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Date Created: 11/05/14
H111 lecture notes October 9 2014 Pyramids Pyramids and pyramid age pyramid as temple with tomb attached King as a god Royal control and spending of resources Waste or productivity Pyramids are monuments to the divinity of the ancient egyptions Devine kingship The king was a god The pyramids are evidence of the ability to control the resources of this society The pyramids allowed for the development of new and better technology they found better ways as they built these pyramids Productive in the sense of income Employed lots of people Administration that directed the people it took to build them The development of new better technology was an effect of the pyramids The kings motive for the pyramids was for religious and political purposes The evidence for this is in what is written on the wall of the pyramids They are hard to read because they are composed of references and metaphors from different stories Hieroglyphics were the original scripts in which Egyptians wrote complicates different signs pictures they were signs for words and for sounds Art to make live for eternity Art in Egypt had a very distinct purpose of to make live for eternity of what they depicted Egyptian art did not value creativity or expression of the artist mummification protection of the body and preservation of the body you had to provide for the material needs of the deceased ka the part of the individual that was fed by the offerings that was paid for my funerary foundations statue or relief as substitute they believed that if the body had been destroyed then a statue could replace the body words as pictures protection of the body Words protect the body Opening of the mouth ceremony brings back the use of the senses The words are sort of like spells Words are powerful words act words make stuff happen they altered certain hieroglyphics to keep them from doing harm Pyramid texts make happen what they say The kinds journey kings good name kings innocence The king is a human being but the kingship is divine and eternal The body of the king is the vessel for his Ka The ka passes from one king to another King is seen as incarnation of horus ancient sky god represented by the hawk King as son of Re King as Osiris the myth is that Osiris was once king of Egypt killed by his brother his sisterwife picked up the pieces and conceived a son horus who battles his evil uncle Osiris is the god of the dead King myth and time king used each others statues and tombs because they were the same person The king is associated with the creator gods atum re ptah Kings are often represented as offering the creater gods ma at means truth justice order Middle and new kingdoms October 9 2014 Middle kingdom2055 1650 BCE Peace and prosperity New class of civil servants There are more people in the upper ranks compared to the old kingdom The wealth of Egypt in part was brought on by the trade and conquest of the middle kingdom Trade with nubia created changes in egyptian culture These images fit words about he king Hyksos c 1700 1650 Egypt is invaded by the people called the Hyksos The words means princes of foreign lands We don t know much about them or the events that lead up to them taking control over Egypt New kingdom 15501075 wealth power imperialism Egyptian culture the new kingdom is at its most spectacular Egypts wealth and power is at its greatest here They rule these territories directly Empire and imperialism empire as political system genuine imperialism presupposes expansion domination and exploitation of one system by another enforcing a constant shift of wealth rom periphery to center Culture domination and repercussions Empire changes the society of the conqourers Militarism and imperial expansion king as warrior Colossal statues of kings Emphasis on kings divinity Great temple of ramses at abu simbel Empire enriches others down the social pyramid Officers land honors slaves Military becomes an occupation for high ranking officials Ordinary soldiers plunder slaves and land They would leave the land they conqoured to their sons Priestly class and temples king granted land to the temple they were resources of the temple The temples are staffed by priests the lands further the growth of prosperity Land was rented to tenants that brought in an income Bureaucracy scribes and officials Positions open up to men of talent People are able to move up the social ladder now there is more room in the upper positions for people In the middle and new kingdom the access to means of the afterlife are available to larger and larger numbers of people The spells for the afterlife become more available to the public thorugh to the new kingdom The book of the dead is a scroll that has spells that protect the body and guides the deceased through the underworld Men and women In law men and women are equal but in practice men had more power Men are scribes and hold public office Women belong to the class but not to the occupation King was gendered male and identified with male gods even though there were a few women who ruled Egypt they depicted the female kings in male attire In the home the husbandfather rules the house with ultimate authority He is the more powerfuol and more dominant member More childred was ideal the more children u had the better Reverence for motherhood They take mother hood seriously In the middle kingdom a scribe is warned to be respectful of his mother The wet nurse of the king is specially honored Deceased kings are often shown being nurtured by the goddess hathor goddess of nurturing and sexuality and protector of children Men are the creator gods but goddesses are vital to life on earth and the afterlife Isis and her sister was present at the ritual of burial and protects the body in the afterlife Amulets that were placed in key places to protect the body Isis becomes the embodiment of motherhood she protects pregnant women and chindren October 14 2014 EGYPTIAN NOTIONS OF THE SELF VALUES amp MA AT Human as composite of Kheperu modes of existence physicalbody and heart non physical ka and ba shadow name Egyptians believed that the earth was populated by the living humans the dead humans