Popular in music cultures of the world
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Popular in Music
This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Alessandra Dickos on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Music 2250 at Ohio State University taught by Udo Will in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see music cultures of the world in Music at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Week 1 amp 2 Introduction 09022015 82515 0 Book can get earlier edition need 4 cds in 5th ed 0 Ethnography 0 610 pages plus documentation Performance 0 Can be any style around the world Basic termsconcepts What is music 0 Whales vs birds vs electronic music 0 Organized sound made for a purpose 82715 0 exam 0 locate on map extra credit 0 essay 12 pgs 0 music will be played 0 multiple choice 0 Culture designates entire way of life activities beliefs and customs of a people group or society as it is learned and transmitted from one generation to the next 0 Examples o FlamencoSpain 0 Eastern Europe 0 Complex ute and humming Central Asia 0 Didgeridoo and clapping Australia What is music Music from Ancient Greek Muses Iran 0 not everything is quotmusiqiquot sounds like a bouzouki o quotkhandanquot meaning reading reciting and singing chanting Guyana Wayapi Indians 0 Social public activity many people chanting ute conversation not coordinated 0 Not done in private one person playing wind instrument with birds in outside place Blackfoot Indians 0 quotsaapupquot singing dancing and ceremony clipping monosyllabic chanting deep drums shouting dancing at same time Central Australian Aboriginals o quotinmaquot complex of song music dance painting and ceremony John Blacking 0 Music is humanly organized sound 0 There are sounds that are structured patterned through human activities taking place in a sociocultural context Workers in post of ce Alan P Merriam 0 Music phenomenon has three central aspects Sound Behavior Conceptions ideas Ethnomusicology o Attempts to understand the different musical systems by examining sounds ideas about music and the cultural and socioeconomic context of music making The study of quotpeople making musicquot lrish pub sitting around a table large range of age group informal drinking together canon more for musicians entertainment than for audience sit close to each other better situation for communication 911115 What is sound Sound is something we hear caused by pressure changes in the air 0 Ex tuning fork Pressure changes in the air can be transformed into an electrical signal by a microphone Allows us to visualize and analyze sound Sound has 4 characteristics 0 Duration The length a sound lasts a Can be measured in seconds or milliseconds a Can be compared to each other 0 lntensity Corresponds to the amplitude of the sound wave and its energy a Perceived as loudness a Can be measured and compared 0 Timbre Corresponds to the waveform of the sound wave a harmonious oscillations n harmonics partials overtones a set of harmonics produced by instruments are spectra 0 Frequency Corresponds to the number of pressure oscillations per second a Measured from one maximum to the next wave cycle a Oscillations measured in cycles per second Hz a Everyday musical practices frequencies of sound are perceived as pitches higher lower lowhigh sharp Terms 0 Rhythm 0 Durational organization of sounds time relation between sounds or sound features Regular repetitive episodic irregular or free 0 Beat 0 Felt andor heard time units pulse Metrical rhythm o Rhythmical pattern of regular recurrence Additive rhythms different rhythmical patterns are joined to form larger patterns 0 Meter 0 The number of felt or heard time units of a metrical pattern Tones o Pitched sounds 0 Can be compared in terms of their pitch distance interval Expressed numerically in scale steps heptatonic scae seven different tones per octave Octave o Interval between two tones when the frequency of the higher tone is twice that of the lower Scales 0 Series of tones progressing up or down Can have more or less than 7 tones per octave 5 tones pentatonic 6 tones hexatonic Melody o Succession of sounds with different pitches tones Often consists of sounds with more or less stable p ches Chord o Simultaneously sounded tones 91311 5 Terms 0 Texture o Describes the relation between different components voices instruments melodies chords and rhythms Monophonic o All perform melody in unison o Drone Monophonic melody performed against a continuously sounding tone I Hum utist hum while playing Siberia pulse accompanyment Heterophonic 0 Same melody performed in different ways Oriental sounding ute with string in background