Exam 1 information
Exam 1 information anth 0681
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This 26 page Bundle was uploaded by Laura Spilker on Friday October 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to anth 0681 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Jeffery Schwartz in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Evolution in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Prosimii Prosimian lemurs tarsiers Anthropoidia Platyrrhini New World Monkey Broad Nosed Catarrhini Narrow Nosed Cercopithecidae Old World Monkey Hominoidae Apes Hylobatidae Lesser Apes Hominidae Great Apes and Humans Frontal Suture Two parts of the frontal bone are fused together by the frontal suture Called Metopic Suture in Humans Later evolutionary thing 0 DOES IT PERSIST INTO ADULTHOOD Mandibular Svnthesis Connects the right and left mandibles 0 Not found in most mammals Formed by collagen DOES IT PERSIST INTO ADULTHOOD Platyrrhini New world Monkey Catarrhini Cercopithecidae Old World Monkey Hominoidae Apes Humans Rhini means nasal o Catarrhini have a NARROW nasal septum o Platyrrhini have a WIDE nasal septum o Other mammals share this feature Lesser Apes Small bodied Hylobatidae 0 Asian 0 Trop rainforest No sexual dimorphism Greater Apes Large bodied Hominids 0 Pan chimp 0 Common Chimp and Bonobo o SubSarharan Africa Gorilla 0 Highland and Lowland Goria o SubSaharan Africa Pongo Orangutan o Bornean and Sumatran 0 South East Asia 0 Cheek Flanges formed in older males Chemical signaling making younger males and females smaller Premolars Catarrhini have 2 0 Rest have 3 Human Evo Unit 1 01062015 1615 Greeks o Aristotle 4 BCE o Scala Naturae like chain of being 0 Early Romans Environment Variation 0 Multiple levels 0 Based on how one was raised Paul of Tarsus 67 AD 0 Differences of individuals within species Monogenesis all humans have the same origins St Augustus 4th c AD 0 Earth at 0 Proposed age of Earth to be 6000yrs Rank of races hierarchically Genesis and Revelation Opposing force against scienti c interpretations Great chain of being 0 Brutes Highest of the animals gt humans highest of the humans 0 Led to taxonomy John Ray 17th c 0 Father of systematic biology Introduce the word species non interbreeding European exploration gt polygenesis multiple sources of origin 1615 Recitation Plate tectonics and Geological time Lithosphere broken into plates Continents part of each plate Constantly moving continental drift Pangea 220mya One giant continent Broke apart 200mya Geological Time Scale 0 Time intervals of the entire Earth history Developed based upon speci c geological events 0 Standard reference system There are 4 basic levels of intervals Eon don t memorize names 0 Recambrian o Phanerozoic Era o Paleozoic sh 0 Mesozoic dinos o Cenozoic mammals 65mya Periods o Paleogene o Neogene o Quaternary Epoch o Paleocene Start long term cool and dry Tropical and subtropical 1st primate in Wyoming Sudden warminggt Next Epoch o Eocene Warmest More likely 1st primate prosimian Sudden coolingdrying gt Next Epoch Oligocene Cooling and drying True monkeys Unclear end Miocene Warmed a little then gradually cooled Grassland climate Kelp forest Apes Antarctic become independent continent PHocene Temp drops Expansion of grassland and savannah Australopithecus End marked by coming of First Ice Age Pleistocene Genus Homo Stone tools Cycles of glacial and interglacial periods End gt Holocene 1815 Monogenesis vs Polygenesis In terms of humans and races Monogenesis all humans regardless of variation have the same origins Polygenesis humans have evolved from different origins and each human race can be considered as different species 0 These races can be hierarchically ranked Mid 160039s Nicholas Steno fossils are the remains of onceliving organisms Petri cations tools minerals pottery Ceraunia quotThings coming from the bowls of the earthquot aka fossils 0 Term coined in the 16th century by Konrad Gesner Tools became an indication of an advancement in evolution away from barbarism Deluge quotthe great oodquot Earliest creation had to be before the great ood Antedilurian humans cannot be before the