Class Notes/Material for Exam 1
Class Notes/Material for Exam 1 History 101
Popular in Western European Thought from 1600 on
Popular in History
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This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Blair on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Bundle belongs to History 101 at University of Massachusetts taught by Jennifer Heuer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Western European Thought from 1600 on in History at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
History 101 September 23rd Class Notes Trade Slavery and the Atlantic World EconomicsTrade How do we pay for things government is expensive war is expensive Taxes Used commonly but taxes can be tricky English Civil War Mercantilism economic system the dominant system in Western Europe until the 18th century Mercantilism theorists Colbert Analysis of French Finances and Efforts to Improve Government Income 1664 Mun England s Treasure by Foreign Trade 1664 Von Hornick Austria OverAI If Only She Will 1684 Mercantilist policies Direct government involvement in economy government involvement is not just okay it is necessary government should be involved in economy and trade to promote national prosperity Promote favorable balance of trade Sell our stuff don t buy theirs Economics as a Zerosum game If you get richer your enemies will probably get poorer and vice versa Government monopolies and control of trade Trading Who Where and What Spices and the East India Trade important early traded good Lightweight and valuable takes up less space so more can be transported examples are cinnamon or cloves set up to go to the East Indies modern day East Asia looking for spices and nding the best ways to transport them back to Europe British East India Company French East India Company 0 set up with support form governments 0 given charters from their respective governments o permission to control particular routes 0 authorized to establish territories o tied to ways of stock exchange and joint companies Colonialism and trade in the New World 1 16C Background Spaniards seek to conquer South America and exploit gold mines o Slavery in Spanish America had bruta conditions 2 Dutch French English colonize the Cadbbean 3 Shift from gold and spices to sugar 0 Sugar cane used and re ned to make a crystalized form of the sugar 0 Originally done in part by indentured servants but then became a job for saves Slavery and the Triangular trade Ancient World saves may be prisoners of war or their family were enslaved but this form of slavery is different because it is now predominantly based on race Destination of African slaves 17011810 0 Much smaller number of slaves going to British North America and US and Spanish America appr 3 million in the Carribean The Middle Passage Taking slaves from Africa to Central and South America Horrible conditions during transportation of slaves from Africa many people packed in tight quarters illness easily circulates Critiques of slavery focus on slave trade and not slavery itself criticism of the institution usually begins with the history of the Middle Passage Establishment of Slave Codes Slave codi ed as racial and inherited category de ning what makes a slave 1641 Massachusetts rst British colony to recognize slavery as legal institution 1661 Barbados Slave code model for British Caribbean codes 1685 Code Noir Average number of slaves transported each year increases after the 18th century begins Deportation Flows in the 15th and 16th centuries Striking to think that slavery is increasing throughout this time period happening in correlation with new ideas of Scienti c Revolution and Enlightenment interesting combination of events with so much evolution in one area and so much discrimination in another Returning Mercantilism trade and slavery Possible Controversies o The effectiveness of Mercantilism The rapid ow of slave trade History 101 Notes September 16th Hobbes Leviathan 165 1 Absolutism vs Constitutionalism Constitutional Monarchy powerful leader and powerful Parliamentlegislative body wouldn t expect France to become absolutist and Britain to become constitutionalized The English Revolution Act One King Charles I vs Parliament Anglican Puritans inc in Parliament see this as a threat Puritans in Parliament object to Lauds proposal of Anglican religion becoming the English religion Charles tries to impose English Prayer Book on Scotland Scotland rebels leads to a much larger uprising Scottish army marches on England War with Scotland Parliament passes a law that gives members control of the king s ministers Charles agrees he won t disband Parliament wo consent and they give him the money to pay off Scottish army Meanwhile there is another uprising in Ireland John Pym leader of Parliament issues Grand Remonstrance listing his issues w Parliament says the king should not be able to dissolve Parliament or impose his own ideas without the Parliaments consent Parliament will