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Exam 2

by: Laura Spilker
Laura Spilker
GPA 3.5
Introduction to Human Evolution
Dr. Jeffery Schwartz

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Unit 2 notes and Exam 2 review
Introduction to Human Evolution
Dr. Jeffery Schwartz
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This 31 page Bundle was uploaded by Laura Spilker on Friday October 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to anth 0681 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Jeffery Schwartz in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Evolution in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.

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Date Created: 10/09/15
03012015 I Cladistics 0 Monophyletic group clade 0 Share common ancestor 0 Relative to outgroup taxa Separated by unique derived characteristics 0 Most recentunique common ancestor measures closeness of genealogical relationship Ancestral character state shared With or only by the out groups 0 DOES NOT show evolutionary trend simply suggests closeness of relationship Scenario 0 Can be used to suggest an evolutionary trend 0 Uses critical features 0 EX Ardipithicus Ramidus O Bipedalism O Looked at foot and pelvis O Transitional forms 11 Major Groups in Order Primates Anthropoidea Platyrrhini Catarrhini Cercopithecidae Hominoidae Small Body Hominoid Lesser Apes Large Body Hominoid Great Apes Hominids humans and close relatives III Taxa under Anthropoidea amp possible genealogical relationship Order Primates 0 NonAnthropoid primates possess PostOrbital Bar 0 Prosimii lemurs tarsiers loris O Formed by zygoma and frontal 0 Not found in the majority of mammals 0 Anthropoid primates have Orbital Closure 0 Bone extends to almost completely surround eyeball Suborder Anthropoidea 0 Nails on all digits 0 PostOrbital closure 0 Early fusion of frontal suture 0 Early fusion of Mandibular Symphysis Infraorder Platyrrhini new world monkeys 0 Wide nasal septum 0 3 premolars 0 Geography Central and South America 0 Broad nasal septum is ANCESTRAL to platyrrhini 0 Because most other mammals share same trait Infraorder Catarrhini 0 Narrowed nasal septum is unique derived trait 0 2 premolars 212 3 0Ear region 0 Bony tube 0 Chunkydense at bulla Superfamily Cercopithecoidae old world monkeys 0 Geography Africa and Asia 0 Babboons and Macaques Superfamily Hominoidae Hominids Contains large and small bodied apes Completely no tail Broad rib cage 0 Compress DorsoVentrally O Scapula more toward back Long clavicle is unique to Hominoids 5 or fewer stouter Lumbar vertebrae O Gorillas have 23 Ulna not attached to carpals Twisted humerus Longer wider scapula placed higher up Palatal ridges chaotic and do not pass 1st molar Small Bodied Hominids lesser apes Gibbons Only true brachiators tree swinging Don t really have any other unique morphologies to distinguish them SE Asia trop rainforest Fenestrae Large Bodied Hominids great apes 0 Humans and Great Apes 0 Gorillas Chimps and Orangs 0 Pearshaped nasal opening 0 Very thick palate 0 DO NOT have fenestrae O Mouth and nasal cavity connected by narrow canals at side of midline separated by thin bony septum O Humans and orang 1 gt quot DERIVED I Maxillary Nerve coalesce O Chimps and gorilla 2 ANCETRAL I Maxillary nerve splits like it would in fenestrae African Apes 0 Gorilla and Chimp 0 Knuckle walkers 0 Wrist stabilized by locked distal radius 0 Hyperextension of metacarpals and phalanges O Proximal Ulna locked to humerus stable armelbow Possible HumanGorilla Relationship 0 Body proportions very different so noooo 0 Only really share palatal ridges but chimps do too Possible HumanChimp Relationship Orangutan Overall genetic similarity Small amount of body hair Occasionally ear lobe developed SE Asia Facial Flanges Forward facing infraorbital region Long tall thin nasal bones Tall oval orbit human is rectangular Possible HumanOrangutan Relationship Single nasal canal is unique derived Uniquely short scapula No Ischial callosities Very little ossification of forelimb epiphysis at birth 0 Longer infantmother dependency period Can have sex all the time no estrous cycle More leftright asymmetry in brain O Headedness and language Central hair line with no hair on it Closemouthed grin Grow longest hair Separated mammary gland farther from midline IV Fossil Hominids Genus Aegvtopithecus Discovered in Fayum Depression Egypt Oligocene 3528 MYA It is an Anthropoid O Fused lower