great ood so we are antedilurian FossHs 0 Filled in blanks along great chain of being 0 Early taxonomists systematrists Diversity vs Variation 0 Diversity is used among different species between kinds 0 Variation is among individuals in a species within kinds Buffon French naturalist in the 18th century 0 First person to write about scienti c biological concepts in a common language aka not Latin lol 0 Proposed that the Earth was actually older than 6000 years calculated before by St Augustus He was able to do all this because he was rich and could buy all the paper he wanted 0 Thought that Eden was in Asia far east 0 People migrated out from there rst to the Caucasus mts and Central Europe and the to the rest of the world 0 Caucasians Caucasus mts o Called degeneration John Ray 17th c early taxonomist Introduced the word species 0 species cannot breed w other species but individuals within a species can interbreed 0 Thought that human were divine creations SEPARATE from primates Primates Opposable thumb 0 Big toe Bimanes only hands are grasping humans Quadumanes both hands and feet are grasping primates Karl von Linne Linnaeus o Botanist developed Binomial Nomenclature o Fixity of Species non evolutionary Genus Species 0 Systema Naturae book where he classi es humans along with other animals 1735 0 Order Anthropomorpha Lumped us in with other primates 10th edition of systema naturae 1753 buffon big proponent 1132015 1699 Edward Tyson Dissected genus quotpongoquot orangutans 0 Was actually a juvenile chimp but at the time only orangutans were discovered o Pongo was catchall term for primates o Amazed by the similarities between the two 0 Lord Monboddo vs Rousseau o Monboddo thought the only difference was language 0 Rousseau thought there was more to it than that Orangutans discovered in islands of Indonesia by Dutch explorerstraders Java Naming Pan chimps Pongo orangutans Gorilla Gorilla Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Ostiologist studied bones Proponent of monogenesis Argues that he could see differences between races but that all humans still arose from a common ancestor monogenesis among a sea of polygenesis Lucretius looked at the booty Morphological differences Blumenbach o Bipedalism 0 Big toe hallux 0 Digit pollex Long thumb Large head Large brain 0 Large brain case and smaller face 0 Bones must be lighter and more lightly build to support large headbrain Pelvis pelvic girdle 0 Short and deep ilium in humans is different the most mammals o Os coxa coxustailbone o Sacrum where the spinal cord meets the pelvis o Ilium Small teeth without any projecting teeth 0 Aligned wo spaces 0 Canines not markedly projected like the upper canines of many animals ie Baboon 0 They have a large space between the large canine and the P1 0 lncisors Foramen Magnum 0 Area underneath skull in humans to support head in bipedalism o Anterior position 0 In other animals that are quadropedal the FM is behind skull Hands and feet 0 Bimana aka two handed o Primates are quadramana aka four handed Schmerling 1829 Engis Engihoul Human history was not supposed to begin before the great ood o Centedilurian Skulls discovered o Homo Sapien adult 0 Neanderthal chid Despite the massive discovery he was completely ignored Feldhofer Grotto 1857 Located in the Neander vaey Thal means valley in german Miners found bones 0 Skull cap 0 Postcranial bones Debate about the bones found whether or not they were remains of ancient humans or actually more contemporary 1586 nally decided that the remains and tools found were in fact of ancient humans and animals 0 the remains were found below an impermeable layer that could not allow for newer materials and remains to be mixed in 1132015 Recitation Dating Methods Absolute Dating Measures the exactish date Radiopotassium Dating 0 O O O 0 Ratio of argon40 to potassium40 K40 decay into Ar 40 Only on volcanic rock Things trapped in between volcanic rockash Disadvantage assumes no natural argon present Only 100K 46 BYA Radiocarbon Datind C14 O O O O 0 Ratio of C14 to C12 Most common method used for organic material Uses half life of C14 to estimate how much C12 was originally