stand up to king and say no not without us Parliament refuses to arrest Pym members of Parliament stop feeling safe and decide to form an army while Charles realizes he needs to build up his own power and his own army Act Two Cavaliers vs Roundheads Cavaliers are the royals Roundheads an insulting name are esp Puritans associated with Parliament Oliver Cromwell emerges as the leader of the New Model Army Parliamentary forces becomes a powerful military leader a Puritan in religion and a member of the gentry by social status o in part because he inspires people to ght for Parliament quotWorld Turned Upside Downquot Civil war as impetus for new ideas 0 This form of government is not working out what else could work 0 The people are no longer afraid to revolt Act Three 1649 Trial and Execution Parliament purged of those opposed to king s trial quotRumpquot parliament left Trial of Charles I given a chance to plead 3 times statement made was that the court has no authority over him Charles condemned to death 1649 Execution of Charles I quotTyrant Traitor Murderer and Public Enemyquot head was cut off Act Four Cromwell and the Commonwealth Becomes a Commonwealth as opposed to a Monarchy Cromwell declares himself quotLord Protectorquot Disbands quotRumpquot Parliament in 1653 dissolves Rump Parliament 0 Why does he try to impose Puritan order Why would he insist that you should have Puritan order across England Partly for genuine belief wants to undermine Anglican supporters of the king amp shared view that one religion and one political order is needed no multiple religions of the state Keeps army on his side Tries to impose Puritan order on all of England Cromwell rules until his death his successor is his son doesn t have the ambitious personality to keep Parliament in check Cromwell died and his head was left hanging in Westminster Abbey The way that he ruled military dictatorship religious zealotry he had some haters had some supporters as well Restoration of the Monarchy 16601688 Royalty is brought back and original Parliament is restored Summoned Charles II The Real End Glorious Revolution 1688 Charles II dies his successor is James he is Catholic He is Catholic in a land where Catholic monarchs are seen as dangerous William of Orange and Mary ascend to throne win the throne on one condition 0 Bill of Rights of 1689 establishes permanent restrictions on how royalty can govern The king cant just do things without consulting with legislation No standing army during peacetime without the consent of Parliament Freedom of speech in debates No raw interference with people who have arms for their own use No cruel or unusual punishments Why Does this All Matter This form of Bill of Rights really articulating the specs of Parliamenet 0 Who can do what What can Parliament do A very detailed explaination of the rights people are allowed to have Response Papers citations Recommended Footnotes NOT REQUIRED Required at least basic citations so Author source and page 0 eg Richelieu Absolutism Docs or Saint Simon Absolutism Docs 5 History 101 Notes September 14th What is Absolutism Monarchy Absolute because the king rules without a legislative assembly Distinctive ideological and religious justi cations Historically speci c created in France in the 17th century Absolutism became most popular in France during the 17th century Religious Turmoil in the 16th century Struggles between different groups of Protestants and CathoHcs In 16th century coexisting was not as easy Active civil war between Protestants and Catholics 0 Ex Saint Bartholomew s Day Massacrequot a massacre in the middle of the night becomes a symbol of religious war and violence and encourages violence between Catholics and Protestants across the countryquot Edict of Nantes in France 1595 Toleration of Huguenots Protestants form of resolution still remains a very Catholic state but Protestants are accepted under certain circumstances there is a degree of acceptancetolerance In the wake of the religious civil war King Louis XIII amp Richelieu begin to create a system of absolutism o Richelieu claims Huguenots threaten the King s power concerned with other kinds of threats to world power how do you make the king seem different or better or more powerful goal is to centralize power and promote world authority over everything Louis XIII dies and Louis XIV becomes a child king despite being a child he is portrayed as a powerful gure still The Frond Challenges Royal Rule 164952 rebelling against Louis XVI and Richelieu Louis XVI is then forced to ee later crushes the Fonde Louis XIV triumphs as absolutist king Louis XIV s personal rule 16611715 Versailles staging absolutism One of the famous rooms of Versailles Hall of Mirrors mixture of marble gold mirrors and chandeliers King s Gardens symbol of royalty and wealth Fleur de Lis symbol in garden Versailles serves as a particular space for ritual and etiquette Famous Versailles sites kings bedroom gardens The Royal Chapel 0 Bishop Bousett