and the gods Each was capable of carrying on independent life after death Egyptions took special attention to physical excistence and pleasure dancing laughing Egyptions were particularly sensitive to smell They celebrate their bodies and their senses The heart was the center of the individual emotionally physically and intellectually The heart has a role in the afterlife and preservation of the body After death the body becomes the home for the ba and ka hence the practice of mummification Mummification Natron salts and water made a solution that the body was washed in the brain was pulled out and thrown away the liver the stomach and the intestines and the lungs were removed and was embalmed in itself and were placed in jars the heart was left in the body the body cavity was packed with natron salt and was left to dry out for 40 days and at that point it is preserved then it is anointed with perfumes and oils The body is wrapped with various amulets tucked in Spells were created for the bodies such as the spell to hold the body together The loss of the head meant the individual could not see hear smell or taste so special protection was given to the head Each step of this process was accompanied with spells this is a process that involves the transformation of the body into a sah an eternal body The nonphysical parts of the body were the ka and ba Ka is life force the ka is the one that feeds on the offerings after death To receive nourishment the ka absorbed the energy of the food offerings and went back to the body Ba is the personality soul and movement of the person Ba continues to live after the body dies it is not physical but it is associated with physical activity It is the ba that walks around the earth it is the ba that roams with the gods but it returns to the body at night Opening of the mouth ritual this was to reawaken the senses of the body and rejoin the physical aspects of the body with the ba and the ka The aim of mummification was intended to achiece a new state of excistance a state of excistance in which the individual physically emotionally intellectually was integrated into the patterns of the universe and attain that linear afterlife in the field of reeds 0 They called this mode of existence akh an effective spirit your spirit is alive your not a god you don t join the god but it allows your soul to live after death 0 There is a communication between the dead and the living or so was believed 0 Judgment of the dead begins by the whole scene being lead in my Anubis as he comes in he greets the 42 gods ma at means juistice fairness and order then the individual recites the negative confession and then the decleration to the 42 gods 0 Types of victims not harmed oneself not harmed other humans not harmed nature including animals birds fish streams not offended the gods 0 If you have lived a good moral life then your heart will balance on a scale with the feather of ma at October 14 2014 Ancient Israel History and Historiography 0 Topics and concerns history historiography Hebrews people Israelitesstate jewsreligion a book problems of bible as a source importance of state and trauma of exile 0 the religion and book that has come from this time is very important and makes a big impact 0 the Hebrew bible traces a history of the world starts with creation of everything then takes up the history of a people and the people becoming of the state then tells the history of the destruction of the earth and the rebirth of it 0 the bible is a historical source but it is difficult souirce for history 0 the focus of the old testament is religios it describes events long after they happened were dealing with a text that uses the sources it had to trace a history of a people from its own particular place in the presentwriting a history that tells how they got there 0 confederation of tribes at Shiloh 13 c BCE in cannan 0 settlement in cannan 0 law and ark of the covenant 0 relations with god 0 Hebrews were not yet practicing monotheism but monetary they acknowledged god as the most important god but didn t not deny the existence of other gods 0 Monarchy david 1000961 and Solomon 961922 unification ark to Jerusalem temple religious and political center temple and sacrifice Jerusalem becomes a religious and political center A religion focus on the temple The religion of iraelites Only certain rituals could only be performed in the temple There was never sacrifice in the synogoge only in the temple Assyrian conquest and deportation 722 BCE Neobabyloian conquest under nebuchadressar 587 BCE destroyed temle and banished people In 538 the Persian king cyrus allowed those who wanted to to return to Jerusalem the temple was rebuilt Domination of Seleucid kings revolt against Antiochus IV selfrule under hasmoneans c 16040 BCE Roman domination and client kings example of herod the great 404 BCE herod was a tyrant who was lethal to competitors and his family Masada was the palace of Herod he was a good builder Herodian Herods tomb The rebuilt temple was built in magnificent and collossial form by herod Roman taxes and governors jewish revolts Jewish war 6673 and destruction of the second temple The romans burnt Jerusalem and took down the temple and this time the temple was gone for good The romans won this war Flavian dynasty in ancient rome The jewish were the only peole who kept revolting against the romans The emporer Hadrian destroyed the city of Jerusalem altogether because of the constant revolts and he rebuild a new city and a new shrine to zeus and Hadrian and banned jews History of the book histiography shaped by Babylonian exile Torah genesis exodus leviticus numbers deuteronomy Composite work narratice and priestly sources Post exile jews shaped the historiography they told a story that made history a movement back and fourth from exile to return The traumatic event of the Babylonian exile shaped the understanding of history shaped how these people saw their present and it shaped their understanding of the past The destruction of the temple destroyed the religion of the temple The Torah after 400 BCE these books were put together after the Babylonian exile they are edited this is the beginning of the formation of the old