in specimen Can be limited by extra loss of C12 Minimum of 50K years ago Fissure Track 0 0 Minerals form crystal structures Radioactivity after burial can form ssures and cracks in those structures O O 0 Counting cracks can estimate age Minumum 100K years ago Inorganic Thermo luminescence O O O O 0 Natural de cits in crystals Radioactive defects electrons trapped by the de cits So by heating specimen there will be light emitted and can measure age Range recent 3OOKYA lnorganic Electron Spin Resonance O O O O O Defects in crystal that traps electrons Magnetic eld of Earth in uences spin on electron By looking at spin we can estimate age Few thousand years 3OOMYA lnorganic AND organic Paleomagnetism O O O O Geomagnetic Reversal Time Scale Shift in magnetic directions over time Fossil in the strata has a shift in magnetics that can be compared with time scale pattern of magnetics Rocks in strata Relative Dating Stratigraphy superposition o Principle of superposition 0 Location below the Earth s surface in sedimentary layers 0 Biostratigraphy 0 Index of fossil 0 Particular fossil or combination 0 Fluorine Dating 0 Buried specimen absorbs uorine and uranium and lose nitrogen 0 Only used in narrow geographic region 0 Piltdown hoax monkey jaw and recent human skull but pices of skull were from diff times too Relative dating can be limited by instances where younger materials fall under the older material due to things like permafrost sinkholes Function of bones Support 0 Protection 0 Maintain shape 0 Mineral storage 0 Site of blood cell formation 0 Movement act as levers for muscle control Skeletal Muscles 0 Attached to bones by tendons Tendons vs Ligaments Musculoskeletal system 0 Bones muscles skeletal muscle Cartilage Tendons Ligaments How we move 1202015 Tooth Development Crown of your tooth is the hardest part of your body 0 Made out of a crystalline structure Polyphyodonty amp Diphyodonty homomorphy Humans have two functional sets of teeth diphyodonty 0 One set replaced by successional teeth 1 Deciduous Di Dc 0 Dm 2 Permanent 2 pair Incisors I1392 1 pair Canines Cl39z 2 pair Premolars P1392 3 pair Molars M1393 UpperjawSuperscript LowerjawSubscript Reptiles and sh constantly replace teeth throughout their entire lives polyphyodonty 0 Size can vary BUT shape is the same homomorph o No roots Tooth Anatomy 0 Human teeth are anchored by roots Reptiles and sh do not have rooted teeth Enamel Den n Ernwn F39qu Gums III E 3 m EDHE Bane Eernenturn containing Periodontal membrane Hunt Nerves and blood vessels Hunt and opening EnchantEdLearningcum Enamel consists of speci cally aligned prisms Hardest substance in body 0 As tooth continues into gum outer layer is called cementum instead of enamel Nerves and arteries are continuous throughout tooth jaw mandible Molars Form a sizeshape gradient 0 Larger and less to smaller and more numerous and sometimes less morphology or different morphology Ex Vertebral column Arms Teeth More on teeth Mesial toward middle of mouth Dista away from midline of mouth Broad and posteriorly diverging Parabolic Dental Arcade 0 Lingual in center of mouth Buccial outside 0 There is a ingua side and a buccial to each tooth 1202015 Recitation 4 BCE GRECOROMAN Order of life 0 Aristotle o Scala Naturae o JUST an arrangement not hierarchical Spontaneous generation not evolutionary 0 Ex mosquitos came from swamp water o Difference of humans racial and geographical 0 Environmental Racial Hierarchy Paul of Tarsus 67 AD 0 St Augustus 45 AD 0 Earth at and 6000 yo 5th C15th C middle ages 0 Great chain of being 0 Human def highest 0 Short history Fixity of Species 0 Karl von Linne Linnaeus 0 Separate creationism Classi cation of humans 0 Antiguity of humans fossils 16th C Konrad Gesner o Introduced term genus 0 Did not classify humans with animals 0 Ceraunia quotThings coming from the bowls of the earthquot aka fossHs 0 Stone toosmade by primitive humans 0 Nicholas Steno o Decided fossils were a thing 0 Fossils are the remains of onceliving organisms 0 Fossil Petri cation Anything that was dug up including tools and shit 17th C 0 John Ray father of systematic biology o Introduced the word species