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Neuroscience and the Brain

by: Heer Patel

Neuroscience and the Brain Psych 100

Marketplace > University of Massachusetts > Psychlogy > Psych 100 > Neuroscience and the Brain
Heer Patel
GPA 4.0
Introduction to Psychology
John Bickford

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About this Document

This is a bundle of notes for Neuroscience studied in Psychology. This may also be useful for Biology. It includes neuron/nervous system structures and functions, neurotransmitters, The brain, Se...
Introduction to Psychology
John Bickford
#Psych #Bio #Neurotransmitters #Biology #Psychology #Neurons #Neuroscience #Brain #Transmittors #Eyes #Perceptions #Axons
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Heer Patel on Friday October 9, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Psych 100 at University of Massachusetts taught by John Bickford in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 10/09/15
NEUROSCIENCE AND THE BRAIN Neuron Structure Neurons Electrochemical signals Cell Body Dendrites quotreceiving endquot Axon quotsending endquot Axon Branching Terminal Buttons Synapse Neuron Function Action potential Neuron is polarised lon exchange across cellular membrane Neuron depolarizes Depolarization reaches critical level Electrical signal travels quickly down axon Binary quotAllor none lawquot Release of Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters Excitatory Make postsynaptic neuron more likely to re Inhibitory Make postsynaptic neuron less likely to re Importance of synapse Reuptake or enzymatic degradation Serotonin Sleep eating mood Dopamine Parkinson39s disease Schizophrenia Acetylcholine Muscle contraction Neurotransmitters Excitatory Make postsynaptic neuron more likely to re Inhibitory Make postsynaptic neuron less likely to re Importance of synapse Reuptake or enzymatic degradation Serotonin Sleep eating mood Dopamine Parkinson39s disease schizophrenia Acetylcholine Muscle Contraction Nervous System structure Central nervous system Brain and spinal cord Interneurons Peripheral nervous system Somatic division Sensory and motor neurons Autonomic division Involuntary responses Sympathetic division tenses you Parasympathetic division relaxes you Sympathetic division Pupil widens Dry mouth Accelerated heart beat Swell in lungs Slows tummy digestion Climax Sweating increases The Brain Old brain central core Basic life functions Medulla Heart rate and respiration Cerebellum Muscle coordination Reticular formation quotmiddle managerquot Thalamus Relay station Hypothalamus Homeostasis Limbic System Emotion and selfpreservation Memory storage Amygdala fornix hippocampus New Brain Cerebra cortex Higher functions Fourlobes Frontal parietal temporal occipital Visual sensory and motor cortices Video Neuroplasticity Sensation and Perception Sensann The process through which senses pick up visual auditory and other sensory stimuli and transmit them to the brain Perception The process by which sensory information is constructively organized and interpreted by the brain Process of Sensation Sensory receptors Specialized cells in the same organs that detect and respond to sensory stimuli visible light sound waves scent molecules etc and convert them into neural impulses Transduction Process by which the receptors convert the sensory stimulation into neural impulses Vision Re na The layer of tissue at the back of the eye that contains the sensory receptors for vision lightsensitive cells and onto which the incoming image is projected by the lens Rods The light sensitive receptors in the retina that enable vision in black white and shades of grey in dim light Most in the periphery vision is not very sharp Cones The receptor cells in the retina that enable vision in color and ne detail in adequate light but that do not function well in dim light Mostly in the fovea Fovea A small area at the center of the retina Point of central focus Densely packed with cones but no rods Provides clearest sharpest vision Theories of color vision Trichromatic Theory The theory of color vision suggesting that there are three types of cones which are maximally sensitive to red green or blue and that varying levels of activity in these receptors can produce all of the colors you see Opponentprocess theory Also suggests that there are three types of cells but that each type has a pair of receptors working in opposition Each type of receptor pair is sensitive to a given pair of colors redgreen yellowblue When one member of the pair is activated the other member is inhibited No simultaneous transmission No quotreddish greensquot Perception Sensory information is fragmented Occlusions in visual eld Retinal structures Blind spot Environmental occlusions or omissions Blurriness outside fovea Perception lls in the gaps Creating a meaningful whole from fragmentary parts Facilitating rapid understanding with minimal effort Uses expectations from context and previous experience Bottomup processing Analyzing the components of the sensor information Feature analysis Identifying the various components that the sensory information comprises Ex scanning the visual information for horizontal lines vertical lines evidence of motion gradients curves and so on by specialized areas of the visual cortex Specialized analysis of facial features Pareidolia Ability to see unmeaningful stimuli especially to recognize human faces and perceive it as important Topdown processing Making meaning of sensory information by tting it to what you already know Expectations past experience motivations Imposing order Works in tandem with bottomup Gestalt rules of organization The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Helps us understand sensory information more ef ciently Need to quickly make sense of a lot of information not get overwhelmed Sometimes can lead us astray Perceiving what we expect rather than what is accurate


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