testament Genesis and exodus tell a story tell his tory of a popele that become a state after that state has been destroyed each part of it is a composite work different sources that are pasted together It is common to divide priestly documents from priestly sources Five different names for god in the Torah from different narrative sources There are a lot of inconsistencies History in the book it is a history of universal monotheism god creates the World and he creates all people however the humans were created in gods image were failures in obedience and in morals so god destroys everything and begins again With noah Four different traditions and sets of stories Exam II October 28 2014 EARLY ARCHAIC GREECE THE WORLD OF HESIOD Archaic period 750550 ish Polis city city state the road to justice is a better Way for justice in the end Will win the race and pride Will loose the simpleton will learn through suffering Polis included an urban center city and countryside Athens and Attica Most citicens lived in the country side the polis involved the city itself and the countryside that surrounded it To the greeks the polis Wasn t a place per say it was in a place but Wasn t THE place The polis of Athens were the Athenians people of the state Polis as self governing state Size of citystates Meaning of government The early archaic polis From kings to aristocrats division of kings powers Aristocrats birth and family Power of aristocracy land property law and its administration military dominance hawks and nightingales They got rid of kings and divided up the responsabilities of the king and made public counsels and instituions for the ppl to rule Clan organizations family lead clans by members of aristocracy If a man had no son his property reverted to the clan Dominated administration of law No written law code set of customs and practices Aristocrats knew the rules and were judges which gave them too much power they were the only ones who knew the rules Hesoid makes a fable telling the aristocractic judges that they are not doing right Hesiod c 700 BCE Poetfarmer in ascra in Boeotia conflict with bis brother perses works and days theogony Myth of Prometheus and the justice of zeus trick at mekone stealing fire punishment Pandora chains and eagle The importance of the all knowing Zeus the eye of zeus sees all and understands You cannot cheat zeus you cannot be clever and get away with it true judgments are protected by zeus In the Homeric world the greatest moral force is not fear of the gods it is fear of disgrace the bad hue of others when you offend the gods u offend your honor In the early polis Hesiod imagines that you could offend the gods by doing wrong bad baheavior offended zeus who defends justice Injustice harms the city and the individual justice is the better way it benefits everyone Lives of small farmers et al evil and good eris strife competition and prosperity Continueing emphasis on competition Wives gender oikos competition and social order Pandora the kalon kakon beautiful evil Population increase Land pressure Debt slavery You yourself became collateral when you couldn t pay back you and sometimes your family fell into debt slavery This tention between being a debt slave and a member of the community would become intolerable Response to population pressure would be to export They sent a group of ppl someplace else to find their own polis the had a connection to their mother city The first wave went west to southern Italy sicily Sardinia north Africa southern france the second wave went toward the black sea Colonization trade commerce production Cultural contact and self awareness they borrowed shamelessly from other cultures Nurtured a self consciousness on all things greek and the polis as a greek thing the other effect was on the codification of law it is only known to the aristocracy Law is written down this is important because it changes the very nature of law goes from law only being known to a few to being written down and every one knows the law and law becomes public Change in military tactics and techniques Aristocracy had military dominance Fought in lines heavily armed infaltry men wore fairly heavy armor the shield protected his left side and the right side of the man next to him the main weapon was the spear which was used for stabbing not throwing the line should not break hoplites values and social polititcal effects he fights for community and polis This class of men who are fighting in the hoplights have learned to work together Lawgiver solon 594 bce debt relief citizen vs slave regulation of family property and inheritance constitutional reform 4 property groups offices assembly council of 400 areopagus Definition of citizenships means you are not a slave solon allowed men wo children to make wills this means that u preserve your individual house he also allowed men who only had daughters to pass their property on to her son Individuals were guaranteed a role and protected from slavery Citizenship is a rare bird in most of history you get a king you get a boss and u get subjects citizenship the idea is that they have a role in the community and power and is constituted as a member of that community and it is very rare citizenship means having a steak in the community citizenship means not a slave citizenship means military service these three things go together in the greek notion of citizenship Tyrants pistratus hippias Hipparchus 545 5l0BCE Rise of tyrants hoplites effect on political power and the state festivals and buildings At this time tyrant is a man that takes power who was not born into it they are supported by hoplites They strengthened the polis Reforms of Cleisthenes 508 507bce deme minipolis in his struggle he appealed to ppl who were left out by promising certain things that appealed to ppl at the lower end of society he promised change the most important thing that he did was the creation of a new organization that gave power to citizens he divided attica into 139 Demes Homeric greek vs archaic Greece Homeric 1100800bce aristocratic oikoi housedholds power of the individual individual defined by prowess Archaic 500bce polis power of community individual defined by membership in community the