lndian wooden clappers wind and string sort of drone sounding but listen to background noise Polyphony 0 Combination of two of more distinct melodies Contrasting sounds Chanting singing with beats in background Homophonic 0 Dominant melody combined with one or more accompanying voices Sardinia Tenors di Bitti Mialinu a Start apart then all join together n Generally same tone level Musicology 0 Principal classi cation of musical instruments is often done according to the physical characteristics of sound production 0 Hornbostel and Sachs 4 basic categories 0 Chordophones string instruments 0 Aerophones wind instruments l ute vs reed o Membranophones membrane instruments 0 ldiophones vibrating body produces the sound and is not a string or membrane 0 Classi cation developed from the old lndian system Bharatiya natya shastra 0 String instruments 0 Membrane instruments 0 Pipes 0 Instruments that are struck Doesn t consider 0 New types of instruments electrophones 0 performance techniques 0 Doesn t re ect l o sociocultural considerations 0 native classi cation systems emotional impact m Wcomplexes Musicalwhat 0 Music 0 Performers 0 Audience 0 Musicalsetting Culturalwhy o Sociocultural context 0 Beliefsystems o Aesthetics 0 History MISSED 91015 9115115 Why high is low and low is high High young Low old 0 Expressed in social terms 91211 5 What is sound 0 John Blacking humanly organized sound 0 This allows us to de ne music so that music of cultures all over the world are included Ethnomusicology The discipline that attempts to understand different musical systems by examining sounds ideas about music and the cultural and socioeconomic context of music making Began as comparative musicology 0 Comparing different musics to each other Often compared to western music In uenced by colonialism arm and chair Emphasis on classi cation 0 Alan P Merriam o Reconsiders ethnomusicology as an approach an entire method to the study of music 0 quotStudy of music in not as culturequot 0 Tripartite Model of Ethnomusicology Sound Behavior musical and nonmusical surrounding music Concepts ideas about music 0 Jeff Todd Titon s de nition 0 Study of people making music 0 What are advantagesdisadvantages of studying peoplemusic that you already know very well o What are advantagesdisadvantages of studying peoplemusic that you don t know very well 919115 0 Texture 0 Different parts in a song can have different textures Different voice instruments melodies chords and rhythms can be combined The relation between these components is texture Four musical textures n Monophony 0 One voice multiple voices in unison single melody 0 Ex happy birthday taps n Homophony 0 Dominant melody combined with one or more accompanying voices o instrument with voices most songs today 0 Louis Armstrong n Heterophony Same melody sung by all voices but the voices can sing slight variants in ornamentation for instance 0 Violin with multiple voices in sameish tones n Polyphony Multiple distinct melodic lines going at once 0 Ex choral singing o Instrument Families 0 Erich von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs system for classifying instruments 1914 Based upon what vibrates to produce sound a Idiophones n Chordophone n Membranophone n Aerophone n Electrophone 0 Two Big W s 0 Musical WHAT Music Performance Audience Musical setting 0 Cultural WHY Socioculturalcontext Belief systems Aesthetics History 0 Africa 0 Through history there have been movements of people in African 0 With encounters of different African cultures they in uence one another both linguistically and musically o 4000bc sahara desert forms people move south and east 0 2000bc bantu speaking people move south and east with spread of agriculture 0 MORE 0 Drum Languages 0 Upwards of 2000 languages in Africa many are tonal 0 Shared features of sound in music and speech Rhythm stress accent and pitch These can be manipulated on the tuma or tama drums which are known as talking drums Madagascar mix of in uence from SE Asia History 0 Since 40008C o Introduced harps and lyres to the northern part of sub saharan Africa 0 Humming like an insect quick lyrics 6OOBCE 0 iron working 0 women 0 bells cowbellish sound o 5001000AD o drums thumb pianos clapping whooing women and men 0 Chapter 3 African continent has 2 broad zones 0 Maghrib Subsaharan Africa Generalizations Music Making events 0 Work music 0 Expression in many media 0 Expressive media Drama dance 0 Musical style 0 History 0 Cantillation Chanting religious texts Participation 0 Training 0 Enculturation Process of learning one s culture gradually during cthhood Beliefs and Values 0 Music conceived as a necessary and normal part of