jaw and mandible Anthropoid But NOT catarrhini 0 Anterior fenestrae O No bony auditory tube Genus Proconsul Africanus Mid Miocene E Africa 1820 MYA Probably sister taxa to LBH African apes specifically No tail no bony auditory tube O Hominoid No fenestrae like humans Ramapithecus amp S ivavithecus IndoPakistan Siwaliks Turkey Mid Miocene 1016 MYA Ramapithecus 14 16 MYA 0 0000 CE Lewis proposed specimen in 1934 Short snout Low cusped teeth with small canines Parabolic dental arcade steep wear gradient Thin enamel like chimp amp gorilla orangs amp humans have thick Kenyagithecus 0000000 E African Ramapithecus Elwyn Simmons Vertical inwardfacing infraorbital region Long thin nasal bones and pear nasal opening Oval orbits like orang Single incisor foramen Extreme sexual dimorphism Dryogithecus 0 MidMiocene France 0 Thought of as possible ancestor for all extant LBH s 39 NOW decidedly belonging to Orang clade 0 Extreme sexual dimorphism Sivapithecus Meteai Andrews and Tekkaya O Miocene Turkey 1012 MYA 0 Ramapithecus is actually Sivapithecus and it looks like an Orang I Ancestral to Orang S ivapithecusorangutan relationship 0 Long slitlike single incisive foramen 0 Long narrow nasal bones O Pear shaped nasal opening 0 Anteriorly facing zygoma V South African Australopith Australopith Genus Australopithecus Genus Paranthropus 0 Australopithecus Africanus O Gracile Lucy O Paranthropus O Robust 0 Type site is Kromdrai 0 Pleioplisticine hominids in South Africa 0 Boned prob deposited into limestonefilled caves by predators Mg type site of Australopithecus Africanus 26 MYA South Africa Skull and lower jaw of a 34 yo child Raymond Dart described Position of Foramen Magnum Bipedal Gracile features resemble human Nonprognathic not protruding forward 0 Small jaw 0 Large orbits without brow ridge 0 Large brain with more humanlike position of the lunate sulcus Sterkfontein 0 Most specimens from Member 4 c 1525 MYA 0 Sts 5 Pleisianthropus Tranvaalensis O Stereotypical gracile australopith 0 AKA Mrs Pleis 0 Member 2 C 35 MYA 0 Foot bones 0 Human like With opposable big toe Swartkrans well known site for Robust paranthropus 0 Large cheek teeth 0 Very pronounced mastoid region 0 Larger postcranial bones Kromdraai Type site for Paranthropus 0 Dating unclear Late Pliocene to early Pleistocene 0 South Africa Feldhofer Grotto 0 Located in the Neander Valley Neanderthal 0 Type Specimen H Neanderthalensis GRACILE SITES 0 Sterkfontein 0 Laitoli 0 Makapansgat ROBUST SITES 0 Swartkrans 0 Kromdraai 0 Drimolen PredatorPrey distribution No robust sites and no gracile sites really because they are so close and it was by chance Sts5 0 Sterkfontein 0 Mrs pleis SK48 0 Swartkran TM 1517a 0 Teeth and face of Hominid in S Africa 0 Robert Broome studied 0 Kromdraai TM 1517b 0 Jaw found in S Africa too 0 Also Broome 0 Kromdraai 1517a and b both ROBUST No real evidence that they went together because they were found and delivered to Broome by a rando kid Raymond Dart and Taung 0 Studied skull that was discovered by miners in Taung 0 Nonprognathic 0 Cerebellum and cerebrum similar to humans 0 Nonprotruding canines 0 Different food 0 Central foramen magnum 0 Prob child but we don t know what the adult version looks like so Robert Broome 0 Expert on fossils in S Africa 0 Discoveries made in Kromdraai 0 TM 1517 ab 0 Robust Child found the remains so they don t know if they belong together Worked at Transvaal Museum The quotrobustquot morphology of Paranthropus Sagittal crest 0 Created by the temporal jaw muscled traveling up and over cranial vault O Chewing hard tough food More pronounced brow region and frontal area P Aethiops Flat and broad face Short Not very pronounced brow ridge Sagittal crest top of head 0 Jaw muscle on cheek area travel up over the cranial vault 0 Temporal Muscle O Chewing The quotintermediatequot features of Australopiths Carrying angle Biped 0 Centers gravity O Sturkfontein specimen was angled O Swarkrans was not 0 Large femoral head w short neck HUMANS 0 Small femoral head with long neck EARLY AUSTRALOPITHS 0 Position of foramen magnum 0 Under skull vs behind it 0 Pelvis is deep and wide in bipeds Muscles Spanning from OX Coxas to knee 0 Quadriceps 3 0 Quadriceps femoris 0 Gluteals 0 Minimus O Medias 0 Maximus 0 Glutes positioned over femur 0 Attached to ilium Linea Aspera scar down the back of the femur created by muscle attachment E Dubois 0 Dutch trading companies 0 Sumatra and Java 0 Found a skull cap and a femur in Java 0 Anthropithicus