Revocation of the Edict of Nantes 1685 raises the question of can you have a form of absolutism that is not justi ed by one speci c religion A modern form of government relatively modern form of government increased centralization make this more streamlined and ef cient emphasis on royal power encompassing a large country more ef cient Institutes standing armies permanent armies a military power that goes along with this The lnvalides for wounded and retired soldiers Limits to Absolutism decisions based on one person in practice not necessarily one person forced to rely on intermediaries reliance on royal heir dependent on personality of king money where is money coming from for this who is being taxed Is there taxing or borrowing Needs elites to buy into system Needs control over religion Not totalitarianism not concerned about private lives of quotordinary people more about making sure everyone is loyal to the regime The Spread of Absolutism Not limited to France Evidence and controversies Sources Who telling us how system worked How generalizable History 101 Notes September 215t 2015 Scienti c Revolution Class Notes 1 Ptolemaic Model 2 Nicholas Copernicus and the Copernican heliocentric model 1543 a Does not resolve all of the mathematical questions people had 3 Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler a Tycho Brahe i astronomer develops Brahe s Uraniborg Observatory located in Denmark where he gets state of the art instrument makers and astronomers ii obsesses over measurements iii wants to prove Copernicus wrong but the more he measures the more he proves Copernicus theories are correct b Johannes Kepler i Works with Brahe spends a number of years looking over his data and applying it to planetary motion ii Discovers various laws of planetary motion Kepler s Laws of planetary motion and concludes that planets actually follow an elliptical orbit in an ellipsis c Galileo Galilei i Known for observations and theories based on his observations ii Galileo s telescope 1609 publishes ndings in the Starry Messenger 16 1 0 iii Observes that there are craters in the moon uneven surface on the moon sparks questions of why it is uneven con rmation that the moon isn t perfect iv Jupiter s moons questions this sense of a quot nite universequot Signi cance if there are moons around Jupiter there could be moons elsewhere Earth is not necessarily the center of the universe v Looks at the sun and notices sun spots showing how you can track sun spots moving across the surface of the sun the sun is not perfect either Galileo s trials Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany Galileo writes to her Galileo Facing Roman Inquisition 1616 i Not allowed to teach about the earth moving he can write about the Copernican system as long as it is written as a hypothesis ii Galileo Dialogue Concerning the Two World Systems 1632 The Pope and some of Galileo s enemies reject it Mechanizing Nature Descartes s theory of corpusces and vortices Newton s Principia Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy argues that you can explain the world completely through mathematics the universe operates in a completely rational and predictable way following mathematical models Contradicts church s teachings a mechanistic universe does not necessarily rely on religion Theory of Gravity develops the idea of gravity gravity as a force but mathematically explained how it works incorporates Kepler s Laws of Motion Prisms and Light Some overall developments i Celestial and terrestrial mechanics work the same ii Mathematics explains the world emphasis on mathematics if you get the right calculationsformulas you can explain how things work iii Ask how not why iv Emphasis on observation and experiment measurements and repeated measurements in order to verify v New forums for scienti c work m Discovery observation and experiment i We look at science as this opportunity for discovery learning something unprecedented ii Scienti c Revolution is this idea of going beyond iii Vesalius On the Fabric of the Human Body 1543 trying to look at how the body functions muscle groups new kinds of experiments observations and analysis of the possibility of dissection iv V vi Harvey Circulation of the Blood 1626 new way of thinking about how the body functions Hooke s Microscope 1667 new inventions play a role in increasingly accurate experiments new sense of curiosity Mary Sibylla Merian looks at plants and insects in the same type of context classi cation n New patrons and forums for scienti c work Descartes in Sweden 1649 in the court of Queen Christina talking about his visions of the world Academie Royal des Sciences new developments of new scienti c societies Two Most Important ones 1 French one Academie Royale des Sciences 2 London Royal Society of London 0 Fontenelle Reading Talking about the Scienti c Revolution less likely to mention Fontenelle Takes these new ideas and explains them to other people Trying to explain these ideas to everyone in Conversations