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Date Created: 11/05/14
Intro to Communication Comm 202 FFlI Claire Hudes Class 1 Storv 1 Words Matter Question for thought Coud talk help reduce the gap between rich and poor 19 of families officially poor 41 of families low income Poverty hits some groups harder than others Black Hispanic American Indian 30 35 Poor children have a communication disadvantage By 18 months children from wealthier homes recognize the words for familiar objects much faster By 24 months children from wealthier homes learn 30 more words than poor children By age 3 the children of wealthier professionals have 30 million more words than those of less educated parents Kids get smarter when you talk to them Children in poverty hear fewer words have less interactions they don39t get the same opportunity to develop language and social skills puts them at long term disadvantage 2 Kinds of CriticalImportant Talk Modeling interaction before the child begins to talkmodeling how conversation works for kid Once child talks waiting for and responding to what the child says engaging kid with language SUMMARY Engaged talk spurs brain development anguage social skills How communication can be used to encourage parents to talk more effectively How media can be used to spread the word Storv 2 Kisses Count How we express affection is an important aspect of our close relationships We know that expressing affection helps relationships grow in depth and meaning Kissing is healthy When you kiss it reduces stress Kory Floyd STUDY 52 healthy people marriedcohabitating in romantic relationships half males half females Couples divided into two groups KISSING group told to kiss more CONTROL group not told to kiss more Looked for results for Relationship satisfaction Perceived life stress Total cholesterol Compared to CONTROL group KISSING group reported More satisfied in relationship Decreased life stress Decreased total cholesterol The way we communicate has effects on our overall well being health Storv 3 You Can Change the World Each year 37 million new born babies die and an additional 33 are stillborn 7 million 98 of these deaths in developing world More likely to be born at home Traditional birth attendants with little or no training Many leading causes of newborn death are preventable Not with fancy medicine or drugs but with training How to resuscitate babies who are not breathing at birth Kangaroo care putting baby skin to skin It39s a communication problem Developed world knows what to do to save these babies but the knowledge is not being passed onto people who need it An international health team went to 7 high risk countries to train people who delivered the babies No reduction in neonatal deaths 30 reduction in stillborns Training helped birth attendants realize that stillborns could be revived lsn t communication just common sense A lot of communication is commonsense but commonsense doesn t take us far enough Commonsense often leads to a quick but ineffective response to a complex situation Commonsense is often contradictory The pen is mightier than the sword Stick and stones may break my bones but words will never hurt me A Model of Communication Process who is the audience Decoding assigning meaning to a message Meanings are in people not in messages Messages influence meanings but do not fully control them Single most important communication skill anticipating how others are likely to interpret what you say or do Takes observable behavior and turns them into thoughts or feelings Who is the source Where did the message come from Encoding the act of translating expressing inner thoughts and feelings into observable behavior Sources can be individuals groups institutions Not automatic but we are more often than not unaware of how we do it You can communicate without knowing it What is being said Better definition to what are receivers responding Anything that can register on others senses can be a message Messages may be intentional or unintentional Key thing to remember the message you think you sent may not be the one others receive 2 the medium through which the message moves from source to the receiver Channels face to face phones writing internet video games etc technology Channels hearing sight taste touch smell senses Key thing to remember channels influence what the message can be and how it will be interpreted Same messagesdifferent channels different meanings Hard to convey some messages in some channels 2 what might interfere with the message reaching the receiver Channel noise Internal noise distractions inside the source or receiver EXAMPLES hungerother things on your mind any messages the receiver creates in response to the source s original message Feedback links the source and the receiver together Source and receiver become interdependent each person s behavior depends on the other We are sources and receivers simultaneously Meaning can be assigned to nearly every response so you may be giving feedback without knowing it Even silence can be a message SUMMARY 7 key terms and concepts Source encoding Receiver decoding Message Channel Noise Feedback Simultaneously sources and receivers The Challenge ASSIGNMENT DUE FRIDAY 