Erectus 0 By looking at femur determined that they probably walked upright 0 THEN changed to Pithecanthropus Erectus Endocast cast made of the inside of the brain case Le Gros Clark 0 Defined primates by trends notion of adaptive shifts 0 Progressive changes in features 0 Shortening of face 0 Flattening of claws 0 Etc 02102015 232015 Primitive retention retention of traits from a common ancestor LARGE BODIED HOMINOIDS Frontal bone is separated into two parts by a suture Metopic suture in HUMANS Right and left mandible is separated by Mandibular Synthesis Formed by collagen Found in humans but not in most mammals The orbit Lateral side of orbit is protected by bone called postorbital bar 0 Found in many primates You can see through it Anthropoid primates have orbital closure 0 They have the post orbital bar but bone extends behind and is surrounding almost all of the eyeball Narrowed Septum o Evolutionarily signi cant 0 Catarrhini humans in this branch 0 New world money 3 premolars Old world monkey 2 premolars Humans inherited this 0 2 cusps Bicuspid Auditory Region Ossicles the three bones that extend from the ear to the auditory cortex 0 Tympanic ring aka eardrum Bulla balloonlike structure 0 Our ear forms a tube connecting outer ear and inner ear Humans have a bony tube lined with membrane Rib cage Humans o Laterally broad side to side looking straight on 0 Shallow front to back Looking from side dorsoventrally Mammals o Laterally narrow looking straight on 0 Shallow front to back Clavicle Human clavicle is in dorsal position and much longer Wrist Ulna medial Radius lateral Carpals DO NOT make direct contact with the ulna in humans and hominids Connected with a cartilage disc cartilaginous capsule Palette Fenestrae Large bodied hominoids do not have fenestrae We have two canals that traverse between the nasal cavity and the oral cavity Mammals have two fenestrae centerior on roof of mouth covered by membrane Foramen Located below cranium in humans 0 In mammals it is more dorsal 2102015 Articular capsule Separation of ulna from the carpels Arborealtree dwelling Anterior Palatine Fenestrae Opening between nasal cavity and palette Large bodied hominoids don39t have them 0 Instead we have canal that traverses between the nasal cavity and the oral cavity Less Lumbar Vertebrae less movement at hips Gorillas only have 23 lumbar vertebrae Humans have 5 LV Lemurs have most Most australopiths have 6 LV llium Humans broader and shorter Other mammals Taller and more narrow Humorous We are able to twist ours a little 0 Other animals can t like dogs Fayum Depression Pangea 135 MYA Aegyptopithicus quotape from Egyptquot Miocene thought to be the ancestor of all hominoids o It was determined that this is wrong Very tiny Fused lowerjaw and fused mandible o Belongs to anthropoids It had anterior palatine fenestrae It did NOT have auditory tube 0 Therefore NOT a Catarrhini RECITATION 2102015 Human is distinct from other primates esp apes gt linear trend of development from apelike ancestor to humans 0 Major step is bipedalism Critical features unique to bipedalism Pelvis feet vertebral cmumn 0 There are transitional forms 0 EX Ardipithicus quotardiquot Mosaic features 0 Walk plus swing in trees 0 Movement toward grasslands promoted more full bipedalism Using such a scenario can help to create a phylogenic tree 0 Maybe there are more traits that should be included Cladograms Only show recency of most common ancestor not absolute age or anything 0 Some may be extinct while others can be still iving Anthropoids and other Primates Prosimii Prosimian lemurs tarsiers Anthropoidia Platyrrhini New World Monkey Broad Nosed Catarrhini Narrow Nosed Cercopithecidae Old World Monkey Hominoidae Apes Hylobatidae Lesser Apes Hominidae Great Apes and Humans Lineaus rst classi ed primates with humans 0 Handlike feet Clavicle separates the arms Included sloths His ideas weren t really speci c and unique enough to give primates a good classi cation Le Gros Clark 0 De ned primates by quottrendsquot notion of adaptive shifts Progressive changes in features 0 Shortening of face 0 Flattening of claws o Etc Order Primate Flattened nails instead of claws Grasping opposable thumbs Postorbital Bar 0 Formed by the zygomatic arch and frontal o Majority of mammals do not have it Most animals have just muscle around the orbit o A lot of animals DO have it though so its not unique to primates Prosimians and lemurs share Clawlike nail for grooming 2122015 Proconsul 