life 0 Intercultural Misunderstanding Melody Tonality Texture Form Rhythm Percussion Agbekor War dance 0 quotclear lifequot percussion with ensemble of singers 0 creation of Ewe people who live on Atlantic Coast of Western Africa in Ghana and Togo o atamuga the great oath requires special training 0 similar to ergisu adzo vutsotsoe adzokpi vulolo The Ewe People 0 Triumph over adversity Anlo cramped o Fearsome warriors o Mawe 0 Supreme being 0 Remote from humanity affairs Drum Language 0 Known only by drummers Powerful must be told because of secrecy 9130115 The Arab World History 0 622 CE Prelslamic period Jahiliya o Babylonia and Greek in uence on Persia music theory tetrachords o Preislamic cultures 0 622 CE 1315Century Spread and Development of Arabic dominated Islam 0 Seljuk Turks in Persia and Baghdad 0 Rise of the Ottoman Empire 14th Century Ottoman Empire Turoarabic o Safavid Empire Persia Modern Period 0 Colonialism creation of nation states in uence of western culture and the worldmarket o Reevaluation of Arabic music 1932 congress on Arabic music in Cairo Instruments 0 UD 0 short necked lute 0 quarter tones 0 folk and classical Buzuq 0 Long necked lute 0 Folk and classical Western Violin o Upright and under the chin Ney o Flute Mouthpiece Between teeth Without mouthpiece Kanun o Zither Picking Hammers Darabuka 0 Drum with Burn and Toc Rek o Tambourine Rhythmic Cycles 0 Music organized in rhythmic cycles 0 Often have rhythmic pattern that repeats throughout but displays variations 0 Classical music often has more complex from our point of view rhythms o Simpler rhythms are shared with folk music 0 Maqsum and Baladi 44 88 0 Nawakht 78l Samai Thaqil 108 Maqam Basic scale that has 7 pitches per octave Divided into the upper and lower half of the scale 0 Into tetrachords of 4 pitches Not just the scale but also rules that tell you where to begin and end a piece as well as rules that dictate how to modulate or change between tetrachords during improvisation Taqism Improvised realization of a maqam Usually instrumental 0 In sections and modulates to focus on different melodic or tonal aspects of the maqam o Layali is the corresponding vocal form of improvisation Listening Example Shaghal 0 Texture o Heterophonic then monophonic with drone drum 0 Rhythm 0 44 or 88 0 General form or structure 0 Ostinato 10L8L5 Ethnography o A written representation description and interpretation of some aspect of a music culture organized from the standpoint of a particular topic 0 A major goal accurately represent and interpret a musicculture even a single aspect of it o 3 aspects of the project 0 collect info 0 understand 0 make some interpretation considerations for interview and ethnography 0 practical o theoretical o ethical Interview 0 Primary focus is on wht they tell you 0 Your job is to ask the right questions to get interestingmeaningful answers 0 Open ended vs closed ended questions 0 Record take notes take photos Gaining Entry The initial part of music ethnography project when you gain entry into the musical situation you have chosen to study lnitial contact is important establishes contact with the experts Questions Identify the music you re writing about in terms of genre What kind of music is this What is its history Does the music strike you as folkloric or classical Does the performance feature several genres If so what is their relation to each other Describe the social space of the event What kind of venue are you attending Who are the performers Are they amateurs or professionals Who is in the audience Is this a formal concert event with audience members sitting passively as they listen or does the performance encourage audience participation such as dance Compare own experience with audience members Address the music of the performance in terms of sound lyrical expression if song is part of the music you observe and gesture dance Might overlap somewhat with the previous set of questions depending on the nature of the event call and response between performer and audience or collective dancing Consider the particular criteria of musical style and value pertinent to the genre Interpretation Did you come to any conclusions about the musical behavior and values of the social group you are studying Based on your preliminary research observations participation and interviews why do you think they are interacting with music in this way What did you learn from this process What aspects of the performance you watched struck you as most important What surprised you What questions did this project raise for you Is there anything you would have done differently
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