2 copies Think about something I could do using communication in order to make the world a better place CLASS 2 Core Process Perceiving and assigning meaning Meanings are not given in advance We construct them as we go along Meanings are in people not in words or gestures determines how we make sense of things cyclical Your view of everything is a result of selective process what you seek What do you put yourself in the position to take in Examples TV shows you never watch Types of music you most and least listen to Parts of town or the world you seek out or avoid we seek info that agrees with our current views and avoid info that disagrees or conflicts with them what you dwell on Can t give every piece of info equal attention so our attention has to be selective Principles guiding where we place our attention Potential dangerthreat Things that are comforting that in line with our desires and expectations reinforcement principle Vividness things that are unusual novelty The bright shiny object effect organizing and interpreting perceptions Once you orient yourself to something you next have to make sense of it We do that through selective perception Organizing the stimuli into some pattern Interpreting them the patterns by relating them to past experiences and expectations All perception is influenced bv context EXAMPLES Early bread making machines were expensive and had poor sales A more expensive machine was introduced and the other machine sales took off Context changed when a more expensive machine was added Restaurants put very high priced items on the menu to provide context for other options makes the other options look less pricey Concept Out of the things you pay attention to how do you organize them Z Z We forget most of what we say and do what happens But we do so selectively doing a better job at remembering things that reinforce our previous perceptions or perceptions that were particularly striking reinforcement principle Example something mean someone said to us Memory is not fixed it is revised by each new experience SO your memory of what happened today will change over time Computers replacing memory We automatically think of using a computer when as a general question Google Wikipedia etc We are more likely to forget what we re told if it is assumed that that same info is online better memory if we re told it s not online memory we construct with other peoples help Often construct and reconstruct memory through conversation asking others to remember something for you thinking about who in a group would most likely to have remembered something no one has all of the pieces but instead a joint memory is reassembled through conversation SUMMARY Memory is not just in our heads it s social We rely on others directly or indirectly to help us remember things disagreement over memories conflicted recollections of memories Disagreements about memory can happen in couples groups communities cultures Contested memory is about tensions in the past and the present How we relate the past to the present Acronym for What You See Is All There Is Class 3 Our brain processes info in one of two ways automatic evaluation based on preset assumptions Instinctive automatic mental programming based on stereotypes preexisting assumptions beliefs Happens almost instantly Usually not questioned or examined Stereotypes used allow us to make quick judgments slower deliberate more effortful processingevaluation What we mean when we think about thinking Can over ride the errors of System 1 But is slow takes effort and is not automatically triggered Note We can only make corrections once we recognize that we automatically default to a world of unexamined stereotypes assumptions and easy answers Positive Steps You can use mental reminders that help Ask yourself for How common is each choice generally in the world Slow down do the math What are the exceptions to my stereotypes Could I think of a counter example Richard Petty and John Cacioppo 1986 Two pathways Peripheral System 1 Central System 2 Is my listener motivated to process my message in depth Yes System 2 is at work Help listener by eliminating distractions being clear Prompt the listener to bring in prior knowledge Use logical arguments supported by evidence No System 1 is at work Portray yourself as an expert Focus on being attractive Phrase your messages in terms of stereotypes mental shortcuts Appeal to istener s emotions Make it easy for other to respond the way you want them to Though System 2 is slow hard we should try to take advantage of people s tendency to fall back on the simpler System 1 by Making your message vivid Avoid complex language Use rhythm and rhyme if possible If you quote a source choose one with the name that s easier to pronounce Draw on listener s stereotypes whenever possible The power of naminghow the names we give or the words we choose can shape our expenences First 5 Words that come to mind LOVE Sucker Done Everything What Well HlP HOP Ratchet Blast Bass match Fo y rage Each word each perception instantly triggers a flood of associations in the brain System 1 It happens very very rapidly We have little conscious control over it These associations don t reveal any inner secrets