves 0 Case was ambiguous because plessy39s race was also ambiguous 0 13th amendment does prevent anything 0 1315th prevent argument against citizenship 0 All citizens are equal before a law 0 Uses definition of personal liberty THE CONSTITUTION IS COLORBLIND 0 If the gov does not enforce laws for equality and respect how do the people live in equality and respect 0 House zoning certain schools are segregated in that way 0 What defines discrimination 0 Segregation still happens not legally not constitutionally but representationally 0000 The Enduring Debate 0 Lincoln 0 Acknowledges time I Which is before he is president 0 Precivil war time gov is destroying civil liberties o Duty to establish liberties is threatened O This threat comes from within our borders 0 Dismisses the passions of the people I Promoted all this violence 0 Whatever then the cause may be is the cause for the whole country 0 People that go through this violence I Actions is what maintains this quotlaw and orderquot I Even tho this isn39t this case 0 Conservation of political institutions I Cold perspective I Explains the evolution of their violence Honors Political Science Page 38 III Escalation of violence I Nobody would rly miss the gamblers I While you are killing all these guilty people you are bound to kill someone that is innocent III Have blinders on O Describes them lawless in spirit I Want a sort of anarchy O Gov isn39t do anything to stop these unjust deaths 0 Through people39s discouragement gov is weaker I How are we going to defend ourselves 0 Through reverence of laws lincoln promotes this political religion I Sacrifice I People coming together to establish and maintain the laws 0 Change takes forever 0 Concludes I Preservation of liberty I Liberty esbalished not thru passions of people but through reason I Liberty and freedom can be restored back into government What principles argued in lincolns essay 0 Reason Dr Martin Luther King 0 Why is he in Burmingham 0 Just because it is okay in one state doesn t mean its ok in another state 0 And if its not ok in one state it shouldn t be okay everywhere 0 An injustice in one place is an injustice everywhre 0 Why don39t you promote negotiation 0 He is but through a diff process 0 Nonviolent actions 0 Both sides need to cooperate 0 Lists different prejudices and segregations 0 An unjust law is no law at all 0 If you break the law make sure you understand that you need to take the reprimands and burdens of the consequences 0 The people that have no opinion are the ones that are most powerful 0 He39s not afraid to have tension out in the open 0 Tensions within own race 0 Want to take justice into our own hands 0 Lists disappointments with churches in area 0 Believes that their deep moral concern should override any personal beliefs 0 Religious leaders hopefully are the bridges that could fix everything 0 The goal of america is freedom 0 The ends justice the means mentality Pointing out flaws in the institution Making people uncomfortable by pointing out the issues Civil Rights Equality 0 Brown vs Education 0 Began in Kansas 0 Overturned plessy v ferguson Honors Political Science Page 39 Honors Political Science Page 40 Final Paper Thursday August 6 2 15 216 PM Case precedent principle that was set due to the decision made on a previous case 1 What are the principles of a Republic and how have they been preserved in our constitution How does representation support the design of a republic and the demands of a democracy How did a centralized Republican form of government resolve the conflicts among the states 0 Principles of a Republic 0 Representation of the people and protection of the people I Preserved in constitution ii Establishment of the three branches 0 Executive President 0 Elected by electors 0 Judiciary 0 Appointed by president b Elected by electors 0 Legislative ltgt Voted by the people 0 Most powerful 0 Checked by other branches 0 How does representation support the design of a republic and the demands of a democracy 0 Republic people elect representatives to represent them in government 0 Democracy people voice their say in government I Tyranny of the majority a problem I People have their voice in who they want to vote in representation 0 How did a centralized republican form of government resolve the conflicts among the states 0 What is the conflicts within the states I Representation in government ii Larger states may have more power Smaller states may have less say 0 Senate and house 0 Good balance of both I Fear of Tyranny of the majority ii Centralized republican form of government resolved these fears I We have a representative democracy 2 What are the ingredients that constitute energy in the executive Which ingredients constitute safety from a strong executive in the republican sense Are these ingredients still necessary How do they factor in to the type of governance in the 21st century What do we expect from today s president that could not have been anticipated at the time the Constitution was drafted Federalist Paper No 70 0 Ingredients that constitute energy in the executive 0 With unity accountability responsibililty persuasiveness POWER 0 Duration experience stability knowledge POWER 0 Competent powers foreign policy treaties vetoes commander and chief pardon power Honors Political Science Page 41 appointment formal powers 0 Adequate provisions for support cabinet executive office agenda setting strengthens president39s power 0 Which ingredients constitute safety from a strong executive in the republican sense 0 Unity 0 Duration 0 An adequate provision for its support 0 Competent powers 0 Are these ingredients still necessary 0 Yes 0 Without unity there would be instability in the executive office I No responsibility finger pointing game I Persuasiveness not as powerful I POWER is weakened 0 Without duration in office I There is no stability I Between the house and the senate I Good inbetween ground I Knowledge needed and gained 0 Without competent powers I Can39t form foreign policies treaties can39t veto I Commander and chief is weak I Cannot pardon powers I No power in appointments I No formal powers 0 Without adequate provisions for support I Only weakening of president39s power 0 How do they factor into the governance of today in 21st century 0 Power of the president today I One of the most influential men in the world if not the most influential man in the world I Would not be as powerful and influential if did not have a unified executive branch standing behind him 0 What do we expect from today39s president that would not have been anticipated at the time the constitution was drafted 0 Influence of people when choosing a president and the influence of the president on all of the people I How educated people are today III Social media III Media allows the public to learn not only about politicians but about the issues that go on today 3 