on the Puraity of the Worlds Tries to give information without causing too much controversy or confusing people Presenting info in a way that makes the content less dangerous History 101 Class Notes September 30th Citizens and Government The spaces of Enlightenment London s First Coffee house 0 coffee intimately connected w slave trade also connected to new forms of socializing and talking about new ideas quotEstablishment of the new Philosophy Our Cradle was a Caf quot Salons 0 inviting people into a domestic space and using it to facilitate conversations Newspapers 0 Early Dutch Newspapers 0 English Newspapers The Spectator Founded in 1709 o Discussing News the creation of a new public Novels 0 Epistolary novels imaginary exchanges of letters also often have the dimension of social description of psychology talking about the accurate account of how people interact new kinds of ways of writing were somewhat controversial o Novels encouraged empathy towards different characters and putting yourself in their heads 0 Effects of novels on women particular concern as novels being to stimulating or powerful for the emotions of women could potentially bring them into the discussion of new ideas 0 What impact did Enlightenment ideas have on economics and politics 0 Adam Smith amp laissezfaire quotthe invisible handquot Wealth of Nations 1776 idea the government should not be involved in the economy and if the economy is left alone the quotinvisible handquot of the economy will sort things out Absolute opposite of mercantilism mercantilism says that government should be involved controlling trade creating government monopoly Human beings acting in their own self interest will work the economy out o Enlightened Absolutism Enlightenment thinkers often tried to in uence new rulers 0 Catherine the Great of Russia read Voltaire ends up writing to him 0 Frederick ll of Prussia ends up in an exchange with Voltaire discuss philosophy etc The American Revolution Possible Causes Economic Debt taxes and commerce 0 English gov in debt mostly because of wars and are looking for ways to pay for it which led to increased taxing 0 Strengthening British industry at the expense of American industry wanted to control trade and British prosperity which spark resentment and frustration Ideological New ideas Boston Tea Party 1773 Goal is to protect British East India Company who has a monopoly on tea tea is taxed These new ideas have a way of bringing people together people have a right to protest government in an attempt to change it Was it inevitable Neither economic nor ideological factors nor anything else led to revolution theory that revolution was bound to happen What happens War of national liberationindependence and eventually gets seen as a creation of a separate nation takes a couple of tries to get a new Constitution 0 quotA war of national liberationquot 177517811783 Creating a new nation two tries to get a working constitution British surrender at Saratoga The Constitution 1787 History 101 Class Notes October 5th The French Revolution French Revolution The trigger Government going bankrupt Opening of the Estates General 0 First estate clergy closest to go o 2ncl estate nobility 0 3rd estate everyone else Writings on behalf of the Third Estate 0 quotWhat is the Third Estate Everything What has it been until now in the political order Nothing What does it want to be Somethingquot Sieyes quotWhat is the Third Estatequot Tennis Court Oath June 1789 meeting room in Versailles take an oath until they write themselves a constitution claim the nation say that they are the nation and they need a new constitution Storming of the Bastille July 1789 quotAwakening of the Third Estate becomes a symbol of the entrance of regular people into politics Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen 0 A radical document taking all new language of enlightenment and establishing freeequal rights in uential document but also a vague document October Days 1789 a demonstration of the power of the people again makes the king more vulnerable and shows the importance of women in this revolution How do you de ne citizens o Are women in fact citizens Slaves People of colors Religious minorities Who is considered a citizen Active vs Passive citizens in the original constitution people begin to challenge this active and passive approach Civil Constitution of the Clergy oath of loyalty is being forced by the state priest required to take oath of loyalty to state implies that the state secular power is more important than religious power The End of Monarchy Louis XVI tries to escape and is arrested at Varennes 1791 0 War begins 1791 o 1793 King is tried and executed Declaration of War April 1792 0 France is threatened by invasions from neighboring countries territorial and political gains are easier with the state of France right now 0 This may bring France together war is ultimately declared Louis XVI s trial and execution 0 Louis XVI three days before his death rumored