but they do show the other words and ideas that are easily available to you once you think of the first word or idea No two people will have exactly the same set of associations though there may be some overlaps Overlaps are more common when people have close long relationships Overlaps are more common when people share the same culture and same pattern of media consumption The associations you have for a particular word or idea are part of your meaning for it Most words provoke feelings create emotional responses Whenever you encounter a word person object or picture you assign meaning along I Evaluative good vs bad Potency strong vs weak Activity active vs passive By using names or associations linked to positive meanings Examples celebrity endorsements Advertisers make up names that feel good emotionally Examples apartment complex naming Little things matter when creating positive emotional associations Examples Use sounds that require speakers to open their mouth wider Pick a name with a plosive sounds Prozac Puma Fiesta Kellog s Link your competition to negative things Use positive associations to distract customers from facts that could show your product in the negative light if the consumer thought about it ENGAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT 1 DUE TUEDAY 107 FLASHCARD 1 2 COPIES due in lecture Include a term from lectures 1 2 or 3 Class 4 Context in Communication Out of Class Survey Results of Solomon Asch study people responded more favorably to the sequence that started with the positive words as opposed to the negative words the tendency to oversimplify our view of others not positive or negative by definition If we already think positively about a person we put less weight on the negative information If we already think negatively about a person then we place less weight on positive information sometimes called horn effect We tend to drop out info that doesn t match our expectations The first few pieces of information you receive to shape your response to later information First impressions have more influence than later impressions Priming affects both behavior and emotional responses to others Studies on Priming 2 studies in England 4 years ago by Natalie Wyer Can wearing a hoodie prime people to react negatively to you Study 1 Part 1 students shown one of two pictures of a young man With or without hoodie Part 2 students told that the next part of the study involved working in a group Told to get a chair and place it at a table and wait for other participants to arrive Measures Distance between chair behavior survey questions on comfort dealing with strangers on feelings ex hostile or irritated emotions Results compared to students in the no hoodie condition those who saw the hoodie pic placed their chair 1416 inches father away from the other chair reported being more uncomfortable more hostility irritation Criticisms of study Hoodies in UK have different connotations as opposed to in America Study 2 Part 1 Just like 13 study students shown one of two pictures of a young man With or without hoodie New Part 2 Students are told to think for 3 minutes about people they know or themselves Rest of experiment is the same Results for students who thought about other people same results as first study For students who thought about themselves no differences between hoodie and no hoodie condition Conclusions Context words setting nonverbals like clothing influence our judgments and behavior Priming can occur almost instantly and shapes later reactions Priming is not an excuse or a defense Wyer s study shows that we can overcome priming effects by focusing attention on our own thought processes rather than automatically responding C In addition to priming us to respond messages shape meaning in other ways They frame our responses making some conclusions more likely than others In a group of 600 people 200 will be saved vs In a group of 600 people 400 will die Framing occurs when you have 2 statements that are logically equal but the way they re phrased affect our choices Summary small thing about the way people look and speak can have a huge impact on our reactions Priming Framing We are not usually aware of these effects on us We can become more aware and make corrections Class 5 Communication Codes We are beings made of words human beings are tied together thru anguage Humans are the language animals Other animals communicate but human language in its richness variety and flexibility seems to be unique 1 When did humans develop language Origins of language symbolic representationsbeginnings of language started between 40 80000 years ago Blombous Cave symbolic engraving 77000 years old Brain Evolution Specialized brain centers associated with language develop in this period Broca Wernicke s areas suggests it may be associated with language speculation is that a mutation may have occurred approx 50000 years ago Growing social cultural complexity of this period would have also encouraged language 2 What is language anyway All languages communicate but not all communication is linguistic Definition a collection of symbols letters or words with arbitrary meaning governed by rules and used to communicate f it has all 5 it