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by: Heer Patel

Evolution 110

Heer Patel
GPA 4.0
Introductory Biology for non-Science Majors
Christiane Healey

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About this Document

This bio bundle involves everything learned about evolution in the introductory bio for non-majors course. It includes Evolutionary Mechanisms, Natural Selection and Genetic Drift, Speciation and E...
Introductory Biology for non-Science Majors
Christiane Healey
#Bio #Biology #Life #Evolution #Bundle #Genetics #Drift #Speciation #Naturalselection
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Heer Patel on Friday October 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to 110 at University of Massachusetts taught by Christiane Healey in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for non-Science Majors in Biology at University of Massachusetts.

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Date Created: 10/09/15
EVOLUTION Evolutionary Mechanisms Antibioticresistant Bacteria Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Tuberculosis TB is one of the world39s deadliest diseases One third of the world39s population is infected with TB In 2011 about 14 million TBrelated deaths worldwide MultidrugResistant TB MDR TB Extensively drugresistant TB XDR TB What is Evolution It is a scienti c theory to explain how life on Earth as we know it came about and continues to change All organisms on Earth Are related by common ancestry and Have changed over time and continue to change via natural selection and other evolutionary mechanisms pattern and process A change in the relative frequency of alleles in a population Change between generations only visible by comparing different generations Evolution by Natural selection Genetic Drift Genetic ow mutations Mutation New alleles may be deleterious neutral or bene cial to the individuals that carry these alleles The rate of mutation can differ among species environments and even genes within a species Only germ line mutations those in eggs and sperms can be passed from parents to off springs The rate of mutation is generally very low What mechanisms can cause evolutionary changes Mutation Not signi cant for changing allele frequencies Highly signi cant for creating new genetic variations Gene Flow Movement of individuals among populations Frequencies change because loss or addition of alleles Natural Selection Change because phenotype confers advantage in a particular environment quotSurvival of the Fittestquot Genetic Drift Change by chance Gene Flow Most populations are not completely isolated Dispersal during gametejuvenile stages How can gene ow cause evolution Individuals emigrating loss of alleles Individuals immigrating and reproducing addition of alleles Evolution by Natural Selection Natural Selection The process by which individuals with certain characteristics tend to survive and reproduce better than other individuals because of those characteristics What kind of factors can exert selection Predators food temperatures rainfall shelter mates thess What does this mean in an evolutionary context Lifetime reproductive success Important Fitness is relative not absolute Adaptation An adaptation is a trait that increases the ability of an individual to survive or reproduce compared to the individuals without the trait The trait is favoured by natural selection Four Necessary Components A trait is variable Usually the case The variation is heritable Individual differences exist in reproductive success and survival Always the case Differences in reproductive successes are due to differences in the expression of the trait Change because heritable phenotype confers advantage in particular environment Competition for food Natural selection in Darwin39s nches Natural Selection and Genetic Drift Evolution by Natural Selection Four necessary components A trait is variable The variation is heritable Individual differences exist in reproductive success Differences in reproductive success are due to differences in the expression of the trait Longterm study of evolution of Escherichia Coli EColi lt doubles every 15 minutes or so at optimal growing temperatures How can you measure the number of bacteria in a solution OD is optical density turbidity number of bacteria in a solution Genetic Drift What is it Sampling error chance Random uctuation in allele frequency Key drawing gametes from allele pool not always representative More likely to be representative when large pool When does it happen Always especially strong in small populations Causes loss of genetic variation Genetic bottleneck Great reduction in population size aees ost Genetic drift strong in small populations May increase the frequency of harmful aees Causes allele frequencies to uctuate randomly Speciation and Evolutionary Relationships A Tiny history of Evolutionary Thought Typological thinking plato and aristotle vs Evolution Lamarck Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace Evolution by natural selection Variation is important not annoying Species How are species de ned Biological concept Morphological species concept Phylogenetic species concept Not always clearcut subspecies and ring species Speciation Speciation splitting event that creates two or more species from a single ancestral species Speciation gene flow between populations must be interrupted Reproductive isolation Allopatric Speciation Geographic barriers interrupt gene ow Phylogenetic analysis can be used to trace viral infections through a human population Origins of HIV SARS and other viruses transmitted between animals and humans Global virus diversity for vaccine trials Identi cation of new diseases Forensic uses HIV transmission Viral transmission events may be traced back through time among individual in a population History of Life Speciation requires Genetic isolation between two populations Life on Earth How did it start How could the rst organisms arise Young Earth was very different OZ wasn39t present in the atmosphere Lightning UV radiation much more intense Four stage hypothesis 1 Abiotic synthesis of organic monomers 1 Abiotic synthesis of organic polymers 1 Formation of precells 1 Origin of selfreplicating molecules RNA world some RNA molecules can act as enzymes and genetic material Or RNAprotein world FossHs Amazingdirect evidence what was in the past When where and how they lived Calibrating pylogenies Evidence of what extinct species looked like Evolutionary events in context of Earth39s dynamic history Earth Changed World changes continental drift forms and breaks up continents Pangea Laurasia and Gondwana Fossilization Fossilization is rare only if Decomposition slow burial rapid Decomposition resistant eg Bones pollen The more abundant the more likely The fossil record is biased towards certain groups and habitats and recent times Evolution of Tetrapods Tetrapod limbed vertebrates Greek tetra four pod feetlimb


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