1820 MYA quotAfricanusquot Teeth more similar to apes 0 Thought to be direct ancestor of larger gorilla o Called P Major Skull did NOT resemble apes at all 0 Brow and zygomatics Didn t have the fenestrae Lacked the tubular tympanic No tail Thomas Huxley o Man s Place in Nature 0 Comparison between Humans and Gorillas and Gorillas vs other primates 0 Why we could and could not place humans and gorillas in same group HumanGreat Ape Theory 0 As fossils were discovered they were placed within that theory to support C E Lewis 1934 Ramapithecus the ancestral hominid 0 Short snout 0 Low cusped teeth 0 Supposedly short canines o Parabolic dental arcade Steep wear gradient 0 ThickIyenameled molars African apes amp chimps have thin molar enamel Orangs have thick 0 Kenyapithecus 1416 MYA 0000 East African Ramapithecus Small canines Low cusped teeth Vertical inward facing intraorbital area Sivapithecus Meteai Turkey c 1012 MYA quotRamapithecus is actually Sivapithecus and it looks like an orang Orangs O 0000 lnfraorbital frontal region facing forward Tall and at Pearshaped nasal opening Long thin nasal bones Single incisor foramen Tall oval orbits Rimmed orbit Sivapithecus from Siwaliks lndopakistan Also oranglike 0 Tall oval rimmed orbit lf Sivapithecus Ramapithecus is related to the Orang it CANT also be related to hominids 0 Because we know that the African Apes are more closely related 0 We must look at molecules not just morphology So chimps are closest What unites a GreatApe group 0 Long Cervical spine Broad Septum HumanGorilla Body proportion M Peroneus third calf muscle HumansChimps Less hair ventrally Occasionally ear lobes ChimpsGorilla Knuckle Walking 0 Friction pads 2242015 Australopithicine Early 40 s when fossils in south Africa were being discovered 0 At that time there was only one genus in it o Australopiths Pleioplisticine hominids 0 Early fossil hominids Australopithicus Africanus Thought as an intermediate between humans and apes Gracile 0 quotLucyquot Paranthropis Robust Kromdrai the type site 0 Specimens found at this site are the quottype specimenquot Pleisianthropus Transvaalensis STS 5 o quotPrimitive manquot Transvaal where they are found 0 Robert Broom Taung 26 MYA 0 Only one specimen found 0 NearJohannesburg S Africa Stakfontein STS Member 4 STW Member 2 Feldhofer Grotto Located in the Neander Valley Neanderthal Type Specimen H Neanderthalensis m DuboE Dutch trading companies 0 Sumatra and Java Found a skull cap and a femur in Java 0 Anthropithicus Erectus o By looking at femur determined that they probably walked upright 0 THEN changed to Pithecanthropus Erectus Endocast cast made of the inside of the brain case Dart studied skull that was discovered by miners Not much facial progathism protrusion Cerebrumcerebellum were much like modern humans The canines did not protrude Centrally placed foramen magnum o Bipedal Potentially a child probably 2 or 3 based on enamel 0 Don t know what the adult features are 0 Newbornyounger features in both humans and apes are different than in adults 0 Still have rst molars Super ridiculed for his ideas Robert Broom Became expert on fossils in S Africa First made important discoveries in Kromdron 0 Lots of animals but not many hominids o Founds teeth and face of hominid 1517 A 0 Plus jaw that he thought went with the face 1517 B Child found all these remains but there s no real evidence that they belong together can t be associated with each other Decided it was Paranthropus Robustus 2262015 Type site where you nd the type specimen 0 Type specimen the only specimen that can be named speci cally forthattype Cave sites Prey or animals fall into cave by chance Predators sometimes drop their carcasses in the cave 0 Ex predatory cat and puncture wounds in juvenile skull match P Aethiops Flat and broad face 0 Short 0 Not very pronounced brow ridge Sagittal crest top of head 0 Jaw muscle on cheek area travel up over the cranial vault 0 Temporal Muscle o Chewing SK 48 Thick jaw and large teeth Muscles Spanning from Ox Coxas to knee Quadriceps 3 Quadriceps femoris Gluteals o Minimus o Medias o Maximus o Glutes positioned over femur 0 Attached to ilium Linea Aspera scar down the back of the femur created by muscle attachment Femur o Carrying angle Biped 0 Centers gravity 0 Sturkfontain specimen was angles 0 Swarkron was not 0 Large femoral head w short neck HUMANS 0 Small femoral head with long neck EARLY AUSTRALOPITHS


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