s a language 1 Language is symbolic it refers torepresents things it does not resemble 2 Humans share a universal drammar that enables language acquisition among the very young Babies come hardwired to acquire language 3 Language allows for the deneration of an infinite variety of messages within a rule cloverned svstem grammar 4 Language lets us to communicate about things not in the here and now gt Creates the way we organize our behaviors through plans and behaviors to do complex things ex Coordinating building a house bonds people in groups through shared language Gives us part of our identity Gives you the ability to tell a lie if you can t tell a lie with it it s not language 5 Language works together with nonverbal codes to facilitate muti faceted even self contradictorv messages Saying I m over it in an angry tone 3 Levels within language the sounds of a language Every language has a distinct set of sounds words and word meanings Women says dog Man hears dawg pictures something different The word dog is the symbol but the actual dog the Women thought of is the T Pairing meanings with symbols process Semiotics the study of how we connect symbols and meanings most used common widely shared agreed upon meaning for a word like dictionary definitions our personal experience with the word or the things it refers to My personalized meaning for a word a meaning that reflects their identity and experience Your receiver s connotative meaning will be different than yours a set of rules and patterns for forming words into larger thought units such as phrases and sentences Learning to diagram sentences make you a better writer and thinker Word order matters I am going tomorrow vs Am I going tomorrow Grammar is not about the order of words it s about relationships among speaker listener objects and actions I love her cooking Interpretation involves more than just words We often leave out important aspects of grammar when talking refers to the way our use of language is affected by the social situation we re in APPROPRIATENESS Using language differently in different situations Ex Job interview vs Hanging out w friends 4 What does language do Language is our primary tool for influencing others Language is a primary tool for social bonding Language shapes how we think and remember We often think in words aka organize our memories as language Language influences what we think about and how we perceive it makes some things more visible easy to think about Other things are more difficult to think about the idea that language determines the way you think and perceive 5 Ways to improve your use of language Become more mindful of language habits that offend others Being inappropriately formal or informal Using words and phrases that judge or exclude others Sexist language Racist language Out of place slang Use p d to check your perceptions Repeating back your understanding of what was said by someone else Check if it s accurateConfirm Use more concrete descriptive language Add descriptive details include specific tastes textures colors smells Use 2 say when you saw what you saw or made the judgment you did locating what you re talking about in time Use state about how your experience with something might differ from the other person s experience with the same thing Distinguish between observations and judgments We are better at remembering our judgments and conclusions than we are at remembering the observations they were based on Observation what you actually saw or heard Our judgments go beyond observation Good Bad Pretty Ugly Strong Weak Safe Dangerous Class 6 Language is ALIVE Language extinction Language and Social Change Two Big Ideas About Language Language is alive and always changing Languages split into different languages converge to create new language Fueled by migration isolation invasion colonization travel communication The result is that there are between 67k languages being spoken in the world today many language share common origins creating language families Small Khoisan 30 count 100k speakers versus Large Sino Tibetan 250 count 12 billion speakers amp lndo European 150 count 3 billion speakers Most speakers lndo Eurobean Single language spoken in the greatest number of countries English Single language spoken by the most people Mandarin Chinese Differences in language are so important that people fight over them Ex Quebec continues to have political divisions and tensions between English speakers and French Canadian speakers West and East Pakistan went to war in 1971 over many things ex the Western Urdu speakers were more successful than those who spoke Bangla in the East separated into Pakistan and Bangladesh 2 a form of a language that shares much with the original but differs in many ways as well differs in vocabulary pronunciation or even grammar from mother language Speaker of different dialects may have issues understanding each other Ex Black English Appalachian English sounds like someone is holding their tongues lack of interaction and the introduction of communication as children like in underprivileged communities Dialects can evolve into distinct languages French amp Italian come from dialects of Latin Not just having different words