What does representation mean from the position of the member elected to office What did the Federalists argue were the benefits of electing our representatives Where does hisher loyalty rest Is it the constituent fellow members of the political party the chamber in its entirety or the member s own preference What do we expect from today s elected officials that could never have been anticipated at the time the Constitution was drafted How can someone elected to office balance these sometimes conflicting positions How does polarization impact the electoral process 0 What does representation mean from the position of the member elected to office 0 The ability to represent your constituent in government I Speak on behalf of a constituent 0 Representation of your state Honors Political Science Page 42 0 What did the Federalist argue were the benefits of electing our representatives 0 By electing our representatives I Reflects or mirrors the people III Takes into consideration the wants of the peple III Not a group of elitist people in charge III People have a say in what they want in their representation I Republic III Reduces democracy 0 Democracy leads to free will of people but will eventually turn into an anarchy 0 Direct democracy when people directly voice and vote on a subject matter 0 Representative democracy people vote for representatives who go and voice the opinion on a subject matter III There39s order III Removes factions 0 Instability 0 How does it remove factions 0 In a democracy there is a chaos and many people voicing their opinions 0 Differences of opinions will cause people to split into factions I Maybe the elected are more educated about the political theory than the general government is I Reduces corruption 0 Where does hisher loyalty rest 0 O O O O Hisher state To the constituent Needs to be mindful of all the people and factors involved Yes loyal to the state But should also think of the public good in general 0 What do we expect from today39s elected officials that would have never been anticipated at the time the constitution was drafted O Seemed to anticipate the legislative branch as very strong even if there is a check and balance on them Today there seems to be a good balance between all three branches Although theoretically leg branch is strongest the influence and power of other branches helps balance out the power of the leg branch 0 How can someone elected to office balance these sometimes conflicting positions 0 President elected into office I Can voice his or her own opinion about the issue at hand I Influence congress 0 New elected individual can join Committees I People can go and be an expert on a certain issue I Learn more III Can help argue logically why he or she supports or refutes the subject 0 How does polarization impact the electoral process 0 Polarization difference in political interests and opinions I Different political parties III Democrats and republicans III Federalists and antifederalist I Polarization is real 0 Electoral process I You vote for your elector to vote for you Honors Political Science Page 43 III f democrat usually vote for democrat candidate III But really voting for an elector in electoral college III Heshe will vote with other electors for your candidate usually 0 Sometimes electors vote for other candidate 0 Not typical tho 0 Parties is a way for people to gain knowledge and information about a political issue 0 Political parties also good way for people to gain knowledge about a candidate 5 Amy Fisher contends that race should not be a factor in a university s admission process while the University of Texas argues that a university needs a process that considers race as a factor in admissions albeit narrowly tailored because it helps achieve the goal insuring a diverse student population What constitutional protections and principles are the two parties seeking to preserve How are they different and in what ways are they similar What are the goals of affirmative action Did the separate but equal policy in Plessy v Ferguson influence the need for affirmative action How did Brown v Board of Education impact the creation of affirmative action programs s affirmative action still important Why or why not 0 What constitutional protections and principles are the two parties seeking to preserve O Fischer I 14th amendment in constitution III quotNo state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of the citizens of the United States quot III Did UT take into account Fischer39s race when considering her admission 0 Remember it is a quotholisticquot process 0 UT I Also takes into consideration the 14th amendment III Want to give equal chance to all races esp minorities III Usually not given the opportunity 0 How are they different and how are they similar 0 Different 0 Similar I Equality and liberty 0 What are the goals of affirmative action 0 The goals of affirmative action is to provide a diverse culture within the university 0 Allows those in a minority group to gain the opportunity to study or work 0 Is it reverse racism I Discriminatory towards a group that is typically the minority group 0 Did the separate but equal policy in Plessy V Ferguson influence the need for affirmative action 0 Set the precedent for affirmative action 0 Grey area of racism 0 How did Brown v Board of Education impact the creation of affirmative action programs 0 Set the precedent 0 Is affirmative action still important 0 The principle that affirmative action was built on is important 0 Everyone should have an equal chance at education and a career 0 There is no real certainty that people will not discriminate against people 0 While at the same time those who do not have the opportunity to study should be given this chance 0 It39s important but to keep us mindful about the issues that still stand today Honors Political Science Page 44 EXTRA CREDIT Last week the Supreme Court heard oral arguments in Obergefell V Hodges regarding the constitutionality of a state prohibition on same sex marriage Using What you have learned in class discuss two arguments for and two arguments against state autonomy in regulating same sex marriage Include case precedents in your discussion 0 For State Autonomy Against National Autonomy 0 quotMarriage is a privilege not a rightquot 0 States can better control the issues Within the states 0 Marriage usually done in the state 0 They should be the one that holds the structure of What should happen in their state 0 Against State Autonomy For National Autonomy O Equality for all citizens under the constitution 0 Will push for a change and reform time 39 Will set the precedent for the future 39 Plessy V Ferguson 39 Brown V Board of Education 39 All set the precedent for the fact that discriminating against African Americans is unconstitutional Honors Political Science Page 45
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