Noninterbreeding 0 Each species is a unit of creation made perfectly by the creator and CANNOT cross with each other 0 DID NOT classify humans with other animals Possession of reason and communication He did notice anatomical similarities tho 0 Edward Tyson o Dissection of orangutan similarities in humans and primates It was actually a chimp o Still no classing human with animals 18th C o Linnaeus o Systema Naturae 1735 0 Order Anthropomorpha primates 0 Human is its own order Know thy self humans got dis 0 10th ed 1758 Anthropromorpha changes to order Homo Primates included Humans put in with it 0 Johann Friedrich Blumenbach o Monogenesis 0 Unique morphology 19th C o Schmerling 1829 o Figured out that humans were older than just 6000yrs 0 But ppl were like quotbye Feliciaquot 0 Modern humans Neanderthal child extinct animals Neander Valley 1857 0 Skull cap 0 They thought it was some human skull with a weird shaped head 0 Disregarded 1886 Spy 0 Finally decided that the remains and tools found were in fact of ancient humans and animals 0 the remains were found below an impermeable layer that could not allow for newer materials and remains to be mixed In 0 Antidiluvian Before ood o Huxley 1863 o Darwins bulldog o quotMan s place in naturequot Gorillas are pretty dang close to humans 1222015 Thomas Huxley 1863 0 Published book called Man39s Place In Nature 0 Chose Gorilla bc people at time were more familiar with them at that time 0 Book was a comparative anatomy o Humans closer to gorillas than gorillas are to nonape primates Chimps too 0 Concluded that there are similarities between humans and a sub species of apes GREAT APES are one group and HUMANS are their own group 0 To be categorized differently DARWIN The Origin of Species The Descent of a Man 1871 0 Sexual Selection 0 Females want the best man 1 You nd closely related species in the same area 2 You will nd their fossils in the same geographical areas Selective pressure urge on evolution Environments that primates live in the tropics and rainforests are quottoo pleasantquot and lack the selective pressures needed to produce humans 5000 must be in Africa 0 Most primitive man like tribal African people live in Africa so it makes sense that we had originated there 0 African Great Apes Can t be orangutans bc they don t have enough predators and have plenty of food CLOSENESS IN RELATED SPECIES Degrees of similarities MISSING NOTES 129 232015 Primitive retention retention of traits from a common ancestor LARGE BODIED HOMINOIDS Frontal bone is separated into two parts by a suture Metopic suture in HUMANS Right and left mandible is separated by Mandibular Synthesis Formed by collagen Found in humans but not in most mammals The orbit Lateral side of orbit is protected by bone called postorbital bar 0 Found in many primates 0 You can see through it Anthropoid primates have orbital closure 0 They have the post orbital bar but bone extends behind and is surrounding almost all of the eyeball Narrowed Septum o Evolutionarily signi cant 0 Catarrhini humans in this branch New world money 3 premolars Old word monkey 2 premolars Humans inherited this 0 2 cusps Bicuspid Auditory Region Ossicles the three bones that extend from the ear to the auditory cortex 0 Tympanic ring aka eardrum Bulla balloonlike structure 0 Our ear forms a tube connecting outer ear and inner ear 0 Humans have a bony tube lined with membrane Rib cage Humans o Laterally broad side to side looking straight on 0 Shallow front to back Looking from side dorsoventrally Mammals o Laterally narrow looking straight on 0 Shallow front to back Clavicle Human clavicle is in dorsal position and much longer Wrist Ulna medial Radius lateral Carpals DO NOT make direct contact with the ulna in humans and hominids 0 Connected with a cartilage disc cartilaginous capsule Palette o Fenestrae Large bodied hominoids do not have fenestrae 0 We have two canals that traverse between the nasal cavity and the oral cavity Mammals have two fenestrae centerior on roof of mouth covered by membrane Foramen Located below cranium in humans 0 In mammals it is more dorsal
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