or pronunciation No clear line between dialect and language Calling something a dialect is about politics and culture as much as language Discussions about language vs dialects come down to the aspect of power A language is a dialect with an army and a navy Linguist Max Weinreich 1945 S Sometimes grow to be dialects More likely if region is isolated Smaller regional difference or regionaisms Carbonated beverage coke pop soda Sandwich sub torpedo hoagie grinder Language is often specialized to facilitate discussion of technical issues in professional hobby sports or other settings Ex legal language medical language ski jargon Jargon is not bad It does for the groups that use it Makes communication more precise informative Enhances group cohesion feeling of belonging when you share the same jargon Informal language used by people who have a common interest or group background Sharing slang reinforces group membership Generally less precise informal Changes rapidly Ex twerking tdr hashtag Language for just one relationship Does the same thing as technical jargon marks a boundary that makes the relationship special Language is intertwined with identity and culture Should we be concerned when an entire language goes extinct What is gainedlost when a language goes extinct Conclusion Language is specialized Upside down triangle diagram All levels change over time grammaslowest slangquickest Language is intertwined with identity Does that mean that if you change the way you use language you are changing who you are Should we be concerned when a language goes extinct 50 of the world s 67k language could go extinct Not being replaced because last native speakers are dying off OR speakers are switching to other languages Class 7 Culture in communication Communication in culture A unique combination of rituals religious beliefs way of thinking and behaving that unify a group of people A group that exists within a larger dominant culture but differs in one or more significant ways replaces subcuture Communication between other cultures and cross cultural transportation drive cultural mixing and fragmentation This makes culture both less and more important at the same time Standard Approaches to intercultural differences Usually we focus on the most visible differences Language use food preferences dress Learning language including pronunciation Learning what attitudes values are common Learning customs etiquette Identifying common errors made by people from your culture when dealing with second culture when people from Asia comment on your weight or tired eyes even if you re a teacher or friend Small cultural differences can make a big difference Social identity theory reminds us that surface factors count We use them to classify in group and out group members Us and Them aka Like Us and Not Like Us This triggers differences in the way we feel and interact with them Ex Jay Z versus Charlie Rose clip Little difference in language 2pac vs 2pack Cultural mistakes separates us and them j A word whose pronunciation identifies its speaker as being a member or not being a member of a particular group Ex Parsley Pereji in Haiti Dominican Republic people see themselves as independent favor personal goals and values over group goals think that it is right to value personal beliefs over group beliefs and to leave the group if they have differences Value directness and clarity people see their identities in terms of the group prioritize relationships over individual goals emphasize loyalty to group over personal desires follow group norms and rules May value indirectness if it preserves face emphasize power differences hierarchy acceptance of inequalities between individuals and groups loyalty to one s own group seek to minimize power differences reduce hierarchy inequalities not seen as fixed emphasize equality between people AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH Culture as ambient communication Something ambient you can make yourself aware of it but it s always there Ambient culture is the stuff you take for granted Info you hear many times and in many places Info you assume everyone knows SO it s all just there You are not aware of what you take for granted So the things that others need to know about your culture are the hardest to explain because you re not aware of them Or nobody thinks about it until someone violates the rules Passing in papers in Korea with both hands After Chinese poem slide It is about whether words and behaviors are interpreted in the same way But examples like the Chinese poem show how shared culture is a resource that allows people to communicate deeper meanings meanings that refer things not being said directly Conclusions so far Understanding cultural differences has to go beyond appreciating differences in language and customs The real differences are difficult to take about because we don39t think about our own culture It is ambient always there Cultural assumptions for the basis for ways of convincing people for evaluating what they say and who they are The culture is a toolkit for creating shared meanings How can we improve communication between people with different cultural backgrounds Understand your own attitudes and