to be engaged in treason talking to French enemies against the Revolution being a king overall is contrary to the interest of the nation being the king is a quotcrime against the nationquot 0 He is executed beheaded shows that the revolution is getting more violent more strength in popular power quotPeople Eater of Kingsquot Republican Calendar French revolutionaries decide to create a new calendar 0 Put in dates commemorating important dates of the revolution changing what people thinkchanging the way we educate Power Struggles 0 Civil War Vendee o Girondins vs Jacobins Girondins much more conservative like distinction between active and passive citizens more educated higher people in society should lead governments Jacobins want to do away with active vs passive concerned about imagining this radical revolution Sansculottes means quotwithout pantsquot 0 Civil War in the Vendee a more conservative part of the country Vendee and is upset by the civil constitution of the clergy and the calendar more religious and conservative part of the country massive eruption of civil war o 1793 Constitution 0 Abolition of slavery in the French empire It is a process abolishing slavery is dramatic not going to last 0 The Terror Prelude Marat s assassination June 1793 his assassination shows that the new Revolution has enemies and enemies who are in disguise quotTerror is the Order of the Dayquot 0 September 1793 New Constitution not in effect yet puts in place a law of sustenance Robespierre and the Committee of the Public Safety terror is lead by Committee of Public Safety History 101 Class Notes October 7th From Terror to the Napoleonic Empire The Terror A tenmonth period starting in Sept 1793 Convention is surrounded amp called this time for a reign of terror calling for guillotine for people who are undermining the revolution or are not working hard enough towards the revolution So Called Committee of Public Safety supposed to be 12 men who are interchangeable but in this case they are the same men Maximilian Robespierre he and the committee as a whole meet behind closed doors not many records of their discussions They are starting to think about violence more generally thinking about how to justify the terror in terms of democracy Terror begins with Outsiders and then turns on itself The government executes the ultras Hebert and followers Hebert calling for a more radical revolution attacking everything associated with the church radical equality and democracy And the quotlndulgentsquot are put on trial Danton very involved in the terror in 1793 when it rst goes into place but are now having second thoughts and feel the terror should be scaled back terror not necessarily the best way to go Put on trial for charges of subversions challenges to wellbeing of the revolution Institutes the Festival of the Supreme Being While Great Terror is going on Why a festival during all of this ldea that the goal is the new world build morale throughout the nation keep nation together When terror is put into place if you were suspected of a crime you can be put on trial Later you can be tried based on moral proof don t necessarily get a lawyer Increased executions couple hundred people killed every week 9 Thermidor July 1794 Robespierre falls from power Government turns against Robespierre tries to commit suicide later formally executed Terror officially ends with that but it is not necessarily over how can the terror effectively be over Who was responsible Scapegoating Robespierre Robespierre bloodthirsty crazed demented takes a lot of the blame though there are more people involved Assessing the Terror Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte has a universal impact not just in France but Latin America Australia etc Born in small island Porsica had been ltalian but was later moved to the French went to French military school As France goes down revolutionary path he becomes more involved as a military leader Dramatic individual Napoleon rises to power in France cultivates a heroic image clever propagandist and good military strategist becomes rst consul Napoleon claims he is defending the constitution and invades the assembly Napoleon declares himself Consul for Life messes w votes Napoleon crowns himself Emperor 1804 claims being emperor will give him a power and authority of protection that Consul for Life doesn t brings the Pope from Rome to witness it Rise to Power in Europe Constant Warfare 1804181415 Playing off enemies against one another major powers are reluctant to run against a series of shifted alliances Pride in French Empire And using resources of conquered lands always conquering somewhere else when you can get resourcesmanpower and use them to conquer somewhere else Napoleon installs family members as rulers of satellite states declares hereditary rule Relation to the Revolution Napoleon s relation to Revolution 0 a Revolutionary maintains equality before the law extends to conquered lands 0 On the other hand he reinstates slavery