community is strong and the individual has strength only through the community Freedom citizenship polis Eunomia a well order state ruled by law Athenian Democracy November 4 2014 Parthenon and acropolis Democracy and empire go together Parthenon is a temple to Athena the patron god to the city of Athens Acropolis was a huge rock that was hundreds of feet high that the city center was located on Parthenon was on the acropolis The ruins date to 447 432BCE The money to build this came from the subjects of the Athenian empire Demokratia was used by the enemies of the athenians means the power of the damos people common people the mob was a sort of insult Isegoriaisonomia equality of speaking equality of political rights what Athenians and their allies used to describe themselves represents democracy Radical democracy ephialtes and pericles 462 BCE Demands of lowest solonian class Lower classes eet empire and democracy Direct participation Power was excersised directly the Athenians did not elect representatives for a council participation was direct from the subjects You are useless if you do not participate in political you are not just lazy or unambitious you are useless The assembly would meet on a hill about once a weekish Whoever was around attended decisions were often based on who came citizen males everyone voted any one could speak prep for assembly was done by a council of 500 Athenians believed that direct participation means that any citizen can do any job they didn t elect ppl they picked their name out of a hat or by lot Offices boards of 10 election by lot no hierarchy of offices calling officials to account generals Leadership source of power support of demos ostracism Leadership is responsible for representing the interest of the people Ostracism once a year the assembly whether it wanted to have an ostracism if the vote was yes then every Athenian would take a rock and scratch out a name that they thought should be ostracized for 10 years the person with the most votes was exiled from Athens for 10 years Every citizen had the duty to participate The assembly instituted pay for those who sat on the jury court so that the poor could participate in politics Athenian woman citizens Women were citizens they participated in religious things lack of property rights guardian limited legal rights pericles citizenship law of 451 BCE ordered that every Athenian citizen had to have both parents to be Athenian in order to be a citizen preoccupation with chastity age at marriage pericles on women Limits of democracy citizens 4050000 out of 250000 Excluded noncitizen residents slaves and women Democracy not oligarchy but minority rule A working definition of empire expansion domination and exploitation The Delian league 477 BCE In the wake of the Persian invasion Athens was elected the military leader of the league Athens became more and more authoritarian and more powerfull System of contribution states who didn t want to send ships would contribute money in practice this increased the power of the Athenians From league to empire success assembly of states Athens as leader money instead of ships dependence and compulsion transfer of treasury from delos to Athens before 454 BCE The practices of imperialism disaffection among the allies garrisons commanders walls and fortifications dismantled confiscation of territory and settlement of Athenian citizens intervention in allied states use of Athenian coins weights and measures Practices of imperialism Athenian view of empire War stasis and brutality The extent of the war there was barely a place that wasn t involved in the war The wars cost Athens people 2 examples the plague and the defeated at Syracuse Ships Sicilian expedition Money 433422 borrowed 5600 talents The Athenians lost men in nearly every campaign The Sicilian expedition was a great loss for Athens only 7000 out of 40000 people survived the expedition and the other 7000 died right after that The protraction of the conflict league of empire no decision while Athens or Sparta lasted causes of the conflict and aims of the two sides politicians in both Sparta and Athens gained by the war Athens sea power draw vs Sparta land power win Spartans wanted to be free from athens grip and power Spartans with Persian help gained a eet they brought about the revolt of several of Athens allies and they succeddes in disrupting the importation of grain to Athens the city was seiged and that ended the war in favor of Sparta Disloyal allies Mytilene on lesbos 428427 BCE cleon Death was a punishment Melos 416 BCE Melos claims neutrality between Athens and Sparta they refuse against Athens but finally they submit and the Athenians decide that men are to be killed the women are to be sold into slavery and a few hundred Athens move into the area Defeated prisoners Syracuse 413 BCE Sicilian expedition 415413 BCE these prisoners were hearded into fortresses and all died of starvation exposure or some other cause within a few months Civil war stasis in Corcyra 427 BCE There was a struggle in Corcyra between those who thought that they should be ruled in an aristocratic state and those who believed in a domacracy the Spartans and Athenians all got involved and once they did the situation becasem very bloody Theusidities account of why ppl behave the way they do in extreme circumstances Thucydides account death ranged in every shape and as usually happens at such times there was no length to which the ciolence did not go fathers kill sons suppliants killed at or on altars Others were walled up in temples he is describing that this is the extreme of violence for individuals to ignore the protection of the Gods that is really saying something Society divided into camps blood weaker than party complicity in crime not religious sanction no respect for oath or promise no one truseted each other all practices of social relations were lost in this struggle War between Athens and Sparta alagarchy and democracy the war itself had its effect on pples character it took away the easy supply of daily needs it was harder to get food and basic things that u need for dailey life peoples fortunes are brought low
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