prejudices Avoid ethnocentrismbeief that your own culture is superior seeing everything through the eyes of your own culture Don t use stereotypes Be sensitive value diversity So what works 7 Things Positive attitude curiosity and a sense of humor Assuming good will on the part of others Actively seek and give descriptive feedback When I said X I meant Pay particular attention to nonverbal expressions Ask for help to have something repeated or explained Try to identify shared goals focus on what each person is trying to accomplish Build on shared ways of doing things Find preferred codes codeany of the standard way we communicate writing may be better than speaking sometimes MOST IMPORTANT focus on the individual not the culture Class 8 6 Major Types of Nonverbal Codes Displays of emotion on the face but may involve other parts of the body too 6 Basic Emotions Anger Happiness Sadness Surprise Disgust Fear Basic emotions are displayed the same way in all cultures but what triggers them varies Gestures that have more or less standard meanings and can substitute for words Can be translated into language Ex Middle finger Gestures that go with and reinforce verbal messages Not standardized cannot stand alone always go with speech So closely linked because they are processed in the same area of the brain Nonverbal movements involving touching ones own body Thought to be related to anxiety or attention to some other inner state Nonverbal actions or movements that control the pace or direction of interaction May include gestures facial expressions body orientation tone of voice Turntakina cues They want to leavecome closer Dance the ultimate form of regulation the use of space and distance to send messages We judge status based on spaces Intimate Personal Social Public spaces indicate closeness If someone enters a space too much it becomes uncomfortable Proxemic codes are very sensitive to individual gender and cultural influences the organization and use of time for communication Includes our expectations for how time should be organized One activity at a time monochromic vs muti tasking polychromic Includes rules and expectation about How events should be sequenced Ex Can you ask someone out or do you need to text first How long events should last How quickly something should happen How long can you delay responding to a text or voice message communicating through touch The first communication code they learn Touch from caregivers is essential for babies to thrive Touch is important in rituals and in expressing support and affection Large cultural and gender differences in the use of touch Women touch and are touched more often Large cultural differences in touch Spanish Frenchgt US gt Japan Touch also conveys power differences The more powerful can touch the less powerful Technology vs tactile communication Phones game controllers vibrate and buzz vocal but not verbal Includes pitch rate inflection volume pronunciation silence We often judge people according to slowfast or loudsoft Can be sounds alone crying laughing but usually accompany speech Paralanguage all the nonverbal cues in speech Paralinguistic see above Many judgments about individuals are made based on the objects and artifacts associated with them Personal artifacts hair styles jewelry body art Shared artifacts things we use with others cars homes offices Public artifacts include architecture urban design and other things typical of a place or culture Can you spot lies Are there reliable cues that signal deception How we judge deception with nonverbal codes Breaking eye contact Rolling eyes up Fidgeting calm voice nervous hands or legs Variations in voice little tremors Licking lips Long pauses SPOT Screening Passengers by Observation Technique Federal agents trained to watch for nonverbal signs that someone might be a security threat or hiding something No reliable nonverbal indicators of deception No technology has been shown to improve catching deception Class 9 Clarity Ambiguity and Complex Messages Humans are multicoders we can communicate using more than 1 code at a time Four Basic Ways Codes Can Be Related Ex Holding up three fingers while saying Yes 3 cups of coffee Ex Raising your voice while saying This is really important Ex Looking sad while saying You hurt my feelings F5 Ex How all the pieces of a look with clothing and jewelry fit together Like a puzzle you need all the pieces to complete the message Ex Saying I m not mad anymore in a still angry voice Ex Looking at your watch while telling another person you want to hear what they have to say Clarity and Ambiguity ls clarity always best Ex We re fine or No problems to speak of Ex Most people say we re doing well Ex Giving a verbal response but avoiding eye contact or make it unclear that the response is directed at the person asking the question Ex Well we39re going to Becky s party on Sunday you don39t want to lie but being honest or silent would hurt someone s fee ngs you don t want to lie but being honest would lead to criticism or punishment an open response would violate privacy or an individual or relationship and trying to be too clear forces you to make decisions before you are ready so you say an ambiguous response