in the French empire not in Haiti Haiti becomes independent but rest of Caribbean found the colonies to be economic sources of power 0 Civil code he puts in has very unequal terms of woman s rights Napoleon keeps divorce 0 Proclaims himself as a symbol of the revolution quotson of the Revolutionquot claims he is a product of the Revolution 0 But Hereditary empire Napoleon bringing quotEnlightenmentquot Opposition to Napoleon Ideological opposition Religion question of religion Conscription Social and economic disruption Question of Nationalism Napoleon presented as offspring of Satan Napoleon being held by the devil French Revolution can be looked at as an attack on the church can be seen as a challenge to religious authority and ideals Napoleon as Corpsehead Conscription Napoleon w face made up of deadsuffering people Has to force people to ght Goya quotThe Third of Mayquot 1808 French soldiers shooting Spanish resisters Image of French brutality armed violence against innocent people This imagery is common in trying to draw up support national support Napoleon s Defeat War in Spain anticipates a speedy victory ends up in a prolonged incident 1808 lnvades Russia initially goes well After conquering of Moscow starts to go back and gets caught up in brutality of Russian winterwar Ravages of Russian winter lead him to end of his empire History 101 Discussion Notes September 25th 2015 Fontenelle will be covered on the midterm contextualization section using sources to write an essay Importance of Fontenee passage connection between science and philosophy 0 all about theorizing science being more factual how do we demystify ideas level of mysti cation breaks down ideas in a reatabe way better understanding for her there is a rationality and it can be done going to the moon made space exploration seem more feasible Concept of how we think about the other are they also capable of rationalization and their own position in the world The Marquise character symbolizes the inclusion of woman in the Scienti c Revolution Forward way of thinking female interaction with science Provides a female character who is interested in science breaking down gender barriers Scienti c Revolution challenged the heliocentric theory The accessibility of the book is important knowledge should be accessible to everyone When we are the center of the universe a diving creator created the universe for man kind is an idea that is prompted by the church and questioning it starts problems Overall main ideas increased inclusion in science written for the majority not a secluded opinion History 101 Textbook Notes Ch 15 The Enlightened Vocab Words Acts of Toleration Throughout the 17th and 18th century laws promulgated to offer full or partial constitutional rights to Jews Bourgeoisie the prosperous and primarily urban middle class of Enlightenment Europe Deism Enlightenment era belief in a single and possibly benevolent God who created the cosmos but who plays no active role in it As a result a dual policy of religious intolerance Freemasonry secret society that claimed its origins lay in medieval trade guilds its members wealthy bourgeoisie and noblemen alike met in private clubs to conduct business an 18th c version of private Facebook account Philosophes selfchosen term for the thinkers and writers of the Enlightenment applied to all regardless of their ethnicity Estates General historical French legislative body Three Estates one for nobility one for clergy one for commoners Tennis Court Oath 1789 Representatives of Third Estate gathered angrily on the largest available open space a tennis court Jacobins amp Girondists Revolution in Parisleaders not on same page leaders of new government began to split into factions Jacobins favoring a reformed constitutional monarchy Girondists dedicated to a more radical democracy Reign of Terror 1792 brutal wave of violence in the name of the supposed puri cation of society Maximilien Robespierre a passionate ideologue who 17581794 believed that anything standing in the way of the Revolution Jean Jacques Rousseau 17121778 Author of the Discourse on the Origins oflnequaity1754 and The Social Contract 1762 a tireless enemy of Voltaire Voltaire 16941778 The leading gure of the Enlightenment in France and tireless champion of free speech and religious toeration The Noble Savage Jean Jacques Rousseau did the most to popularize the idea of the noble savage that is the nonEuropeans who are untainted by civilization s corrupting forces but the notion was widespread before him Diderot 17131784 a philosopher and central force behind the great Encyclopedie which sold very well Haskalah the Hebrew term for enlightenment the name of one of the two main developments in European Jewish history in the 18th century Hasidim quotThe Pious Onesquot occupied the other end of the spectrum and the other end of Europe represented a revivalist spirit rather than a new set of ideas regarding observant ife
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