Ietting different people read in the meaning they want The Myth of Body Language Language use is more standardized Language has inner structure grammar and words that nonverbals do not We usually exert a lot less conscious control over most nonverbals than we do over words Very few nonverbal expressions can be simply translated into words Emblems exceptions They assign meaning where the source may not have any Added meaning to regional gestureshands in pockets becomes phallic sexual symbols Assign one specific meaning where there were many other interpretations possible Think about how they all fit together focus on pattern Think that pattern fits in with language Recognize that nonverbals don t always have to mean something Remember the context Both represent ways that the structure of a message can influence the way its interpreted Priming effects represent the effect of earlier messages or the first part of a message on interpretation Framing effects involve the logical structure of the overall message FLU EPIDEMIC EXAMPLE Messages with different frames are logically equivalent but often lead to different interpretations esp by users NOT using System 2 or using System 1 In Common Both oversimplify the info available to us Both give prior message or early parts of messages greater weight than current or later parts of the messages Differences Halo effect more general that includes both positive and negative biases Positive biases usually Halo effects Negative biases horn effects Dialect a version of a language in terms of pronunciation vocabulary and grammar needs all 3 This version used by the dominant group the standard Regionalism are words used in a particular geographic area All dialects contain regionalisms But not all regionalisms are part of a dialect Ex Soda vs Pop vs Coke Class 10 TAKE NOTES FROM PANOPTO Class 11 Multitasking Info Overload Connecting in the Social Media World It is very common for multiple screens to be used at the same time aka muti tasking with media Majority of students from past Com202 said they muti task often Research shows that muti tasking Makes each task take longer because extra time is needed to reorient Disrupts learning poorer comprehension less retention Shorten attention span thus reducing creativity Increases stress GENERALLY reduces productivity Example study about email use among office workers Design Workers in a gov t office wore heart rate monitors and a software was installed in their computer to see how often they switched windows Half of workers had email was blocked for 5 days other half had normal access Results W email more stressed less normal heart rate less productive switched screens 2x as often Wo email feeling less stressed being more productive reported feeling more isolated Media muti tasking goes beyond stress lower productivity Teens who have extended text exchanges 20 Parents who have extended text exchanges 10 2 exposure to more info than one can meaningfully process and the stress poor decisions that come from it 25 of students say they often or very often experience info overload 33 say they sometimes do Three causes of info overload Dramatic increases in sheer amount of information Increases in of channelssources you feel you need to pay attention to Rapid changes in format and presentation styles Coping with Info Overload Step 1 recognize that having more info does not necessarily lead to better decisions Step 2 distinguish essential from non essential info 28 of students say they have difficulty with this 72 say they are sometimes distracted by unimportant info Step 3 make distinctions based on source credibility Components of how we judge sources Expertise knowing the content of what you re talking aboutl Does the source have credentials Experience Does the source have a record of knowledge in this area Can I find a third party endorsement of a source s expertise Trustworthiness Do I trust the source Does the source have a strong sef interest in their position is there independent confirmation of the source s claims Distinguishing credibility from popularity Internet software can measure popularity more than credibility Step 4 Take control of your media Fear of Missing Out FOMO factor 41 say others will be frustrated with them if they disconnect Limit your availability to texts emails phone etc Why are we talking about this always onalways connected lifestyle Widespread but controversial belief that social media detracts from real social relationships and interactions S Characteristics Not driven by a task to be done specific purpose goal Face to face Minimal distractions not broken up not multitasking Open expression but also active listening fully engaged checking interpretation giving feedback 90 minutes Benefits of Real Convos More accurate useful info Less stressed greater emotional connection being fully engaged releases oxytocin a neurotransmitter linked to bonding KEY Main Pointstopics Korean 201 10072014 Claire Hudes Korean 201 Week 2 5 Sentences Preliminary Chapter A Claire Hudes Korean 201 Week 3 5 Sentences Chapter 1 9999 999999 999 9999999 99999 99999999 99999 999 Claire Hudes Korean 201 Week 5 5 Sentences 10O72014
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